Acacia nilotica, Azadirachta indica, Bombax ceiba, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Grevillea robusta, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna,

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Acacia nilotica

FAMILY:                 LEGUMINOSAE

SUBFAMILY:         MIMOSOIDEAE

COMMON NAME:   KIKAR, BABULE

DESCRIPTION:

An evergreen, thorny, moderate size tree, 20m tall, diameter up to 1m is recorded, leaves are compound, 2.5 to 7.5cm long and the crown form varies from conical to spreading.

The flowers are fragrant, yellow to bright yellow in branches and mature year around depending on subspecies and geographical location. The pods are variable 4 to 22cm long, and also mature year around depending on sub-species and geographic location.

DISTRIBUTION:

This tree is native to Pakistan and is found in Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan, and KPK. It is wild as well as extensively cultivated through the world, usually 600m in elevation.

SILVICULTURAL CHARACTERISTIC:

HABITAT AND ECOLOGY:

An intolerant drought and drought resistance tree that grows on a variety of sites. it will tolerate saline and sodic sites if adequate moisture is available; it requires a precipitation of 125 to 1300mm/year. It prefers a semi-arid, subtropical/tropical climate within a temperature range of 1 to 45c.it exhibits distinct differences between sub-species as to frost hardiness and drought resistance.

Azadirachta indica

FAMILY:                 MELIACEAE

COMMON NAME:   NEEM, MARGOSA TREE

DESCRIPTION:

A medium to large tree, 12 to 25m tall with a diameter of 0.5 to 0.86m. The crown is broad, dense, spreading and rounded. The leaves are compound, with the leaflets 2.5 to 7cm long and lance-shaped with long points and 4 to 7 pairs of leaflets on each leaf. Edges of the leaflets are toothed. The bark is dark gray, lightly furrowed and broken in irregularly shaped scale.

The flowers are small, white and with the fragrance of honey, occur in dense bunches and appear between March and April. The fruit is a fleshy drupe is greenish, oblong 1.5 to 2cm long. The drupe is yellow when fully ripe. The fruiting period is June to August.

DISTRIBUTION:

A native tree to India, Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Burma, China, and Srilanka. In Pakistan, it is found in Sindh, southern Punjab, and lower Balochistan has been identified as far west as Sarai Alamgir but has not been recorded west of Jhelum river.

SILVICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS

HABITAT AND ECOLOGY

A moderately tolerant tree withstands some shade at an early age. It grows on soils which vary from rich loams to nutrient deficient sites which are not saline or waterlogged and where the water table is above 18m. It requires a precipitation zone of 300 to 1150 mm/yr and prefers an arid, hot tropical and sub-tropical climate with a temperature range of 1 to 45c. It is not frosted hardy and grass competition will prevent its establishment. It coppices easily and has few insect and disease problems.



Bombax ceiba

FAMILY:                 BOMBACEAE

COMMON NAME:   SIMAL, SILK COTTON TREE.

DESCRIPTION:

A large deciduous tree, 36m or taller, with a diameter of a hand. The leaflets are large, 15 to 20 cm long, leathery, lance-shaped and pointed. The compound leaf has a long stalk. The bark is smooth, gray to light brown and thick. Young bark may have very heavy thorns. The older trees develop considerable butt swell. The red, showy flowers are fleshy and occur march. The fruit or pods are 12 to 17 cm long and contain the seed which is surrounded by a thick mass of silky hairs. The pods mature in April and May.

DISTRIBUTION

The tree is native to Pakistan, India, and Nepal. In Pakistani it in the sub-Himalayan tract from hazard eastward. It is planted on the plains, in gardens, and along roadsides.

SILVICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS

HABITAT AND ECOLOGY

An in tolerate tree that does not do well in shade. It grows on a variety of soils and sites; however, it grows best on deep alluvial soils that are well drained. It requires a precipitation zone of 750 to 1700mm/yr or more. It prefers a sub-humid warm sub-tropical to tropical monsoon climate with a temperature range of -5 to 40c at elevation up to 1000m.seedlings are susceptible to frost damage, but are drought hardy. When grown under unhygienic conditions or when the water supply is deficient, It is severely attacked by a stem borer lowering the quality of timber.

Eucalyptus camaldulensis

FAMILY:                 MYRTACEAE

COMMON NAME:   SUFEDA, LACHI, RED RIVER GUM

DESCRIPTION :

A large, evergreen tree, up to 40m tall with a diameter of 1 to 2m.The crown is spreading and irregular. The leaves are simple, narrow and lance in shape,6 to 40cm long and 0.8 to 2 cm wide. The leaves have a unique eucalyptus smell when crushed. The bark is smooth and stem may be crooked. The bark is whitish, pale gray with mottled reddish patches. Pieces of the bark will shed in long strips or irregular flakes.

DISTRIBUTION:

The tree is native to Australia. It is widely planted in arid areas through the world. In Pakistan, it is successfully planted through the plains and in the hills

SILVICULTURAL CHARACTERISTIC

HABITATE AND ECOLOGY:

A very intolerant tree that grows on a variety of soils. It does well on saline , sodic and waterlogged sites. It is adopted to a precipitation zone of 200 to 1250mm/yr or more. It prefers a semi arid, warm hot, sub-tropical winter/monsoon rain climate with a temperature range of -5 to 40c at elevation up to 1400 m. It coppices well and can be grown in mixed stands. It is frost hardy and can tolerate hot droughty conditions if irrigated or if there is a shallow water table.

