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Building Materials

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Building Materials

    1. Classification of rocks ( According to geology )
i.             Igneous rocks
ii.               Sedimentary rocks
iii.             Metamorphic rocks
    1. Classification of rocks ( According to constituent material )
i.       Siliceous
ii.   Calcareous
 iii. Argillaceous
    1. Composition of rocks
i.       Chemical
ii.   Physical
    1. Structure of rocks
i.       Stratified
ii.   Un-stratified
    1. Texture of rocks
i.             Glossy
ii.               Compact crystalline
iii.             Granular crystalline
iv.             Conglomerate
    1. Requirements of building
i.             Strength
ii.         Durability
iii.             Appearance
iv.             Facility of work
v.               Resistant to fire
    1. Fracture
i.       Even
ii. Uneven
iii. Conchoidal
    1. Testing stones
i.             Crushing test
ii.               Crystallization test
iii.             Porosity or absorption test
iv.             Attrition test
v.               Acid test
vi.             Hardness test
vii.            Structure test
i.                 Quarrying and methods of obtaining stones
1.     Heating
2.     Blasting
a.      Tools
b.     Explosives
c.      Detonators
d.     Fuses 
    1. Process of blasting
    2. Sorting out quarrying stones
    3. Dressing of stones
    4. Seasoning of stones
    5. Uses of stones
    6. Common stones
1.     Granite
2.     Gneiss
3.     Sandstone
4.     Limestone
i.                 Marble
ii.               Compact
5.     Gravel
  1. Characteristics of good bricks
  2. Harmful substances in brick clays
    1. Iron pyrites
    2. Alkalies
    3. Pebbles, gravels and lumps of earth.
    4. Nodules of kunkar
    5. Organic matter
  1. Selection of brick earth.
  2. Preparation of brick earth.
i.                 Hand moulding
ii.               Machine moulding
  1. Drying
  2. Burning
i.                 Open kiln
ii.               Semi continuous kiln
iii.             Continuous kiln
    1. Bull’s trench kiln
    2. Hoffman’s kiln
    3. Warren’s kiln
  1. Size of bricks
  2. Crushing strength
  3. Types of bricks
i.                 Sand-Lime bricks
ii.               Fire bricks
iii.             Fire clay bricks
  1. Terra – Cotta and its uses
1.     Types of lime
a.      Fat lime ( pure or rich or quick lime )
b.     Hydraulic lime
2.     Source of kunkar
3.     Kilns
a.      Intermittent
b.     Perpetual or continuous
4.     Loading kilns
a.      Alternate feed
b.     Mixed feed
5.     Precautions for lime burning operations
6.     Slaking of lime
 1.     Types
a.      Normal setting cement
b.     Rapid hardening cement
c.      Quick setting cement
d.     Low heat cement
e.      Blast furnace cement
f.      High alumina cement
g.     Calcium chloride and cement
h.     White cement
i.       Coloured cement
j.       Sulphate resisting cement
2.     Setting and hardening of cement
3.     Hardening theory of cement
4.     Testing of cement
                                                    i.     Fitness test
a.      Sieve test
b.     Surface area test
                                                  ii.     Strength of cement
a.      Tensile test
b.     Compressive strength
c.      Test tubes
                                                iii.     Setting time test
a.      Initial setting test
b.     Final setting test
                                                iv.     General
a.      Feel
b.     On water
c.      Colour
d.     Thoroughness of burning
e.      Weight
f.      Specific gravity
5.     Cement storage
a.      Cement silo
b.     Precautions for cement storage
4.     MORTARS
1.     General
2.     Types
i.                 Cement mortar
ii.               Lime mortar
iii.             Lime surkhi mortar
iv.             Gauged or combination mortar
v.               Cinder mortar
vi.             Light weight mortar
3.     Water used with cementing material
4.     Preparation of mortars
a.      Lime mortars
b.     Cement mortars
5.     Precautions in using mortars
6.     Test for mortars
1.     General
2.     Advantages of concrete construction
3.     Constituent materials
a.      Inert matter
b.     Active matter
4.     Function of water
5.     Properties of concrete
6.     Factors affecting properties of concrete
7.     Proportioning of aggregates
i.                 Arbitrary standard
ii.               Minimum voids
iii.             Sieve analysis
iv.             Trial mixture
8.     Measurement of concrete materials
9.     Mixing concretes
a.      Hand mixing
b.     Machine mixing
10.  Transportation and placing concrete
11.  Consolidation of concrete
12.  Bleeding, Segregation and Laitance
13.  Curing concrete and methods
14.  Types of concrete and their uses
1.     Ordinary cement concrete
2.     R.C.C
3.     Water – proofing concrete
4.     Light weight concrete
And other varieties also
For correction and improvements please use the comments section below.

Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani is working as Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu ( Forestrypedia (, All Pak Notifications (, Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.

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