Forest EcologyGeneral SilviculturePlant Taxonomy

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.

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Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. Family


Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. English Name


Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. Local Name


Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. Description

A small, shrub like, evergreen tree 1 to 3 m tall, with stem diameters of 25 to 30 cm. Leaves are simple. 3 to 8 cm long and 1.5 to 3.5 cm wide. It has pneumatophores (appendages that look like knees supporting the bole). The flowers are in tightly packed heads, are dungy yellow with an orange throat and are quite fragrant. It flowers in February to June. The fruit is 12 to 18 mm long and 10 to 12 mm wide, usually with only one seed. The fruit matures between May and July. Artificial regeneration may be needed to preserve the tree in Pakistan. Profuse natural regeneration can be seen in protected mud flats in the coastal belt. Grains have alternate layers of pore bearing tissue and loose large cell tissue without pores. It has no known insects or pest problems. It can be reproduced both from seed and by vegetative means. Seed has low viability. Growth is slow, it takes 5 years to grow 1 m in height. It may reach heights of 7 to 8 m and diameters of 30 cm on good sites. Color of sapwood is Brown, grey with heavy density

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. Distribution

A native tree in the tidal swamps and creeks from the Red Sea to the Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan and India. In Pakistan it is found along the coast and tidal creeks from Karachi in the Sindh to Makran coast in Balochistan. An intolerant tree that requires full sunlight to develop to a mature tree. It grows well on swampy saline, coastal mud flats. It requires a precipitation zone up to 125 mm/yr. It prefers a humid to arid, hot sub-tropical, winter/monsoon to tropical maritime climate with a temperature range of 5 to 40°C.

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. Uses

This tree has been over harvested because of its desirable fuel characteristics. It is a valuable member of the coastal forest and should be protected. Also used as fodder, fuel and tannin.

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