Effective implementation of the BCCP requires multi-stakeholder coordination and collaboration given the multifaceted and intricate challenges presented by climate change in the region. Hence, it is imperative to meaningfully engage government departments, public sector institutions, non-governmental organizations, academic institutions, and private sectors. Furthermore, the active inclusion of local communities, particularly those vulnerable to the direct consequences of climate change, such as coastal and fishermen communities, is crucial in the policy’s implementation.
This collaborative approach brings together diverse expertise, perspectives, and resources that are essential for the development of effective climate action plans. Each stakeholder group will contribute unique insights and knowledge, thereby ensuring a well-rounded and comprehensive approach to climate change adaptation and mitigation actions. This approach will allow the BCCP and sectoral policies to be aligned with the specific realities and needs of Balochistan. To be led by the Government of Balochistan, an inclusive and participatory implementation process will ensure harnessing collective wisdom and fostering a shared sense of responsibility. This will promote a unity of purpose and a stronger resolve to combat the impacts of climate change, leading to a more sustainable and resilient future for the people of Balochistan.
Table of Contents
Mainstreaming Climate Change into Development Planning
It is essential to recognize that climate change impacts are already affecting key sectors and exacerbating existing development challenges within Balochistan. To address these issues and transition towards climate-compatible development, the integration of climate change considerations into development planning is imperative. The following steps will be undertaken to effectively mainstream climate change into the development planning process:
• Mainstreaming Climate Change in Provincial Policy and Planning:
Climate change will be integrated into key provincial policy and planning processes, including the Five Years Plans, prospective plans, poverty reduction strategies and the Annual Development Programme (ADP)/Public Sector Development Programme (PSDP). This integration will be facilitated by a dedicated and well-resourced Climate Change Cell within the Planning and Development Department. This ensures that climate change considerations are incorporated into provincial development strategies, programs, and projects.
• Climate Screening Procedures:
Climate screening procedures will be established for project identification, appraisal, approval, monitoring, closing, and evaluation. It will be mandatory to conduct climate screening for all projects funded through the Provincial PSDP. Revisions to the “Planning and Project Manual” prepared by the Balochistan P&D Department will be made to ensure this climate screening process. The mega development projects and programs with critical implications for climate-vulnerable zones and groups will have to be inclusive and incorporate social and environmental protection measures.
• Institutional Mechanisms:
Institutional mechanisms for climate change integration will be created and strengthened, such as the establishment of a climate change unit within the Balochistan P&D Department.
• Sectoral Integration:
Climate change considerations will be integrated into key sectoral policies and strategies by developing sectoral climate change action plans.
• Financial Integration:
Engagement with the Balochistan Finance Department will be pursued to incorporate climate change considerations, including the costing of climate actions, into the provincial annual budgetary framework.
Education and Training:
Climate change courses and topics will be designed and incorporated into the primary, secondary, and higher education curriculum. This will be supported by technical assistance and targeted training programmes for the teachers and educational administrators.
• Civil Servant Training:
A comprehensive module on climate change implications for development planning specific to Balochistan will be designed and incorporated into the training of civil servants through the Balochistan Civil Services Academy.
• Research Collaboration:
Coordination will be established with relevant provincial-level universities and research institutes to conduct research on climate change vulnerabilities and impacts on key sectors and geographical areas.
• Capacity Enhancement Program:
A comprehensive training and capacity enhancement program will be designed to facilitate the integration of climate considerations into development planning. This program will provide the necessary skills and knowledge to stakeholders involved in the planning and implementation of development projects in Balochistan.
• Local-Level Capacity Building:
Technical capacity will be built within Divisional Coordination Committees (DCC) to enable the incorporation of climate change considerations into local-level project designs and plans. A robust system will be devised to identify and strengthen vulnerable communities and areas to reduce the impacts of climate change.
Public Sector’s Roles and Responsibilities
The successful implementation of the recommended measures outlined in the earlier sections for adaptation and mitigation efforts requires the development of sector-specific implementation strategies and action plans (Part B). The effectiveness of the policy’s execution in Balochistan is contingent on several critical factors, including:
• Robust Governance:
The policy implementation process necessitates strong governance structures to oversee and coordinate activities effectively.
• Meticulous Planning:
Careful planning is vital to ensure that the various measures and strategies are executed efficiently and with clear objectives.
