FOREST – Definitions
Ø Forests are known as the World’s Air-conditioners and Earth Blanket.
Ø Trees are the lungs of the Earth.
Ø Forestry has been called the Foster mother of Agriculture.
Ø Environmental dimensions to the rise and fall of Nations.
Ø Economic deficits are what we borrow from each other;
Ecological deficits are what we take from the future generation.
Ø The need and importance of Forestry vary among the people.
Ø Divergent interest of Forest stake-holders have different forest perceptions as follows:-
1. An open stall for Fodder (GRAZIER)
2. A place of Hunting delight (HUNTER)
3. A Budget of multiple products (FARMER)
4. A means of ecological stability (Environmentalist)
5. Cash held in trees (OWNER)
6. A bonanza of profit (TIMBER TRADER)
7. Revenue generator (Govt.)
8. Multiple purpose Sustainable Renewable Resources (Forester)
The word forest is derived from the Latin “Root Foris” meaning out of doors.
Ø Forest can be defined in several ways:-
1. A tract of land mostly or predominantly covered with trees and woody vegetation and declared as forest by Govt. through notification. (Legal definition).
2. Forests are nature’s most bountiful and versatile Renewable Resources providing simultaneously and a wide Range of Economic, Environmental and cultural benefits and services.
3. Land bearing vegetation association dominated by trees capable producing wood or exerting an influence on local climate or on the water Regime or providing shelter for livestock and wildlife (FAO – 1960)
4. An area with contiguous tree stands of more than 10 Hectare and a canopy of more than 10%. (FAO – 2006)
5. Kyoto Forest is a minimum area of Land of 05-1 Hectare with trees crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10-30% with trees with the potential to reach a minimum height of 2-5 meters at maturity in-Situ. (The Kyoto Protocol)
FOREST VS JUNGLE
Ø The green plants of a forest thus organize themselves into different layers or strata.
Ø Jungle is a collection of trees, shrubs, grasses and herbs that are not grown in a regular manner.
Ø Forest can be classified on the basis of:-
1. mod of Regeneration
i. Seed or High Forests
ii. Coppice Forests
2. on the Basis of Age
i. Even-aged Forests
ii. Uneven-aged Forests
3. on the Basis of Composition
i. Pure Forests
ii. Mixed Forests
4. on the Basis of objects of management
i. Normal Forests
ii. Abnormal Forests
5. on the Basis of ownership/ Legal status
(a) state-owned Forests
i. Preserved Forests
ii. Protected Forests
ii. Cantonment/ Municipal Forests
iv. Resumed Lands.
(b) private owned Forests
i. Guzara Forests
ii. Chos Act Areas
iii. Section 38 Areas
iv. Communal Forests/ Village Forests
v. Farm Forests
Why forestry is still so backward?
There are four principal causes:-
The longtime which wood needs for its development.
The great variety of sites on which it grows.
The fact that forester who practice many writes but little. And he who writes much practice but little.
Govt. has less Forestry priority.
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