Afforestation of Dry Areas with Irrigation

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AFFORESTATION OF DRY AREAS WITH IRRIGATION:

GENERAL: IMPORTANCE OF WATER

  • Common chemical substance: H2O.
  •  Found in all three states simultaneously: solid, liquid and gaseous.
  •  Collective mass of water on the planet is called Hydrosphere.
  •  Covers about 71% of the Earth’s surface.
  •  Total mass is 1021 kg.
  •  Total volume: 1.36 billion km3.
  •  3% is usable.
  •  Glaciers, polar ice caps, rivers, lakes & ponds.
  •  Water moves continually in a cycle: Hydrology Cycle.
  •  70% of fresh water is consumed by agriculture.
  • Covers more than two-thirds of earth’s surface.
  •  Makes up 50-90% of the weight of living things.
  •  Constitutes 75% of the human body.
  •  More than 80% of human brain consists of water.
  •  Water regulates all the functions & activities of living things.
  •  Aids in metabolic processes.
  •  Industry, agriculture, and forestry totally depend upon water.
  •  Every field of life cannot exist without water.
  •  Water can alter human cultures and civilizations.



IRRIGATION

            “Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops”.

  •  Grow crops with a minimum amount of water required.
  •  Supplement water/rainfall shortfalls.

History of Irrigation:

  • Evidence of irrigation in Egypt in 6th B.C.
  • Archaeological evidence of irrigation dates back to 6th millennium B.C in Egypt to grow Barley.
  • First water gauge was discovered in Korea I 1441 A.C.
  • Pakistan has one of the world’s largest irrigation systems.
  • Irrigation water is a very precious commodity now.
  • Its conservation & economical use for optimum utilization is a matter of great importance.
  • We have to incorporate methods to conserve it & not overuse it.

TYPES OF IRRIGATION

  • Surface Irrigation.
  • Sub-irrigation.
  • Localized irrigation.

IRRIGATION IN IRRIGATED PLANTATIONS


Surface Irrigation has Two Types:

  • Flood Irrigation.
  • Flow/Trench Irrigation.

Flow irrigation is very economical than flood irrigation.

Flood Irrigation

  • Simple, low-tech.
  • Cheap.
  • Gravity feed.
  • Plots of 0.5 or 1 Ac.

Species which are raised: Populus spp, Eucalyptus spp.

Irrigation - Forestrypedia

Advantages:
  • Very low running cost.
  • Easy to operate.
  • No high skills are required.
  • No mechanical or pumping equipment is required.
  • Easy maintenance of water channels.
  • Flush out salts.
Disadvantages:
  • 50% of water evaporates.
  • Flooding causes anaerobic conditions resulting in de-nitrification.
  • A highly leveled field is required.
  • Reduction in capillary oxygen.
  • Can cause run-off & erosion.

Trench Irrigation

  • Trenches/channels.
  • Main, Khal, Passel, Trench System
  • Slots.
  • Usual spacing: 10’.
  • Better utilization of water.
  • Species raised: Dalbergia sissoo, Bombax ceiba,

                                        Acacia nilotica, Eucalyptus spp.

Trench Irrigation on 20 Acres under Green Pakistan Programme | Usta Muhammad Jaffarabad | February 22, 2018 | Video by Author

Advantages:
  • Reduces loss of water.
  • Increases efficient use of water.
  • Less weed growth.
  • No run-off and erosion.
Disadvantages:
  • Tail-water losses.
  • Movement of equipment.
  • Fair leveling.
  • Volatile irrigation pattern.
  • Re-opening is required.

For correction and improvements please use the comments section below.



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Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani

NJMH is working as Deputy Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu (techurdu.net) Forestrypedia (forestrypedia.com), Majestic Pakistan (majesticpakistan.pk), All Pak Notifications (allpaknotifications.com), Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.

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