F | Lexicon of Forestry

Factor: In multiplication, one of two or more numerical or algebraic components of a product. A whole number’s factors are the whole numbers that divide evenly into it (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12 are factors of 12). To factor, a counting number means to break it down into its prime number factors. To factor a Polynomial is to find its prime polynomial factors, a basic procedure for solving Algebraic Equations. According to the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, the prime factorization of any number or polynomial is unique.
Factorial: For any whole number, the product of all the counting numbers up to and including itself. It is indicated with an exclamation point: 4! (Read “four factorial”) is 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 = 24. In order for certain formulas involving Permutations and Combinations to work, 0! is defined to be 1. Factorials are particularly useful in calculating the number of ways an event can occur, for example, the number of possible orders of finish in a race.
Factor of Safety: The ratio b/w the ultimate bearing capacity and safe bearing capacity of a soil. Generally, a factor of safety of 2 is suitable for most of the buildings while 2.5 – 3 for heavy buildings.  (See also: Safe bearing capacity )

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Falcon: Any of nearly 60 species of diurnal BIRDS OF PREY in the family Falconidae, characterized by long, pointed wings and swift, powerful flight. The name is sometimes restricted to the more than 35 species of true falcons, genus Falco. Species range from 6 to 24 in. (15–60 cm) long. Females of the genus Falco are larger and bolder than males and are preferred for falconry. Falcons, found worldwide, commonly nest in tree holes or on cliff ledges. Some species capture birds in midair; others live on hares, mice, lizards, and insects.
Faller: A logger who specializes in felling trees. Also called “cutters” or “sawyers” in some parts of the West, “choppers” in the redwoods.
Fallout: Descent of radioactive materials from the atmosphere to the earth. Radioactivity in the atmosphere may arise from natural causes such as Cosmic rays as well as from nuclear explosions and atomic reactor operations. The explosion of Nuclear Weapons leads to three types of fallout: local, tropospheric, and stratospheric. The first, intense but relatively short-lived, occurs as larger radioactive particles are deposited near the site of the explosion. Tropospheric fallout occurs when the finer particles enter the Troposphere, and it spreads over a larger area in the month after the explosion. Stratospheric fallout, made of fine particles in the Stratosphere, may continue years after the explosion, and the distribution is nearly worldwide. Many different radioisotopes are formed during a nuclear explosion, but only long-lived isotopes (e.g., Cesium-137, Strontium-90) are deposited as stratospheric fallout.
Famine: Extreme and protracted shortage of food, resulting in widespread hunger and a substantial increase in the death rate. General famines affect all classes or groups in the region of food shortage; class famines affect some classes or groups much more severely than others; regional famines affect only a particular region of a country. Causes may be natural or human. Natural causes include drought, flooding, unfavorable weather conditions, plant disease, and insect infestation. The chief human cause is war; others include overpopulation, bad distribution systems, and high food prices. Several severe famines occurred in the 20th century, including those in China (1928–29, 5–10 million dead; 1958–62, up to 20 million), Russia (1921–22, 1.25–5 million; 1932–34, 6–8 million), India (1943–44, 1.5 million), Cambodia (1975–79, 1 million), and sub-Saharan Africa.
Family: In Pedology, a group of soils that have similar profiles and include one or more subdivisions called series. The primary characteristics that define each of the nearly 6,600 identified soil families are the physical and chemical properties—especially texture, mineral composition, temperature, and depth—that are important for the growth of plants.
Fan-shaped Leaves: Fan-shaped leaves are leaves that are shaped by an oriental fan, very narrow at the base where the petiole attaches and very broad at the apex.  Ginkgo trees are a good example of this type of leaf.

Farm Services Agency (FSA): The branch of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) that administers cost-sharing programs for such forestry practices as tree planting and timber stand improvement.

