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Adaptation Strategies to Combat Climate Change In Different Sectors of Balochistan Pakistan

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The provincial adaptation strategies are designed to build resilience of key economic sectors in Balochistan, which will directly contribute towards achieving the goals of National Climate Change Policy (2021), the National Adaptation Plan (2023) and other key national and provincial policies. Integration of climate change considerations into provincial sectoral policies and plans (e.g., water resources, agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, coastal management, fisheries, socio-economic development, mines and minerals and human health) is one of the major adaptation strategies to chieve the goals of BCCP.

Sector-specific Adaptation Actions

The Govemment of Balochistan commits to the following sector-specific policy actions for materialise its adaptation strategy towards climate challenge:

Agriculture and Livestock

•Formulate policy initiatives and strategies to foster climate-resilient agriculture, tailored to the seven agroecological zones (Map 6).

• Encourage sustainable horticulture practices that prioritise climate-resilient crop varieties while emphasising the goals of sustainable groundwater conservation and judicious usage.

• Establish a robust and efficient climate-adaptive crop advisory service, ensuring farmer access to seasonal and short-term weather forecasts based on climate and weather data, with consideration for the seven agroecological zones and cropping patterns.

• Promote and incentivise the mechanisation of farming operations to enhance farming efficiency, ensure timely completion of tasks, reduce climate-related risks, increase yields, and minimise harvest losses.

• Foster the development of locally suitable climate-resilient seed varieties through research facilitated by public-private partnerships and collaboration with other provinces and national-level agricultural research institutes.

• Offer incentives for the enhancement of irrigation water use efficiency through the adoption of modern technologies, including high-efficiency irrigation systems, for on-farm water management and the implementation of an ICT-based pest surveillance system.

• Periodically evaluate the suitability of crop species for each agroecological zone within Balochistan, guided by climate and vulnerability assessments.

• Improve climate-adaptive agricultural practices through the creation of district-level drought management plans specifically tailored for deserts, arid regions, and semi-arid areas of Balochistan.

• Develop strategies to support the growth of value chains and facilitate eco-labelling and packaging of horticultural produce, such as apples, grapes, apricots, cherries, pomegranates, almonds, and dates.

• Design and reinforce policies that promote the integration of rainwater harvesting into agricultural methods, including practices like sailaba and khushkaba, through the encouragement of crop diversification and locally-suited water conservation practices.

• Strengthen Agriculture Department’s Crop Reporting Services (CRS) by transitioning from manual data collection in field to real-time crop monitoring using remote sensing methods.

• Engage with the banking and financial sector to craft financial products and insurance mechanisms that encourage the adoption of climate-adaptive technologies.

• Promote climate-adaptive high-production livestock breeds suited to the various zones of Balochistan.

• Promote aquaculture to support farmer livelihoods and a much-needed source of protein.

• Support and advisory services aimed at promoting high-nutrition feeds and climate-adaptive disease management in the livestock sector.

Adaptation Strategies to Combat Climate Change In Different Sectors of Pakistan
Adaptation Strategies to Combat Climate Change In Different Sectors of Pakistan

Fisheries

•Advocate for sustainable and secure fishing practices by enhancing management and governance. This includes prohibiting destructive and illegal fishing practices, such as illegal trawling along the Balochistan coast, the use of illicit fishing gear and nets, and adjusting fishing seasons and quotas to mitigate harm to marine life.

• Encourage and offer incentives for locally and environmentally suitable aquaculture practices as a climate adaptation measure to support sustainable coastal livelihoods in the major coastal populations along the Balochistan coast.

• Preserve and rehabilitate degraded fish habitats to create sanctuaries for fish populations. This will be achieved through marine conservation plans, the cultivation of riparian vegetation and appropriate mangrove species, the removal of barriers to fish migration, and the reduction of marine pollution.

Forests, Rangelands, Biodiversity, and Wildlife

• Ensure the conservation and protection of biodiversity and incorporate biodiversity plans into provincial development strategies to mitigate adverse impacts on forests, marine environments, and rangelands.

• Formulate provincial adaptation strategies founded on ‘Ecosystem-based Adaptation’ and ‘Nature-based Solutions’ approaches to enhance the resilience of fragile ecosystems and bolster adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change.

• Update the Balochistan Conservation Strategy and foster the sustainable utilization of biodiversity with active participation from local communities.

Develop research programs focused on biodiversity and conservation practices collaboration with provincial universities and other organisations. These programs will be based on the integration of indigenous ecological knowledge and scientific research to comprehensively comprehend and monitor the impacts of climate change on biodiversity.

• Enhance the institutional and legal capacities of the Balochistan Forests and Wildlife Department to elevate biodiversity conservation practices.

• Decrease deforestation by offering alternative domestic fuel sources and increasing forest cover through the promotion of native species and agroforestry programs, including agroforestry.