Risk Management: Identifying and managing potential risks and challenges is essential to avoid setbacks during implementation.
• Resource Allocation:
Adequate resources, both financial and human, should be allocated to different departments and initiatives to ensure their success.
• Efficient Communication:
Effective communication is critical to ensuring that all stakeholders are informed and aligned with the policy’s goals and objectives.
• Rigorous Monitoring:
A system for continuous monitoring and evaluation of the progress is necessary to assess the effectiveness of the policy.
Key elements crucial for the successful execution of the BCCP include:
• Executive Support:
Securing unwavering support from the executive branch of the Balochistan government is fundamental to the policy’s success.
• BCCP Implementation Committee:
Establishing a dedicated province level committee responsible for driving the policy’s implementation, and horizontal and vertical coordination.
• Stakeholder Engagement:
Fostering comprehensive engagement and communication plans across all government departments and other stakeholders to ensure their active involvement and commitment.
• Legal and Financial Support:
Providing the necessary legal and financial support to enable the policy’s execution.
• Implementation Road map:
Based on the BCCP p that delineates the roles action plans (Part B), developing a clear roadmap and responsibilities of relevant departments and organizations involved in implementation.
• Risk Assessments and develop strategies for meeting Management:
Conducting comprehensive risk assessments and Monitoring and Re-rating potential risks that could hinder policy execution.
• Monitoring and Reporting:
Enabling effective monitoring and reporting mechanisms to track progress and make necessary adjustments.
• Performance Evaluation:
Implementing a system for evaluating the performance of initiatives
• Data Gap Analysis:
Conducting gap analyses to enhance the predictive accuracy of data, particularly in the context of weather data, which is crucial for climate change monitoring and adaptation.
• Research and Innovation:
The academic and research institutions will be engaged in research and innovation in climate-related fields to inform policy adjustments and identify new opportunities for climate action.
In alignment with the National Climate Change Policy (2021), the effective implementation of the BCCP mandates the formation of the Balochistan Climate Change Policy Implementation Committee (BCCPIC). This committee will be responsible for overseeing policy implementation and reporting progress based on action plans to the National Climate Change Policy Implementation Committee (NCCPIC). The BCCPIC should convene biannually to review strategic implementation plans across the sectors and provide progress updates to the NCCPIC. The BCCPIC will comprise of the following and may coop more members as and when needed:
• Provincial Minister for Climate Change and Environment (Chair)
• Additional Chief Secretary (Development), Planning and Development Department
• Secretary, Climate Change and Environment Department
• Secretary, Agriculture & Cooperative Department
• Secretary, Colleges, Higher and Technical Education Department
• Secretary, Communication Works, Physical Planning and Housing Department
• Secretary, Energy Department
• Secretary, Finance Department
• Secretary, Fisheries Department
• Secretary, Forest and Wildlife Department
• Secretary, Health Department
• Secretary, Industries and Commerce Department
• Secretary, Irrigation Department
• Secretary, Livestock and Dairy Development Department
• Secretary, Local Government and Rural Development
• Secretary, Mines And Minerals Development Department
• Secretary, Public Health Engineering Department
• Secretary, School Education Department
• Secretary, Science and Information Technology Department
• Secretary, Transport Department
• Secretary, Urban Planning & Development Department
• Secretary, Women Development Department
• Director General, Provincial Disaster Management Authority, Balochistan
• Vice Chancellor of a university in Balochistan
• A journalist from Balochistan having national repute
• A representative from Balochistan Chamber of Commerce and Industries
• A representative from Civil Society Organisations
• An eminent climate change expert
• Director General, Balochistan Environmental Protection Agency
• Head of Climate Change Cell, Climate Change Cell (Secretary)
Gender, Disability, and Social Inclusion
To ensure that the BCCP implementation is cognisant of gender equality, disability, and social inclusion (GEDSI) dimensions, the following specific considerations will serve as a crosscutting thread across all sectoral actions:
Gender-Responsive Actions: Ensure that all strategies, and action plans developed under the BCCP are gender-responsive. This includes considering the specific vulnerabilities and needs of women and addressing gender disparities.
• Capacity Building:
Implement capacity-building programs focused on women’s empowerment, leadership, and participation in climate-related decision-making processes.