Fasciscular cambium: Fasciscular cambium is the portion of the vascular cambium that is derived from the residual procambium within the vascular bundle.
Fascism: Philosophy of government that stresses the primacy and glory of the state, unquestioning obedience to its leader, subordination of the individual will to the state’s authority, and harsh suppression of dissent. Martial virtues are celebrated, while liberal and democratic values are disparaged. Fascism arose during the 1920s and ’30s partly out of fear of the rising power of the working classes; it differed from contemporary communism (as practiced under Joseph Stalin) by its protection of business and landowning elites and its preservation of class systems. The leaders of the fascist governments of Italy (1922–43), Germany (1933–45), and Spain (1939–75)—Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, and Francisco Franco—were portrayed to their publics as embodiments of the strength and resolve necessary to rescue their nations from political and economic chaos. Japanese fascists (1936–45) fostered belief in the uniqueness of the Japanese spirit and taught subordination to the state and personal sacrifice.
Fasteners: In construction, connectors between structural members. Bolted connections are used when it is necessary to fasten two elements tightly together, especially to resist shear and bending, as in column and beam connections. Threaded metal Bolts are always used in conjunction with nuts. Another threaded fastener is the Screw, which has countless applications, especially for wood construction. The wood screw carves a mating thread in the wood, ensuring a tight fit. Pins are used to keep two or more elements in alignment; since the pin is not threaded, it allows for rotational movement, as in machinery parts. Riveted connections, which resist shearing forces, were in wide use for steel construction before being replaced by welding. The rivet, visibly prominent on older steel bridges, is a metal pin fastener with one end flattened into a head by hammering it through a metal gusset plate. The common nail, less resistant to shear or pull-out forces, is useful for cabinet and finishing work, where stresses are minimal.
Fault: In geology, a fracture in the rocks of the Earth’s crust, where compressional or tensional forces cause the rocks on the opposite sides of the fracture to be displaced relative to each other. Faults range in length from a few inches to hundreds of miles, and displacement may also range from less than an inch to hundreds of miles along the fracture surface (the fault plane). Most, if not all, Earthquakes are caused by rapid movement along faults. Faults are common throughout the world. A well-known example is the San Andreas Fault near the western coast of the U.S. The total movement along this fault during the last few million years appears to have been several miles. (Pic at earthquake)

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Fauna: All the species of animals found in a particular region, period, or special environment. Five faunal realms, based on terrestrial animal species, are generally recognized: Holarctic, including Nearactic (North America) and Paleartic (Eurasia and northern Africa); Paleotropical (tropical Africa and Southeast Asia); Neotropical (Central and South America); Australian; and Antarctic.
Faunal succession, law of: Observation that taxonomic groups of animals follow each other in time in a predictable manner. Sequences of successive strata and their corresponding fauna have been matched to form a composite picture detailing the history of the Earth, especially from the beginning of the Cambrian Period. Faunal succession is the fundamental tool of Stratigraphy and is the basis for the geologic time scale. Floral (plant) succession is also an important tool. Climate and conditions throughout the Earth’s history can be studied using the successive groups because living organisms reflect their environment.
Feces or excrement or stools: Solid bodily waste discharged from the colon through the anus during defecation. Normal feces are 75% water. The rest is about 30% dead bacteria, 30% indigestible food matter, 10–20% cholesterol and other Fats, 10–20% inorganic substances, and 2–3% protein. The colour and odour are produced by bacterial action on chemical constituents. Many disorders produce abnormalities in the feces, usually constipation or diarrhea. Bleeding in the stomach or intestines may show up as dark red to black stools. Tests are needed to detect small amounts (occult blood). High fat content usually indicates disease of the pancreas or small intestine. Many diseases are spread by contamination of food with feces of infected persons.
Feed: Foodstuff grown or developed for Livestock and Poultry to maintain the health of the animals and to increase the quality of such end products as meat, milk, or eggs. Modern feeds are derived from crops grown specifically for research or from by-products of surplus crops or foods produced for human consumption. Feeds are categorized as either concentrates (high in digestibility of nutrients but low in fibre content) or roughages (high in fibre and comparatively low in digestive nutrients). Most diets consist of a combination of feeds.
Feldspar: Any of a group of aluminosilicate (containing aluminum and silicon) minerals that also contains calcium, sodium, or potassium. Feldspars are the most common minerals in the Earth’s Crust and are the major component in nearly all Igneous Rocks found on the Earth, on the Moon, and in some meteorites. They also are common in metamorphic and some sedimentary rocks. Their complex chemical and structural properties make them useful for interpreting the origins of rocks. Natural feldspars can be divided into Alkali and Plagioclase feldspars.
Felling: The cutting of standing trees.  