Silvicultural Characteristics of Eucalyptus Species

Eucalyptus tereticornis

FAMILY:                 MYRETACEAE

COMMON NAME:   SUFEDA, LACHI, MYSORE HYBRID

DESCRIPTION:

A large, evergreen tree, up to 40m tall with a diameter of 1 to 2m. It has a straight stem and the crown is spreading and open. The leaves are simple, narrow and lance shaped.15 to 20em long. The leaves have a unique eucalyptus smell when crushed. The bark is smooth, whitish and more or less deciduous.

DISTRIBUTION:

Tree is native to Australia. It is widely planted in arid areas through the world. In Pakistan, it is successfully planted through the plains and in the hills.

SILVICULTURRAL CHARACTERISTIC

HABITATE AND ECOLOGY:

A very intolerant tree that grows on a variety of soils. It does well on saline, sodic and waterlogged sites. It is adapted to a precipitation zone of 800 to 1500mm/yr or more. It prefers a semi arid, warm hot, sub-tropical winter/monsoon rain climate with a temperature range of -5 to 40c at elevation upto 1500m. It coppices well and can be grown in mixed stands. It is frost hardy and can tolerate hot droughty conditions if irrigated or if there is a shallow water table.

Casuarina equisetifolia

COMMON NAME:   CASUARINA, BEEF WOOD

DESCRIPTION:

A large evergreen tree,15 to 25m tall with a diameter of upto 1m.The open, feathery crown is composed of leafless branchlets which act as leaves(look like pine needle). The bark is rough, brown and peel off in LONG STRIPS

DISTRIBUTION:

The tree is native to North and Northern Australia. It has been successfully planted in Africa, the subcontinent, The pacific region and north America. In Pakistan, it has been planted on the plains, in gardens and as a roadside tree.

SILVICULTURAL CHARACTERISTIC

HABITATE AND ECOLOGY

An in tolerant tree that does’t do well in shade. It grows on a variety of soils if they are well drained. It requires a precipitation zone of 700 to 2000mm/yr or more. It prefers warm to hot tropical/sub-tropical to a coastal maritime climate with a temperature range of 5 to 35c at an elevation of upto 1200m. It is frost hardy and can withstand a drought period of 6 to 8 months.

Gravillea robusta

FAMILY:                           PROTEACEAE

COMMON NAME:   RASHMI OAK, SILVER OAK

DESCRIPTION:

A mediam to large, deciduous tree12 to 20m tall or more, with a diameter of 30 to 90 cm. The crown is conical and long. The fern like leaves are compound,15 to 30 cm long, with 11 to 21 pairs of leaflets 4 to 9 cm long. The leaves are green and hairless on the tops with silky, whitish or ash coloured hairs underneath. The bole is straight and the bark is light to dark gray with many deep furrows.

DISTRIBUTION

The tree is native to Australia and successfully cultivated in many parts of the world. In Pakistan, it has been planted along roads, and in gardens both in the hills and plains.

SILVICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS

HABITATE AND ECOLOGY:

An intolerant tree that grows on a variety of sites including acidic soils. It will not do well on wet or waterlogged sites. It is adapted to a precipitation zone of 600 to 1500 mm/yr in a temperature range of -10 to 40c. It can withstands drought period of 2 to 6 months and is moderately frost hardy. It prefers a warm temperature to sub –tropical temperature climate within an elevation range of 0 to 2300m.

Syzygium cumini

COMMON NAME:   JAMUN, JAMAN, BLACK PLUM.

DESCRIPTION:

A large evergreen tree up to 40m tall with a diameter of 11 to 2m.The crown is spreading and dense. The leaves are simple variablein size and shape, oval to oval-lane like 7 to 15cm long, dark green, touch and leathery. The bark is smooth and the stem may be crooked. The bark is light to dark gray, with slight depressions.

DISTRIBUTION

The tree is native to the subcontinent including Pakistan. It has been successfully planted in many areas of the world. In Pakistan, it is found in the plains and lower hills of the Punjab, KPK, and Azad Kashmir.

SILVICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS

HABITATE AND ENCOLOGY

A very intolerant tree that grows on a variety of soils, from sands to loams as long as they are well drained. It is adopted to a precipitation zone of up to 1250mm/yr. It prefers a semi-humid warm hot,sub-tropical winter/monsoon climate with a temperature range of -5 to 40c at elevation upto1500m. It will coppice easily. The tree is frost hardy and can tolerate hot droughty conditions if irrigated.



Terminalia arjuna

FAMILY: COMBRETACEAE

COMMON NAME: ARJUN

DESCRIPTION:

A large evergreen tree 21 to 30m tall with a diameter of 1 to 2.5m.It has an open, spreading crown with drooping branches. The leaves are simple with smooth margins and are oblong and elliptical 10 to 15cm long. The trunk is buttressed with pronounced ridges. The bark is thick, pinkish green to gray and peels off in large thin sheets.

DISTRBUTION

The tree is native to the subcontinent. In Pakistan, it has been planted throught the plains, in gardens and as a roadside tree.

SILVICULTRAL CHARACTERISTICS

HABITATE AND ECOLOGY:

A shade tolerant tree that grows on saline, sodic and waterlogged sites. It requires a precipitation zone of 750 to 3800mm/yr. It prefers a humid, hot tropical,sub-tropical monsoon climate with the temperature range of 0 to 45c on elevation upto 600m. The is not frost hardy.

Image: Kikar (Acacia nilotica) tree at Hingol National Park Balochistan | Captured by Author


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Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani

NJMH is working as Deputy Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu (techurdu.net) Forestrypedia (forestrypedia.com), Majestic Pakistan (majesticpakistan.pk), All Pak Notifications (allpaknotifications.com), Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.

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