Forest EcologyGeneral SilviculturePlant Taxonomy

Bischofia javanica Blume

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Bischofia javanica Blume. Family


Bischofia javanica Blume. English Name

Bishop wood

Bischofia javanica Blume. Local Name

Irum, Underikhni

Bischofia javanica Blume.

Bischofia javanica Blume. Description

A large, evergreen or deciduous tree 15 to 17 m tall and with a diameter of 0.6 to 0.8 m. The crown is large, oval and dense. The leaves are compound occurring in threes with the leaflets 7.5 to 5.7 cm long and 3 to 6 cm wide. The bark is thick and dark grey. It is dioecious. The male flowers are in long bunches and crowded. The female bunches are open. The flowers occur in March. The fruit is a small capsule 5 cm in diameter which contains 3 to 5 seeds. The capsules mature in May. There are no known insects or disease problems of significance. It is reproduced mainly from seed. Hundreds of seedlings can be seen around a tree. Sapwood is light green to reddish brown; heartwood is red to dark reddish brown or chocolate brown having specific gravity of 0.74 and a calorific value of 5300 kcal/kg, with Straight, interlocking grains.

Bischofia javanica Blume.

Bischofia javanica Blume. Distribution

This tree is native to India and east to South China. In Pakistan it is planted in the plains and in gardens. Some impressive avenues exist in Islamabad. It is an intolerant tree that does not grow well in shade. It grows on a variety of soils but prefers deep alluvium. It thrives on very moist sites. It requires a precipitation zone of 700 to 1500 mm/yr or more. It prefers a sub-humid hot tropical monsoon climate with a temperature range of -5 to 40°C at elevations up to of 1200 m. The tree grows in shady ravines, swamps, riverbanks, and valleys in the hills. It has some frost resistance.

Bischofia javanica Blume.

Bischofia javanica Blume. Uses

A fast growing tree with a diameter growth of 1.3 cm/yr. This tree is grown along canals and irrigations channels. Good as an avenue tree due to heavy shade. Also used as fuel, furniture, sleepers, construction, pilings and ornamental.

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