Felling area: (See: Coupe)

Felling series/ Cutting series: An area of forest delimited for management purposes and forming the whole or part of a working plan.  
Feral: It describes animals or plants that live or grow in the wild after having been domestically reared or cultivated.
Fern: Any of about 10,000–12,000 species (division Filicophyta) of nonflowering Vascular Plants that have true roots, stems, and complex leaves and reproduce by Spores. Though ferns were once classified with the primitive Horsetails and Club Mosses, botanists have since made a clear distinction between the scale-like, one-veined leaves of those plants and the more complexly veined fronds of the ferns, which are more closely related to the leaves of Seed Plants. Ferns come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Many are small, fragile plants; others are tree-like. The life cycle is characterized by an Alternation of Generations between the mature, fronded form (the sporophyte) familiar in greenhouses and gardens and the form that strongly resembles a moss or liverwort (the gametophyte). Ferns are popular houseplants. The life cycle of the fern (Illustrated in pic) (1) Clusters (sori) of sporangia (spore cases) grow on theundersurface of mature fern leaves. (2) Released from its spore case, the haploid spore is carried to the ground, where it germinates into a tiny, usually heartshaped, gametophyte (gamete-producing structure), anchored to the ground by rhizoids (rootlike projections). (3) Under moist conditions, mature sperm are released from the antheridia and swim to the egg-producing archegonia that have formed on the gametophyte’s lower surface. (4) When fertilization occurs, a zygote forms and develops into an embryo within the archegonium. (5) The embryo eventually grows larger than the gametophyte and becomes a sporophyte.
Fertility: Ability of an individual or couple to reproduce through normal sexual activity. About 80% of healthy, fertile women are able to conceive within one year if they have intercourse regularly without Contraception. Normal fertility requires the production of enough healthy Sperm by the male and viable Eggs by the female, successful passage of the sperm through open ducts from the male Testes to the female fallopian tubes, penetration of a healthy egg, and implantation of the fertilized egg in the lining of the Uterus (See Reproductive System). A problem with any of these steps can cause Infertility.

Fertilization: Reproductive process in which a male sex cell (sperm) unites with a female sex cell (egg). During the process, the chromosomes of the egg and sperm will merge to form a zygote, which will divide to form an embryo. In humans, sperm travel from the vagina through the uterus to a fallopian tube, where they surround an egg released from an ovary usually two or three days earlier. Once one sperm has fused with the egg cell membrane, the outer layer becomes impenetrable to other sperm. (See also Cross-Fertilization, Self-Fertilization). (See illustration).

Fertilizer application: See fertilizing

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Fertilizing: The application of chemical or organic fertilizers with the objective of increasing the unit area soil productivity.

http://www.puc.edu/Faculty/Gilbert_Muth/art0059.jpgFibers: Fibers are one of the two types of sclerenchyma.  Sclereids are the other cell type.  Fibers are very long and narrow with a very small lumen.  They are dead when fully mature and functioning. The cell walls contain lignin and therefore take up the red stain.  Their function in the plant is strengthening. (Pic)

Fibrous: in elongated threads: describes a mineral that crystallizes in thin elongated threads, e.g. asbestos

Field germination: Generally, a measure of the percentage, by number, of seeds in a given sample that germinates and produce a seedling, irrespective of subsequent seedling survival.
Field nursery: A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters.
Fig: Any plant of the genus Ficus, in the Mulberry Family, especially Ficus carica, the common fig. Yielding the well-known figs of commerce, F. carica is native to an area from Asiatic Turkey to northern India, but natural seedlings grow in most Mediterranean countries, where figs are used extensively, both fresh and dried. It is a bush or small tree with broad, rough, deciduous leaves (See Deciduous Tree). Hundreds of different varieties are grown in various parts of the world. The fig was one of the first fruit trees to come under cultivation. Its fruit contains significant amounts of calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and iron.
Filature: The silk fiber is obtained from the cocoons by a delicate process known as reeling, or filature
Filiform: Threadlike.