• Formulate locally suitable rotational grazing practices in designated zones, providing incentives to pastoralists and local communities to rehabilitate depleted rangelands through rain harvesting and re-vegetation initiatives.

• Promote and introduce locally-led ecosystem service payments for biodiversity conservation programs, such as community-based trophy hunting schemes, in suitable areas of Balochistan.

• Establish and manage protected areas for wildlife that exhibit resilience to climate change. This will involve the restoration of degraded habitats, afforestation efforts, and the creation of corridors between protected areas to enable animal movement in response to the changing climate and weather conditions.

• Design targeted awareness campaigns aimed at fostering community ownership, with a particular focus on emphasising the significance of wildlife conservation, the impacts of climate change on wildlife, and the pivotal role of local communities in these efforts.

Water Resources

• Initiate the development of the Balochistan Water Policy based on Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) approaches.

• Establish and empower the Balochistan Groundwater Management Authority to ensure the sustainable management of groundwater resources.

• Actively promote the sustainable use of groundwater by implementing and strengthening basin-specific groundwater management and monitoring systems. This includes the development of the Balochistan Groundwater Atlas and the adoption of technical measures such as artificial recharge and integrated watershed management, particularly for depleted and threatened aquifers, with the aim of conserving water resources and alleviating stress on groundwater.

• Revitalise, rehabilitate, and enhance the sustainable governance of the karez water management system. Additionally, will encourage the cultivation of low-delta crops in karez-irrigated zones.

• Promote high-efficiency irrigation systems to enhance agricultural water use efficiency, including methods such as drip irrigation and rainwater harvesting. This will be facilitated through targeted subsidies and the active involvement of the private sector.

• Enhance water conservation efforts by improving and constructing water storage and recharge methods, such as delay action dams, multi-purpose dams, leaky dams, and check dams. These endeavours will be informed by scientific water assessments based on precipitation levels and water flows in various climatic zones across Balochistan.

• Develop a climate-resilient water resource management framework grounded in basin-specific climate assessments for the seven agroecological zones identified in the Balochistan Agriculture Policy and Strategy of 2014.

• Establish a policy and institutional framework and bolster capacities for water licensing and pricing mechanisms, ensuring judicious water use and the conservation of groundwater resources.

• Strengthen the existing spate irrigation systems, such as Sailaba and Khushkaba, in targeted areas to enhance water efficiency and mitigate flood risks.

• Improve canal irrigation system infrastructure and governance to increase water productivity in irrigated crops, particularly in rice production areas.

• Actively promote household-level rainwater harvesting by revising building regulations, introducing water-efficient technologies, and conducting awareness creation programs.

Coastal and Marine Ecosystems

• Establish, expand, and reinforce the integrated management of marine protected areas along the Balochistan coast, guided by locally suitable ecological management plans and robust enforcement mechanisms.

• Ensure that development initiatives in coastal areas, including projects such as the Gwadar Pir• Port, Gadani Shipbreaking Yard, and energy development projects, incorporate the active participation of the local population to safeguard local livelihoods and marine ecosystems.

• Embark on efforts to restore and rehabilitate degraded marine ecosystems, encompassing the conservation and afforestation of locally appropriate mangrove species.

• Institute and expand coastal early warning systems while enhancing the adaptive capacities of coastal communities to effectively respond to extreme weather events, such as recurring cyclones.

• Implement measures to curtail coastal erosion and sea intrusion along the 800-kilometer coastline, particularly in areas like Dam Bander, Pasni, Sub Bander, Pishukan, Jiwani, and others. These efforts are vital for the preservation and protection of arable and productive land.

• Work towards the reduction of marine and coastal pollution and actively promote the sustainable use of marine resources. This includes sustainable and climate-adaptive aquaculture and responsible tourism development.

• Ensure that strategies for coastal tourism development encompass mandatory environmental protection plans and the construction of climate-resilient infrastructure, thus contributing to pollution reduction and the safeguarding of coastal infrastructure.


Mountains, Deserts, Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

• Actively promote and incentivise water conservation and management measures, such as rainwater harvesting, guided by periodic climate and water assessments in the desert zones of Balochistan, including Nushki, Chagai, Kharan and Washuk.

• Establish and enhance the capacity of a robust drought monitoring system in desert zones and arid areas. This will be done in coordination with Provincial and District Disaster Management Authorities, agriculture and irrigation departments, and other relevant organisations.

• Encourage and provide incentives for the cultivation of drought-resistant crops and the adoption of livestock breeds as climate adaptation measures to sustain subsistence livelihoods.

• Undertake climate change assessments in mountain area ecosystems and agriculture systems, leading to the design of locally suitable adaptive measures for fragile and vulnerable sectors.

• Foster coordination among pertinent departments, including forests and wildlife, water resources and irrigation, and agriculture and livestock departments, to facilitate the efficient management of ecosystems, including rangelands, wetlands, and other resources. This coordination aims to combat desertification, stabilise sand dunes, and maintain soil and sub-soil moisture and vegetative cover.