• Livelihood Opportunities:
Promote income-generating opportunities for women in climate-resilient sectors, such as sustainable agriculture, renewable energy, and climate-smart entrepreneurship. Education and Awareness: Conduct awareness campaigns and educational programs to inform women about climate change impacts, adaptation measures, and their rights related to climate resilience.
• Access to Resources:
Ensure that women have equal access to resources, including land, credit, and technology, to participate in climate adaptation and mitigation activities.
• Women’s Health:
Address the health implications of climate change for women, such as the increased risk of waterborne diseases during floods or heat-related illnesses during heatwaves.
• Disability Dimensions
Inclusive Planning: Incorporate disability-inclusive planning into all aspects of the BCCP, including infrastructure development, disaster risk reduction, and capacity building.
• Accessible Information:
Ensure that climate-related information and early warning systems are accessible to persons with disabilities, including those with sensory impairments. • Accessible Infrastructure: Invest in accessible infrastructure to enable the safe evacuation and transportation of persons with disabilities during extreme weather events.
• Training and Employment:
Promote training and employment opportunities for persons with disabilities in climate-resilient sectors, emphasizing their inclusion in the workforce.
• Healthcare Access:
Address the unique healthcare needs of persons with disabilities during climate-related emergencies and disasters.
• Advocacy and Representation:
Facilitate the participation and representation of persons with disabilities in climate adaptation and mitigation decision-making processes.
• Youth Engagement:
Engage youth in climate action by creating youth-led initiatives, climate clubs, and educational programs to raise awareness about climate change and its impacts.
• Skill Development:
Provide opportunities for youth to develop skills in climate-resilient sectors, such as renewable energy, sustainable agriculture, and environmental conservation.
• Youth Entrepreneurship:
Support youth entrepreneurship in climate-related industries, including start-up grants and mentorship programs.
• Education and Training:
Develop curricula that incorporate climate change education in schools and universities to Youth Leadership ensure that the youth are well-informed about climate issues. p: Encourage youth leadership in climate advocacy, community resilience, and innovative solutions to climate challenges.
• Youth Inclusion:
Ensure that youth are represented in climate decision-making bodies and that their perspectives are considered in policy development and implementation.
• Mental Health and Well-being:
Address the mental health and well-being of your climate otuthiiintahtee context of climate change, as they may experience anxiety and stress-related impacts. Including these considerations in the BCCP-led adaptation and mitigation actions will help ensure that the policy is comprehensive, equitable, and responsive to the diverse needs and perspectives of the population, including women, persons with disabilities, and youth.
Capacity Building and Awareness-Raising
The GoB commits to a comprehensive set of capacity-building and awareness-raising actions to complement effective implementation of the BCCP. These actions aim to strengthen Balochistan’s ability to address the complex challenges of climate change effectively and ensure that stakeholders at all levels are well-informed and actively engaged in climate-resilient practices. The key commitments include:
• Capacity Building for Government Departments:
Development and implementation of training programs for government officials, particularly in relevant departments such as agriculture, environment, and disaster management, to enhance their understanding of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation strategies.
• Local Government Training:
Provision of capacity-building initiatives to strengthen the capabilities of local government bodies, enabling them to integrate climate considerations into their development plans and actions.
• Educational Institutions and Curriculum Integration:
Collaboration with educational institutions to incorporate climate change topics and awareness campaigns into the school and college curriculum, fostering a climate-resilient mindset in future generations.
• Training for Health and Education Sector:
Development of specialized training programs for healthcare professionals and educators to understand and address the health and educational implications of climate change and disasters.
• Public Awareness Campaigns:
Development and execution of public awareness campaigns aimed at educating the general population about climate change impacts, mitigation measures, and the role individuals can play in addressing climate change.
• Community-Based Training:
Support training sessions in vulnerable communities, empowering them to better understand climate change risks, adaptation strategies, and sustainable practices.
• Climate Information Dissemination:
Establishment of an effective mechanism for the timely and relevant dissemination of climate information, including weather forecasts and disaster alerts, to keep communities informed and prepared.
• Engagement with Civil Society:
Partnerships with civil society organizations, non-governmental entities, and community leaders to create and support climate resilience and advocacy programs.
▪ Workshops and Seminars:
Organisation of workshops and seminars on climate change impacts and strategies, inviting experts to share their knowledge and experiences.