Filled seed: See full seed

Filler: A tree or species of inferior value, retained in thinning or cleaning, in the absence of any better.
Fill planting: The planting of trees in areas of inadequate stocking to achieve the desired level of stocking, either in plantations or areas of natural regeneration.

Fin: a flexible organ, sometimes paddle-shaped or fan-shaped, extending from the body of a fish or other water animal and helping in balance and propulsion

Final cutting: The last of a series of progressive regeneration cuts which removes the last of the original seed trees when the regeneration is considered established. 

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Final yield: All the material that counts against the prescribed yield derived from the principal felling in a regular forest. (IFR)

Financial rotation: A rotation determined by financial considerations eg that yielding the highest rate of interest.

Financial yield: The rate of compound interest realized during a rotation on all the money spent on a forest crop, taking into account all items of expenditure and income during that rotation. (BCFT)
Fir: Properly, any of about 40 species of trees that make up the genus Abies, in the Pine family. Many other evergreen conifers (e.g., Douglas fir, Hemlock fir) are also commonly called firs. True firs are native to North and Central America, Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. They are distinguished from other genera in the pine family by their needle like leaves, which grow directly from the branch and have bases, shaped like suction cups, that leave conspicuous circular scars when the leaves fall. North America boasts 10 native species of fir, found chiefly from the Rocky Mountains westward. The wood of most western NorthAmerican firs is inferior to that of pine or spruce but is used for lumber and pulpwood. Of the two fir species that occur in the eastern U.S. and Canada, the better known is the balsam fir (A. balsamea), a popular ornamental and Christmas tree.
Fireproofing: Use of fire-resistant materials in a building to prevent structural collapse and allow safe egress of occupants in case of fire. The fire-resistive ratings of various materials and constructions are established by laboratory tests and usually specified in terms of hours a material or assembly can be expected to withstand exposure to fire. Building codes require application of cementitious material or insulation to structural steel frames, fire-resistant construction (e.g., using concrete block) of enclosures around exits, flame-spread ratings of finish materials such as carpeting and wall coverings, and use of such inherently fire-resistant materials as reinforced concrete and heavy timber.
Firebreak: An existing barrier, or one constructed before a fire occurs, from which all or most of the inflammable materials have been removed.
Fire control: All activities concerned with the suppression of a forest fire.
Fire hazard reduction: Any treatment of fuels that reduces the threat of ignition and spread of fire. 
Fire line: A trail around a fire, dug down to mineral soil and clear of all debris. One type of firebreak.
Fire Pack: Firefighters use these to carry tools, equipment, and supplies on their backs.

Fire prevention: Those fire-control activities concerned with the attempt to reduce the number of fires through education, hazard reduction, and law enforcement

Fire resistant clothing: These yellow shirts and green pants are the trademarks of wildland firefighters.

Fire scar: An injury or wound in the bole of a tree caused or accentuated by fire.

Fire season: The period or periods of the year during which fires are likely to occur, spread, do sufficient damage, and otherwise warrant organized fire control. In Pakistan, this season is soon after the monsoon
Fire shelter: Firefighters use this personal protection as a last resort if a wildfire traps them and they cannot escape. Firefighters can get into the tent-like shelter, made of heat reflective material, in about 25 seconds.
Fire Shovel: These shovels, specifically designed for constructing a fireline, feature a tapered blade with both edges sharpened for scraping, digging, grubbing, cutting, and throwing dirt.

Fire suppression: All the work of extinguishing a fire after its detection. Direct: A method where the edge of the fire is extinguished directly. Indirect: A method where the control line is located along a favorable firebreak and the intervening strip between the fire and the firebreak is backfired. One-lick: A system of managing personnel on a fire, where the entire crew constructing the control line moves forward without changing relative positions in the line. As they move forward, they do “one lick of work,” then advance one or more steps. The number of steps is controlled primarily by the number engaged and the consequent proper spacing of licks, in order that the control line may be completed and the fire extinguished when the last person has passed over the line.