• Discourage the cultivation of high delta crops and water-intensive plant species in identified desert zones, arid areas, and semi-arid zones.

Promote research and incentivize the development of drought-resistant shrubs, fodder crops, and grasses for pastures and oases to benefit livestock in arid and mountain areas. Actively promote the adoption of local and hybrid livestock species suitable for arid and desert ecosystems, thus contributing to sustainable livelihoods.

Mining and Mineral Resources

• Formulate policy measures and establish enforcement mechanisms for the sustainable management of water resources, including the treatment of wastewater during mining operations.

• Enhance the capacities of the provincial Mines and Minerals Department to effectively enforce provincial environmental regulations, in collaboration with the Balochistan Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

• Ensure the comprehensive restoration of mine sites upon the completion of mining operations, with the aim of mitigating erosion and sedimentation, enhancing water quality, and creating new habitats for wildlife.

• Incorporate climate change considerations into the Balochistan Mines and Minerals Policy of 2019, thus mitigating adverse consequences on fragile ecosystems and habitats.

• Encourage sustainable mining practices by advocating for the utilisation of technologies and methods that minimize environmental impacts, with active participation from local communities.

• Develop a climate change action plan specifically for the mining sector. This plan will identify the sector’s greenhouse gas emissions and other climate impacts while proposing measures to enhance water management, restore mine sites, and foster sustainable mining practices.

3.1.8. Urban Planning and Development

• Develop a climate-sensitive urban planning framework to comprehensively integrate climate change considerations into all aspects of urban planning and development.

• Conduct climate change impact and vulnerability assessments for all major urban centers and towns in Balochistan to identify areas most susceptible to climate change impacts, including issues like urban flash flooding, air pollution, and extreme heat and cold events.

• Invest in climate-resilient urban infrastructure to mitigate climate risks, such as urban flooding, energy conservation, green building development, and creation of urban green spaces. Collaborate with regional and international sustainable city platforms and other urban networks to engage in joint efforts related to climate-resilient urban planning.

• Review urban policies and planning strategies and revise building regulations to enhance water and energy efficiency within urban areas.

• Formulate urban municipal policies aimed at transitioning urban services and processes, particularly those related to solid waste and wastewater treatment, toward climate resilience and carbon neutrality through integrated waste management, treatment, and disposal systems, with a focus on reusing and recycling.

• Foster urban forestry and plantation initiatives through partnerships with the Balochistan Forest and Wildlife Department and other relevant stakeholders, including civil society organizations.

• Implement measures to make public services carbon-neutral, green, and climate-resilient by incorporating energy efficiency, renewable energy usage, urban tree planting, sustainable transportation methods, paperless operations, and water efficiency initiatives.

• Develop policies and infrastructure for effective groundwater recharge through rainwater harvesting systems.

Human Health

• Integrate climate adaptation measures into Balochistan’s health and education policies.

• Identify and systematically document the impacts of climate change on human health, encompassing factors such as heat and cold waves, air and water pollution, droughts, flooding, and water quality.

• Incorporate the health implications of climate change and disasters, such as vector-borne diseases like malaria and dengue fever, into preparedness and response strategies of both Balochistan Provincial and District-level Disaster Management Authorities. This includes providing psychological support where needed.

• Design and implement programs in collaboration with the Balochistan Health Department to sensitise, educate, and train health personnel and the public regarding climate change-related health issues and mitigation measures.

• Establish institutional collaboration mechanisms with provincial and national health service providers to ensure effective preventive measures and the availability of resources, such as vaccines, medication, and WASH (Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene) facilities, during climate-induced extreme events. Particular attention will be given to the needs of women and other vulnerable populations.

• Conduct assessments and collect data about climate-sensitive diseases at both the provincial and district-level health service delivery systems. This data will inform the development of plans for addressing seasonal and other disease outbreaks effectively.

Disaster Risk Management

• Strengthen institutional coordination mechanisms for disaster risk management (DRM) with the goal of minimising the impacts of climate-induced extreme events, including droughts, floods, heat and cold waves, and cyclones, in the coastal areas of Balochistan.

• Actively promote and prioritise nature-based solutions (NbS) within DRM strategies. This includes the plantation of mangroves to mitigate the impacts of cyclones in coastal areas.

• Enhance institutional-level mechanisms for flood management, the development of drainage systems, and readiness in canal command areas of southern Balochistan, with the aim of reducing flood risk.

• Conduct regular district-level climate change vulnerability and risk assessments that inform the formulation of climate-resilient DRM action plans.

• Design and reinforce community-based disaster preparedness response and risk management systems based on identified climate-induced disasters. These systems will be tailored to address specific events, such as cyclones in coastal areas, droughts in arid and semi-arid zones, flash and riverine floods in plains and mountain areas, and heat and cold waves. This design will be informed by historical data and future climate projections for Balochistan.

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