Forest EcologyGeneral SilviculturePlant Taxonomy

Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob.

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Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob. Family


Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob. English Name

Tagal Mangroove

Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob. Local Name


Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob.

Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob. Description

A small to medium, evergreen tree 5 to 15 m tall with a diameter of 20 to 45 cm. The crown is spreading and may be brush like. Roots may be stilted with knees 20 to 30 cm high. The leaves are simple, pointed at the base with wavy (entire) margins. The thick, leathery leaves are in opposite pairs, shiny green and hairless on the tops and yellowish green underneath. The bark is light to dark grey to reddish brown, smooth or with irregular fissures. The inner bark is orange or reddish. There are 4 to 5 small flowers to a cluster. They are yellow green with white petals. The flowers bloom between July and September. The fruit is a berry, egg shaped 1.5 to 2.5 cm long and leathery. The seed matures between August and October. It will coppice. It has no known disease or pest problems of importance. It is reproduced from seed. In nature the seed germinates on the tree then falls to the ground (viviparous seed). It is slow growing. This tree can be managed with a coppice system on short rotations. Because of over harvesting it appears to be threatened with extinction and should be protected. Wood is orange red changing to reddish brown. Grains very fine and straight, having specific gravity of 0.89.

Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob.

Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob. Distribution

This tree is distributed throughout a very wide range from East and South Africa through South Asia to the islands of the South Pacific. In Pakistan it is found on mud flats and along salt-water creeks at the mouth of the Indus and on the Lasbela coast of Balochistan. It is an associate of Avicennia and Rhizophora, species, the latter being artificially reintroduced in this coastal belt. An intolerant tree that will not grow well in shade. It grows on well drained soils and brackish mud flats within reach of an occasional tide. It can do well on fairly saline soils, is adapted to a precipitation zone of 125 to 1700 mm/yr or more, and a temperature range of 1 to 40°C. It prefers a humid to arid, hot subtropical to tropical maritime climate for best growth rates.

Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob.

Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob. Uses

It is considered to be of great value as firewood, fodder as well as timber. The bark is used in dyes and the batik industry, as it produces shades of purple, brown and black. The bark is also used for tanning and toughening fishing lines. It has also medicinal use; the bark is used to make lotion for ulcers. It is used for charcoal production and poles.

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