First arrival: The first recorded signal attributed to seismic wave travel from a source.
Fiscal policy: Measures employed by governments to stabilize the economy, specifically by adjusting the levels and allocations of taxes and government expenditures. When the economy is sluggish, the government may cut taxes, leaving taxpayers with extra cash to spend and thereby increasing levels of Consumption. An increase in public-works spending may likewise pump cash into the economy, having an expansionary effect. Conversely, a decrease in government spending or an increase in taxes tends to cause the economy to contract. Fiscal policy is often used in tandem with Monetary Policy. Until the 1930s, fiscal policy aimed at maintaining a balanced budget; since then it has been used “countercyclically,” as recommended by John Maynard Keynes, to offset the cycle of expansion and contraction in the economy. Fiscal policy is more effective at stimulating a flagging economy than at cooling an inflationary one, partly because spending cuts and tax increases are unpopular and partly because of the work of Economic Stabilizefrs.

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Fish: Any of more than 24,000 species of cold-blooded Vertebrates found worldwide in fresh and salt water. Living species range from the primitive Lampreys and Hagfishes through the cartilaginous Sharks, Skates, and Rays to the abundant and diverse Bony Fishes. Species range in length from 0.4 in. (10 mm) to more than 60 ft (20 m). The body is generally tapered at both ends. Most species that inhabit surface or mid-water regions are streamlined or are flattened side to side; most bottom dwellers are flattened top to bottom. Tropical species are often brightly coloured. Most species have paired fins and skin covered with either bony or tooth like scales. Fish generally respire through gills. Most bony fishes have a swim bladder, a gas-filled organ used to adjust swimming depth. Most species lay eggs, which may be fertilized externally or internally. Fishes first appeared more than 450 million years ago.
Fishing or sports fishing: Sport of catching fish—freshwater or saltwater—typically with rod, line, and hook. Fishing is as old as the human ability to use tools to capture prey. The first significant modern innovations, including use of a reel, a rod with line guides, and a hook with an offset point, came in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Horsehair was used as line until the mid 19th century, when it was replaced by textile materials; these in turn were replaced by nylon in the 1930s.Wood and bamboo rods yielded to rods of fibreglass and other synthetic materials. Forms of sport fishing practiced today include fly fishing (freshwater), in which a fly-like hook is repeatedly cast upon the water surface to attract biting fish; bait fishing (fresh- and saltwater), in which live or artificial bait is set or drawn below the surface; and big-game fishing (saltwater), in which heavy-duty tackle is used to land large marine species (including tuna, marlin, and swordfish) from a motorized boat.
Fishing industry: Taking, processing, and marketing of fish and other seafood from oceans, rivers, and lakes. Fishing is one of the primary forms of food production; it ranks with farming and probably predates it. The fishing industry employs more than 5 million people worldwide. The major countries engaged in marine fishing are Japan, China, the U.S., Chile, Peru, India, South Korea, Thailand, and the countries of northern Europe. The aquatic life harvested includes both marine and freshwater species of fish, shellfish, mammals, and seaweed. They are processed into food for human consumption, animal feeds, fertilizers, and ingredients for use in other commercial commodities.
Fish nurseries: A small pond which is established for rearing early stages of fish life ie hatching of fish.
Fish poisoning: Illness from eating varieties of poisonous fishes. Most cases are caused by one of three Toxins: ciguatera poisoning, from fishes in whose flesh Dinoflagellates have produced toxins; tetraodon poisoning, from a nerve toxin in certain pufferlike fish (fugu); and scombroid poisoning from spoilage bacteria in fish of the mackerel family. Shellfish poisoning from eating certain mussels, clams, and oysters has in some instances been traced to the plankton they sometimes feed on.
Five-Year Plans: Method of planning economic growth over limited periods, through the use of quotas, used first in the Soviet Union and later in other socialist states. In the Soviet Union, the first Five-Year Plan (1928–32), implemented by Joseph Stalin, concentrated on developing heavy industry and collectivizing agriculture, at the cost of a drastic fall in consumer goods. The second plan (1933–37) continued the objectives of the first. Collectivization led to terrible famines, especially in the Ukraine, that caused the deaths of millions. The third (1938–42) emphasized the production of armaments. The fourth (1946–53) again stressed heavy industry and military buildup, angering the Western powers. In China, the first Five-Year Plan (1953–57) stressed rapid industrial development, with Soviet assistance; it proved highly successful. Shortly after the second plan began in 1958, the Great Leap Forward was announced; its goals conflicted with the five-year plan, leading to failure and the withdrawal of Soviet aid in 1960.
Flagellum: Hair like structure that acts mainly as an organelle of movement in the cells of many living organisms. Characteristic of the protozoan group Mastigophora, flagella also occur on the sex cells of algae, fungi (See fungus), mosses, and slime molds. Flagellar motion causes water currents necessary for respiration and circulation in sponges and cnidarians. Most motile bacteria move by means of flagella. The structures and patterns of movement of flagella in prokaryotes differ from those in eukaryotes.
Flake-board: See Particle board
Flashboard Riser: A versatile water control device used in the coastal plain to manage water movement. Water levels are physically altered to control fire and maintain beneficial soil characteristics to reduce soil oxidation and soil damage caused by heavy equipment.