• Technical Training for Agriculture and Livestock Sectors:
Support for specialised training programs for farmers and herders to adopt climate-resilient practices in agriculture and livestock management.
• Women and Youth Engagement:
Development of tailored training programs for women and youth to ensure their active participation in climate change adaptation and mitigation initiatives.
Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting
The resilience building will depend largely upon an effective implementation of the BCCP, to be monitored regularly and reported to the BCCPIC as well as other decision-making forums for course correction. This would require a robust implementation and impact tracking framework and a set of specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) indicators.
Framework for Tracking Policy Implementation and Impact
A comprehensive framework will enable the tracking of BCCP implementation and its impact, ensuring that the policy remains effective and responsive to the evolving climate challenges faced by Balochistan. Such a framework will encompass the following elements to ensure its effectiveness:
• Key Performance Indicators (KPIs):
A set of specific and measurable KPIs for each policy objective and action will be developed. These KPIs will align with the broader goals of the BCCP, covering both mitigation and adaptation measures.
• Data Collection and Baseline Assessment:
A baseline assessment of relevant data, such as current emission levels, vulnerability to climate impacts, and available resources will be made. The data will regularly be collected and updated to track progress over time. The Climate Change Cell will collaborate with relevant government departments and research institutions for data collection.
• Reporting Mechanism:
A regular reporting mechanism, with designated reporting entities within each relevant department, will he implemented. These reports will include updates on the status of policy actions, expenditures, and achieved milestones. Reports will be submitted by the Climate Change Cell to the BCCPIC and made publicly available.
• Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E):
An M&E system to continuously assess the effectiveness of policy actions will be instituted. This system will include regular reviews and both internal evaluations and external third-party assessments to identify strengths and weaknesses in the policy’s implementation and adapt accordingly, addressing challenges and seizing new opportunities.
• Budget Allocation and Expenditure:
The BCCPIC will ensure that budget allocations for climate actions are adequately disbursed and a financial tracking mechanism is implemented to monitor the actual expenditure against the allocated budgets. Any budget shortfalls or surpluses will be reported to and addressed by the BCCPIC.
• Stakeholder Engagement:
There will be regular engagement with the relevant stakeholders, including the government departments, local communities, NGOs, academia, and the private sector, to gather feedback on policy implementation and its impact. Their insights will provide valuable information for making necessary adjustments.
• Climate Resilience and Impact Assessments:
The periodic climate resilience and long-term impact assessments will be conducted to evaluate the vulnerability of various sectors and geographical areas in Balochistan. These assessments will help identify emerging challenges and adapt policy actions accordingly. These may include multi-year impact assessments and research studies engaging the research institutions.
• Ecosystem Resilience:
To be monitored in terms of the progress in restoring and enhancing ecosystem resilience, including the planting of mangroves, afforestation, and habitat restoration projects.
• Local Community Engagement:
Measured through the level of local community engagement in climate initiatives, including the participation of vulnerable communities in climate adaptation and mitigation projects.
• Project Timelines and Milestones:
Assessing whether projects are completed within the specified timelines achieving key milestones. • Climate-Resilient Agriculture Adoption: Determining the adoption rate of climate-resilient agricultural practices and technologies, such as drought-resistant crops and efficient irrigation systems.
• Economic Resilience:
Evaluating the economic impact of climate actions, including job creation, economic diversification, and private sector engagement in climate-resilient practices.
• Health Resilience:
Evaluating the capacity of the healthcare system to respond to climate-induced health challenges, including the availability of vaccines, disaster preparedness, and the reduction of climate-sensitive diseases.
• Climate Adaptation at Local Levels:
Measuring the integration of climate adaptation into local-level project designs and plans, particularly in vulnerable areas.
• Educational Curriculum Inclusion:
Tracking the inclusion of climate change topics in the education curriculum at primary, secondary, and higher education levels.
• Public Sector Capacity Building:
Assessing the effectiveness of training programs and capacity-building efforts for government officials involved in policy implementation.
• Research and Innovation:
Monitoring the progress in research and innovation initiatives related to climate change vulnerabilities and impacts.
• Gender and Social Inclusion:
Measuring the participation of women, youth, and marginalised groups in climate action and their representation in decision-making processes.
Courtesy: REDD+ Pakistan