Forest EcologyGeneral SilviculturePlant Taxonomy

Celtis eriocarpa Decne.

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Celtis eriocarpa Decne. Family


Celtis eriocarpa Decne. English Name

Nettle Tree

Celtis eriocarpa Decne. Local Name


Celtis eriocarpa Decne.

Celtis eriocarpa Decne. Description

A moderately fast growing, medium to large sized, deciduous tree. It reaches heights of 9 to 18 m with diameters of 6 to 9 cm. Mature trees have large crowns and a buttressed base. The leaves are simple and alternate. They are 7 to 12 cm long, are tough, leathery, oval shaped and pointed. The bark is blue-grey smooth, with horizontal ridges and round swellings. The small, pale yellow or greenish flowers may be perfect (both sexes) and imperfect (one sex) on the same tree. They occur on the new shoots before the new leaves appear. The fleshy fruits are round 1 cm in diameter. The fruit is green turning to yellow then to blue-black when dry. It flowers between February and May and its fruit matures between April and September. It appears to be disease and insect free. It is reproduced from cuttings, coppice, and seed. Seeds have high viability. Diameter growth of 0.6 cm/yr has been observed. Sap wood is yellowish white to pale yellow with dark irregular streaks having Straight and uneven textured Grains, with Specific gravity of 0.60.

Celtis eriocarpa Decne.

Celtis eriocarpa Decne. Distribution

The tree is native to Pakistan, India and Nepal. In Pakistan it is common on both sides of the Indus. Natural and cultivated stands and individuals are not uncommon throughout central Pakistan. Very common in Islamabad as avenue tree. A moderately intolerant tree that will stand some shade. It grows on a variety of sites and soils including both dry rocky site to swamps. It is adapted to a precipitation zone of 750 to 1225 mm/yr. It has a temperature range of -20 to 40°C and is frost hardy. It prefers a sub-humid, cool to semi-arid. Warm sub-tropical winter/monsoon climate, usually at elevations of 400 to 1800 m.

Celtis eriocarpa Decne.

Celtis eriocarpa Decne. Uses

This is a very valuable tree for both food and fodder. The fodder is highly palatable and is used for forage in the sub-mountainous regions. The wood has many uses including fuel. It has potential both as a farm forestry tree and as an ornamental. Also used in Tool handles, agriculture implements, fodder, and food (fruit).

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