Flash point: The temperature at which a material will burst into flame

Flat or Straight planting: Planting trees directly into the ground without beds or, in some cases, without first moving logging debris.
Flea: Any member of 1,600 species and subspecies of small, wingless, bloodsucking (parasitic) Insects (order Siphonaptera), found from the Arctic Circle to the Arabian deserts. Specialized anatomical structures allow the flea to attach itself to the skin of mammals or birds and consume their blood. Though domestic cats and dogs are well-known hosts, rodents are the mammals most commonly afflicted by fleas. The adult flea is 0.04–0.4 in. (1–10 mm) long and lives from a few weeks to more than a year. Powerful leg muscles allow it to jump distances up to 200 times its body length. Flea infestations have had enormous consequences; fleas were the principal transmission agents of the bubonic Plague in the medieval epidemics.

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Fleck: White to tan necrotic lesions up to a few millimeters in length or diameter usually confined to the upper surface of leaves.
Flemish bond: A style of brickwork in which bricks laid with the end facing out headers alternate with those laid lengthwise stretchers, horizontally and vertically (Pic at English bond)
Flicker: Any of six species of New World Woodpeckers (genus Colaptes) noted for spending much time on the ground eating ants. The sticky saliva of the flicker is alkaline, perhaps to counteract the formic acid that ants secrete. Its bill is more slender than that of most woodpeckers and is slightly down-curved. Most flickers have a white rump, black breast band, and varied head markings, and most are about 13 in. (33 cm) long.
Flood: High-water stage in which water overflows its natural or artificial banks onto normally dry land, such as a river inundating its floodplain. Uncontrollable floods likely to cause considerable damage commonly result from excessive rainfall in a brief period, but they may also result from ice jams during the spring rise in rivers, and from Tsunamis. Common measures of flood control include improving channels, constructing protective levees and storage reservoirs, and implementing programs of soil and forest conservation to retard and absorb runoff from storms.
Flood plain: An area of low-lying ground adjacent to a river that is subject to flooding.
Floor: Rigid building assembly that divides space horizontally into stories. It forms the bottom of a room. It may consist of joist-supported wood planks or panels, decking or panels supported by wood or steel beams, a slab of stone or concrete on the ground, or a reinforced-concrete slab carried by concrete beams and columns. The floor assembly must support its own dead load plus the live load of occupants, activities, and furnishings. The horizontal supports beneath its top surface—and the vertical supports into which they frame—must be sufficiently large and spaced closely enough to prevent sagging of the assembly.
Floor covering: Finish material on floors, including wood strips, parquet, linoleum, vinyl, asphalt tile, rubber, cork, epoxy resins, ceramic tile, and carpeting. Wood-strip flooring, attached to a subfloor of plywood, is most popular, especially for residences. Vinyl tiles and sheets have displaced Linoleum in most residential and commercial work. Nonslip rubber and cork are used for commercial and industrial applications. Terrazzo provides a hard, durable surface for public spaces. The Greeks used pebble mosaics as early as the 8th century BC. Tessellated pavement (mosaics of regularly shaped cubes) appeared in the Hellenistic Age and by the 1st century AD had come into popular use in and around buildings throughout the Roman Empire. Inlaid stone, popular in Byzantine, Renaissance, and Gothic architecture, is now only occasionally applied in lobbies and entranceways of grand spaces.
Flora: All species of plants that are found in a particular region, period, or special environment. Six floral kingdoms are commonly distinguished: Boreal (Holarctic), Paleotropical, Neotropical, South African (Capensic), Australian, and Antarctic. These kingdoms are further broken down into
subkingdoms and regions, over which there is some dispute.
