Climatic Regions of Pakistan | Edaphic Regions of Pakistan


CLIMATIC/EDAPHIC REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
(a) Edaphic Regions
·       The main soil groups occurring in Pakistan are summarised as follows:-
1.   Alluvial Soils
2.   Coastal Sands
3.   Saline and Alkaline Soils
4.   Arid and Desert soil
5.   Tropical red soil
6.   Lateritic soils
7.   Piedmont soils
8.   Montane soil of the Himalayas
9.   Skeletal soils
1.   ALLUVIAL SOILS:
§  Usually deep but may show marked stratification of sand, clay, and loam.
§  Mostly found in Indus plain.
2.   COASTAL SANDS:
§  Mainly quartzitic or calcareous sands with little silt and clay and low concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus found along the coast of Karachi.
3.   SALINE AND ALKALINE SOILS:
§  Developed in drier parts of the country in Indus plain.
4.   ARID AND DESERT SOILS:
§  Typical of much of the plains of Pakistan often Alkaline with the low organic matter.
5.   TROPICAL RED SOIL:
§  Mainly derived from Alluvium, Neutral or Acidic containing ferrie contents.
6.   LATERITIC SOILS:
§  Characteristics of the tropics with monsoon rainfall, usually Acidic, poor in mineral nutrients and have a low silica/sesquioxide ratio.
7.   PIEDMONT SOILS:
§  Brown earth, slightly acidic or Neutral with high base status.
8.   MONTANE SOIL OF THE HIMALAYAS:
§  Derived from a very wide range of parent materials and more or less immature.
§  Mostly with adequate mineral nutrients and humus.
§  Soils are usually acidic.
9.   SKELETAL SOILS:
§  Occurring mainly on a highland in the dry regions of the Himalayas and western mountains.
§  They support usually xerophytic or degraded communities of vegetation.
o   GRASSLANDS
·    All grasslands have a common climate characterized by high rate of evaporation, periodic severe droughts.
·       A Rolling to flat terrain.
·       They occur largely where the rainfall between 25-75 cm/year.
·       Too light which neither supports the growth of forest nor encourages a desert.
o   PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF PAKISTAN
·       It covers an area of 7,86,095 sq. Km.
·       Nearly 60% of Pakistan consist of mountainous terrain and elevated plateaux; the rest is lowland, generally below 300 meters.
·       The highlands comprise the Himalayas and adjacent mountain ranges to the North, Rising to 8611 meters at the top of K-2, the world second highest peak; the Central Sulaiman Range and its southern extensions (RAS KOH, SIAHAN, and KIRTHAR Ranges); and the Western Baluchistan Plateau.
·       The lowlands comprise the Indus river plain and a narrow stretch of coastline bordering the Arabian-sea.
o   PHYSIOGRAPHY OF PAKISTAN
·       The whole Northern Area of Pakistan is dominated by mountain Ranges and foothills of the Western Himalayas that are the catchment areas for the Indus River.
·       Snow-clad granite mountain in the far North Reach up to 7700 meters.
·       On the Western side dry, cold plateau and mountains of Baluchistan, Commonly termed as Baluchistan Plateau are present.
·       The Indus River and its main eastern tributaries, the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej arise from Snowfed Mountains and flow through Punjab and Sindh plains called INDUS BASIN PLAINS and into a wide delta before entering the Arabian Sea.
·       On the Eastern side of Indus Basin Plains are the sand dunes and desert of Cholistan and Thar.
o   CLIMATE OF PAKISTAN
·       Pakistan has extreme of climate, from Arid to Hot desert in the South-West and to frozen.
·       The Southern and Eastern parts of the country are under monsoon influences, with Rainfall mostly occurring in the hottest month of June and July.
·       Precipitation in the drier Western and Northern areas comes as Rain during winter, and in the North as Snow.
·       The Himalayan foothills of K.P.K, AJK and Northern Punjab receive much rain about 500 to 1500 mm during summer.
·       The Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan plains and desert get less than 250 mm of rain and summer temperature average well over 400 c in these areas.
·       The drier part of the country is South-Western Baluchistan.
·       The Rainfall is unpredictable in these areas and mean Annual Rainfall is about 50 mm.
·       The mean Winter Temperature of this area is as low as 40 c and mean summer temperature is 400 c.



o   ECOREGIONS OF PAKISTAN – FOREST TYPES OF PAKISTAN
·       An Ecoregion is a continuous geographical area across which the interaction of:
      Climate, Soil, and Topography are sufficiently uniform to permit the development of a similar type of vegetation.
·       Four major Ecoregions are recognized in Pakistan these include:-
      1.         Tropical Ecoregion
      2.         Sub-tropical Ecoregion
      3.         Temperate Ecoregion
      4.         Alpine Ecoregion
(b) CLIMATIC REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
                        OR
      DIFFERENT CLIMATIC ZONES OF PAKISTAN AND FOREST SPECIES OF THESE ZONES
·       Due to geographical position and physiographic Pakistan has a great diversity in its climate.
·       These major factor ultimately affect and modify rainfall and temperature which are essential elements of any climate.
·       Taking these two elements into account, the climate of the country has been divided into NINE ZONES by Qazi Saeed Ahmad Khan as follows:-
      1.         Marine Tropical Coast Land
      2.         Arid Sub-Tropical continental Low Land
      3.         Semi-Arid Sub-Tropical Continental High Land
      4.         Sub-humid Sub-Tropical Low Land
      5.         Sub-humid Sub-Tropical Continental High Land
      6.         Humid Sub-Tropical Continental High Land
      7.         Semi-Arid Sub-tropical Continental High Land
      8.         Arid Sub-Tropical Continental High Land
      9.         Extreme Arid



