Cedrus deodara (Roxb. Ex Lamb.) G. Don. Family
Cedrus deodara (Roxb. Ex Lamb.) G. Don. English Name
Cedrus deodara (Roxb. Ex Lamb.) G. Don. Local Name
Cedrus deodara (Roxb. Ex Lamb.) G. Don. Description
A large, evergreen, tree 45 to 60 m tall with a diameter of 0.8 to 1.1 m. The crown extends to the ground with the branches forming a conical shape. The leaves are three, sided needles 2.5 to 4 cm long. The needles occur in groups or dense tufts, sometimes as rosettes. The bark is greyish or reddish-brown forming into irregular shaped scales with age. It is monoecious. The male flowers or cones are solitary on the ends of branches. The female flowers are erect along the tops of the branches, 10 to 15 cm long, and oval to pyramidal in shape. They are blue-green when young. The cones bloom between June and September. The fruit is the female cone. As the cone ripens it turns a brown color. The seed in the cone takes a full year to mature after pollination and a full 2 years for the reproductive cycle to be completed. There are two-winged seed beneath each cone scale. Seed is shed in November. It is susceptible to a number of wood rotting fungi and insect defoliators. It is reproduced from seed. Seed viability is low. It grows slow. MAI of 6 to 9 m3/ha/yr has been recorded. Harvesting should be curtailed until regeneration methods have been perfected. Wood is white with Straight, even, fine textured Grains, having Specific gravity of 0.57 with a calorific value of 5200 kcal/kg.
Cedrus deodara (Roxb. Ex Lamb.) G. Don. Distribution
This tree is native to the Himalayas of the subcontinent including Pakistan. Afghanistan and India. In Pakistan it is found at high elevations in Azad Kashmir, Murree Hills, Hazara, Swat, Dir. Tirah and Chitral. A tolerant tree that will grow fairly well in shade, requiring full sun light with age. It grows on a variety of deep, rich soils, formed from various parent materials. It will grow on thin, rocky poor soils, but growth is stunted. It grows on steep, cool, northern exposures and in valleys. It is adapted to a precipitation zone of 1000 to 2000 mm/yr. It prefers a sub-humid, winter moisture regime, cold temperate climate with a temperature range of -20 to 30°C within an elevation range of 1200 to 3000 m.
Cedrus deodara (Roxb. Ex Lamb.) G. Don. Uses
It is a valuable member of the coniferous forest. The wood is in high demand resulting in over cutting. Also used in construction, fuel, railway sleepers, watershed protection, packing cases and medicine (aromatic wood juice is a carminative, diuretic).