Floret: A small flower in a flower head or other cluster
Floriculture: Branch of ornamental horticulture concerned with growing and marketing flowers and ornamental plants, as well as with flower arrangement. Because flowers and potted plants are largely produced in plant-growing structures in temperate climates, floriculture is largely thought of as a greenhouse industry; however, many flowers are cultivated outdoors. Both the production of bedding plants and the production of cuttings to be grown in greenhouses or for indoor use (foliage plants) are usually considered part of floriculture. (See also Nursery).
Flower: Reproductive portion of any Flowering plant (angiosperm). Popularly, the term applies especially when part or all of the reproductive structure is distinctive in colour and form. Flowers present a multitude of combinations of colour, size, form, and anatomical arrangement. In some plants, individual flowers are very small and are borne in a distinctive cluster (inflorescence). Each flower consists of a floral axis that bears the essential organs of reproduction (Stamens and Pistils) and usually accessory organs (sepals and petals); the latter may serve both to attract pollinating insects (See pollination) and to protect the essential organs. Flower parts are arrayed usually in whorls, but sometimes spirally. Four distinct whorls are common: the outer calyx (sepals), the corolla (petals), the androecium (stamens), and, in the centre, the gynoecium (pistils). The sepals are usually greenish and often resemble reduced leaves; the petals are usually colourful and showy. Pollen is produced in the stamens. A pollen-receptive stigma rests atop each pistil. The pistil, made up of one or more Carpels, encloses an ovary that contains the ovules, or potential Seeds. After fertilization, the ovary enlarges to form the Fruit. Flowers have been symbols of beauty in most civilizations of the world, and flower giving is still among the most popular of social amenities. The life cycle of a flowering plant. (see Illustration) (1) A pollen grain is released from the anther and settles on the stigma. (2) A pollen tube forms and grows through the style toward the ovule opening (micropyle). (3) Two of the nuclei (polar nuclei) in the ovule’s embryo sac migrate to the centre to form a single cell. Three cells migrate to the micropyle, and one enlarges to become the egg. Two sperm that have formed from mitotic division of the pollen grain’s generative cell enter the embryo sac through the micropyle. (4) One sperm fuses with the egg, resulting in a fertilized egg (zygote), which develops into an embryo. The second sperm fuses with the two polar nuclei to form the endosperm nucleus. (5) This nucleus divides to form a tissue (endosperm) that provides nutrients for the developing embryo.
Flower Buds: Flower buds are buds, located at the nodes that will develop into flowers when they get the signal from the environment that the days are of the right length.
Flowering plant: Any of the more than 250,000 species of angiosperms (division Magnoliophyta) having roots, stems, leaves, and well-developed conductive tissues (xylem and phloem). They are often differentiated from Gymnosperms by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (the ovary) within the flower, but this distinction is not always clear-cut. The division is composed of two classes: monocots and dicots (see Cotyledon). Monocots have flower parts in threes, scattered conducting strands in the stem, and usually prominent parallel veins in the leaves, and they lack a cambium. Dicots have flower parts in fours or fives, conducting strands arranged in a cylinder, a net-veined pattern in the leaves, and a cambium. Flowering plants reflect an immense diversity in habit, size, and form; they account for more than 300 families growing on every continent, including Antarctica. Flowering plants have adapted to almost every habitat. Most reproduce sexually by seeds via the specialized reproductive organs that are present in all flowers.
Fluid: Any liquid or gas that cannot sustain a shearing force when at rest and that undergoes a continuous change in shape when subjected to such a stress. Compressed fluids exert an outward pressure that is perpendicular to the walls of their containers. A perfect fluid lacks viscosity, but real fluids do not.
