ENGLER AND PRANTL’S SYSTEM:
- Engler (1844-1930) and Prantl (1849-1893) were two German botanists who published their work in the form of a book.
- Engler considered the monocot to be more primitive than dicot.
- Engler and Pranth’s system was warmly adopted by American and European scientists but not by British. They were following Bentham and Hooder’s system in the light of modifications produced by Bossey and Hutchinson.
- According to Engler and Prantl:
- The most primitive plants are wind pollinated and most advanced plants are insect pollinated.
- Unisexual plants are more primitive and with the passage of time, no of sepals and petals are increased. Bisexual flowers are highly advanced flower ie bisexual flower is originated from the unisexual flower.
- Free sepals, free petals, free stamen, and carpels are the signs of primitive plants; where United is the sign of advanced plants.
- If calyxes are united it means that the plant is primitive. If calyx and corolla are united it means that plant is advanced whereas the union of all parts of flowers represents the most advanced stage.
- From various groups of gymnosperms, angiosperms are evolved monocots and then dicots. From angiosperms first evolved monocots and then dicots. It means that dicots are advanced whereas monocots are primitive.
- Engler united polypetalae and monochlamydeae into a separate group called Archichlamydeae in which dicot plants are included and in which the sepals and petals are free.
- Metachilamydae plants are evolved from Archichlamydeae.
- Female flowers evolve from megasporophyll and male from microsporophyll.
- Monocots have been divided and classified into 11 orders, 45 families and dictos are divided into 44 orders and 261 families.
MERITS AND DEMERITS OF THIS SYSTEM:
- The chief merit lies in the broad treatment of the entire plant kingdom.
- It gives an excellent illustration and phylogenetic arrangement of many groups.
- Joining up of Polypetlae and Monochlamydae into Archichlamydae
- Archiaceae is placed at the end of dicots because they are slightly evolved.
- Juncaceae, eridecae, Amaryllaceae, are placed close to Filiaceae.
- Gymnsperms treated separately in this system.
- This system is accepted all over the world.
- The union of choropetalae and opetalae is important over that of Bentham and Hooker’s system but in other respect not so. It is the system that far carry from the salix to buttercup.
- 2. Ementiferae and centrospermae are placed in the beginning of dicot even before Ranales. The folia nature of carpel is settle to the primitiveness of cryopylacae with two whorls of perianth.
COMPARISON OF BENTHAM & HOOKER AND ENGLER & PRANTLL’S SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION:
|BENTHAM & HOOKER||ENGLER & PRANTLL’S|
|1. This system is a natural one and is based on several common and constant natural characters of the plant.||1. This system is Phylogenetic and is based on the idea of evolution from less specialized to more specialized groups in ascending order.|
|2. Spermatophytes (seed plants) are classified into dicotyledons, gymnosperms and monocotyledons. The origin of angiosperms is not established and position of a gymnosperm is anomalous ie is b/w the dicotyledons and monocotyledons.||2. Spermatophytes are divided into gymnosperms and angiosperms. The origin of angiosperms is from hypothetical gymnosperms like coniferales. The position of gymnosperms in not anomalous. Angiosperms are considered to be polyphyletic.|
|3. Dicotyledons are placed before monocotyledons and probably dicotyledons are considered to be more primitive than monocotyledons. In all 202 families are recognized..||3. Monocotyledons are placed first as they are thought to be more primitive than the dicotyledons. The evolutions of dicots and monocots have taken place parallel from hypothetical gymnosperms. In all 303 families in 55 orders are recognized.|
|4. Monocotyledons are divided into 7 series beginning with Microspermeae and ending in Glumaceae||4. Monocotyledons are divided into 12 series beginning with Pandanales and ending in Microspermae.|
|5. Arborous and herbaceous habit are not considered as important in the classification of angiosperms.||5. like Bentham & Hooker’s system.|
|6. This system is light modification of de Condolle’s system of classification.||6. This system is based on Eichler’s system of classification.|
|7. The work of Bentham and Hooker was published in Genra Plntarum||7. The work of Engler and Prantl was published in Die Naturilichen Pflanzenfamilien.|
For correction and improvements please use the comments section below.
Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani is working as Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu (techurdu.net) Forestrypedia (forestrypedia.com), All Pak Notifications (allpaknotifications.com), Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.