1.   TROPICAL MARINE COAST LAND
§  This Climatic Region is characterized by a steady sea breeze through out summer.
§  No major change in annual and diurnal temperature.
§  M.A.R.      =         200 mm
§  M.A.T.      =          320 c.
·       LOCALITIES/DISTRIBUTION:
i.    Makran Coast
ii.   Lasbela
iii. Lower Sindh
iv.  Western Karachi
v.   Central Hyderabad
vi.  Tarparker
·       SPECIES/VEGETATION/FLORISTIC:
i.   Avecininnia marine
ii.   Rhizophora conjugate
iii. Ceriops tagal
iv.  Aegiceras corniculata
v.   Sonneratia acida.
2.   ARID SUB-TROPICAL CONTINENTAL LOW LANDS
§  The climate of these regions are mainly hot.
§  These lands are characterized by great annual and diurnal temperature variations.
§  The rainfalls is mainly during the hot period.
§  M.A.R.      =          70 – 200 mm
§  M.A.T.      =          4 – 400 c
·       LOCALITIES:
i.    Kohistan
ii.   Kauhi
iii. Mid and Upper Sindh
iv.  South and West Punjab
v.   Western Bahawalpur
vi.  Thal
vii. Cholistan
·       SPECIES:
i.    Colligonum polygonoides
ii.   Thamarix indica
iii. Salvadora oleoides
iv.  Prosopis cineraria
v.   Acacia Senegal
vi.  Euphorba caudifolia
vii. Cappris decidua
viii.     Panicum turgidum
ix.  Calolropis procera
x.   Zizyphus nummularia
xi.  Salsola foetida
3.   SEMI-ARID SUB-TROPICAL CONTINENTAL LOW LAND
§  The climatic conditions are some how same as that of Arid Sub-Tropical Continental low lands but.
§  M.A.R.      =          200 – 500 mm
§  M.A.T.      =          4 – 400 c.
·       LOCALITIES:
i.    Faisalabad
ii.   Sahiwal
iii. Lahore
iv.  Bannu
v.   Peshawar
vi.  Sheikhupura
·       SPECIES:
i.    Acacia nilotica
ii.   Zizyphus maurtiana
iii. Prosopis cineraria
iv.  Calatropis aphylla
4.   SUB-HUMID SUB-TROPICAL CONTINENTAL LOW LAND
§  At least two humid months.
§  Winter and summer distinction colder than Semi-Arid and Arid Low Lands.
§  M.A.R.      =          500 – 100 mm
§  M.A.T.      =          3 – 380 c
·       LOCALITIES:
i.    North Strip of Indus plain
ii.   Potohar
iii. Sialkot
iv.  Gujrat
·       FOREST SPECIES:
i.    Dalbergia sissoo
ii.   Bombax ceiba
iii. Prosopis juliflora
iv.  Acacia nilotica
v.   Salvadora oloides
5.   HUMID SUB-TROPICAL CONTINENTAL HIGH LAND
§  Winter season is cold, snowy and foggy.
§  Late-winter and summer rains are common.
§  Climatic elements variant in the region over short distances due to variable altitude and direction of exposures.
§  Snowfall usually starts from late December or early January and end in February.
§  M.A.R.      =          > 1000 mm
§  M.A.T.      =          < 380 c



·       LOCALITIES:
i.    Himalayan mountains including intervening narrow valleys.
ii.   Murree
iii. Swat
iv.  Dir
·       FOREST SPECIES:
i.    Pinus roxburghii
ii.   Pinus wallichiana
iii. Abies pindrow
iv.  Picea simthiana
v.   Quercus incana
vi.  Cedrus deodara
vii. Juglans regia
viii. Asculus indica.
6.   SUB-HUMID SUB-TROPICAL CONTINENTAL HIGH LANDS
§  The same characteristics as that of Humid Sub-Tropical High Lands but
§  M.A.R.      =          500 – 1250 mm
§  M.A.T.      =          < 500 c
·       LOCALITIES:
i.    Himalayan mountains
ii.   Kaghan
iii. Ziarat
iv.  Chitral
·       FOREST SPECIES:
i. Juniperus excelsa
ii. Pinus geradiana



7.   ARID SUB-TROPICAL CONTINENTAL HIGH LANDS
§  The same characteristics as that of in Humid and Sub-Humid Sub-Tropical High Lands but
§  M.A.R.      =          < 200 mm
§  M.A.T.      =          < 500 c
·       LOCALITIES:
i.    Laddakh
ii.   Baltistan
iii. Gilgit
iv.  Quetta
v.   Jhalwan
·       FOREST SPECIES:
i.    Bitula utilis
ii.   Picea smithana
iii. Sophora spp.
8.   SEMI-ARID SUB-TROPICAL CONTINENTAL HIGHLANDS
§  Other characteristics are the same as that of Humid Sub-Tropical continental Highlands but
§  M.A.R.      =          200 – 500 mm
§  M.A.T.      =          < 500 c
·       LOCALITIES:
i.    Mid Himalaya
ii.   North Wazirstan
iii. Chitral
iv.  Swat
v.   Kohat
vi.  Zhob
vii. Loralai

·       FOREST SPECIES:
i.    Populus ciliata
ii.   B. utilis
iii. Acer spp.
9.   EXTREME ARID:
§  This is characterised by extreme aridity.
§  Rain mainly in cold season i.e. (January – February).
§  Sand blows almost through out the year.
§  Sever dust storms in mid May to September.
§  M.A.R.      =          < 70 mm
§  M.A.T.      =          4 – 400 c
·       LOCALITIES:
i.    Lasbela
ii.   Dadu
iii. Salt Range
iv.  Nushki
v.   Dalbanden
·       SPECIES:
i. Acacia senegal
ii. Indula grantluoides
Climatic Regions of Pakistan
SEE ALSO:  Sowing and Planting

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