Forest EcologyGeneral SilviculturePlant Taxonomy

Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl.

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Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl. Family


Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl. English Name


Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl. Local Name


Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl.

Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl. Description

A large, deciduous tree 24 to 30 m tall, with stem diameters of 0.6 to 100 cm. Leaves are simple, 5 to 20 cm long and 2.5 to 12.5 cm wide. The bark is dark brown, rough and with deep furrows. It is monoecious. The male flowers (cones or catkins) are 12.5 to 25 cm long. The female cones are 5mm long. It flowers in August to October. The fruit is a cone or a nut. At maturity it is between 2.5 and 6 mm in length. The fruit matures between October and December. It can be reproduced both from seed and by vegetative means. It is easily coppiced. Fast growing tree that can reach heights of 24 to 30 m and diameters of 50 to 60 cm. pinkish white to reddish white sap wood with straight, fine textured and even grains, having Specific gravity of 0.43.

Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl.

Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl. Distribution

This tree is native to Pakistan and India. In Pakistan it is found in the mountains of Chitral, Dir, Hazara, and Azad Kashmir. It has been planted along roadsides, stream banks and water courses. An intolerant tree that requires full sunlight to develop to a mature tree. It grows well in moist situations on sandy soils. It requires a precipitation zone of 750 to 1250 mm/yr. It prefers a sub-humid, cool, sub-tropical winter/monsoon climate with a temperature range of -20 to 40°C, and an elevation range of 1600 to 2900 m. It is frost hardy and has no known insects or pest problems.

Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl.

Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl. Uses

Because of its frost hardiness, fast growth, and nitrogen fixing properties, it is ideally suited to be a farm forestry tree in the high valley and mountains of Pakistan especially close to perennial streams. Also used as fodder, fuel, light construction, nitrogen fixing, and in erosion control.

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