Fluke or trematode: Any member of almost 6,000 species of parasitic Flatworms. Flukes are found worldwide and range in size from about 0.2 to 4 in. (5–100 mm) long. They most commonly parasitize fish, frogs, and turtles, but also humans, domestic animals, and invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans. They include external parasites (ectoparasites), internal parasites (endoparasites), and semi-external parasites (those that attach to the lining of the mouth, to gills, or to the cloaca). Most flukes are flattened and leaflike or ribbonlike and have muscular suckers on the bottom surface, as well as hooks and spines, for attachment to the host. Fluke infestations may cause illness (e.g., schistosomiasis) or death in humans.  
Flume: An artificial water channel or chute used to transport logs or for studying water and sediment movement.
Fluorescence: Emission of electromagnetic radiation, usually visible light, caused by excitation of atoms in a material, which then reemit almost immediately (within about 10−8 seconds). The initial excitation is usually caused by absorption of energy from incident radiation or particles, such as X-rays or electrons. Because reemission occurs so quickly, the fluorescence ceases as soon as the exciting source is removed, unlike phosphorescence, which persists as an afterglow. A fluorescent light bulb is coated on the inside with a powder and contains a gas; electricity causes the gas to emit ultraviolet radiation, which then stimulates the tube coating to emit light. The pixels of a television or computer screen fluoresce when electrons from an electron gun strike them. Fluorescence is often used to analyze molecules, and the addition of a fluorescing agent with emissions in the blue region of the spectrum to detergents causes fabrics to appear whiter in sunlight. X-ray fluorescence is used to analyze minerals.
Fluorite or fluorspar: Common HALIDE MINERAL, calcium fluoride (CaF2); the principal fluorine mineral. Fluorite occurs most commonly as a vein mineral and is often associated with lead and silver ores; it also occurs in cavities, sedimentary rocks, pegmatites, and hot-springs areas. It is widespread in China, South Africa, Mongolia, France, Mexico, Russia, and the central U.S. Fluorite is used in the manufacture of steel, aluminum fluoride, artificial cryolite, and aluminum. It is used in glassmaking, in iron and steel enamelware, in the production of hydrofluoric acid, in the refining of lead and antimony, and (as a catalyst) in the manufacture of high-octane fuels.
Flush doors: These doors are made with ply wood and give better appearance. They are solid and semi-solid doors and are constructed in many ways. The size of flush door varies according to requirements. The general size is 0.9m * 1.00m to 1.2m * 2.1m.
Fly: In general, almost any small flying insect. In entomology, the term refers specifically to the approximately 85,000 species of two-winged, or “true,” flies (Dipterans). Other insects called flies have wing structures that differ from that of dipterans.
Flying fish: Any of about 40 species of oceanic fishes (family Exocoetidae). They are found worldwide in warm waters and are noted for their ability to “fly.” All species are less than 18 in. (45 cm) long and have wing like, rigid fins and an unevenly forked tail. Two-winged species have only the pectoral fins enlarged; four-winged species have both the pectoral and the pelvic fins enlarged. Rather than flying, they actually glide after jumping from the water. They can make several consecutive glides; the strongest fliers can travel as much as 600 ft (180 m) in a single glide, and compound glides may cover 1,300 ft (400 m). The behaviour is primarily a means of escaping predators.
Flying squirrel: Any member of two distinct groups of Rodents that are able to make gliding leaps by means of parachute-like membranes connecting their forelegs and hind legs on each side. North American and Eurasian flying squirrels, in the squirrel family (Sciuridae), are slender, long-limbed forest dwellers with soft fur and large eyes. They are 3–24 in. (8–60 cm) long, excluding the often-flattened tail, and feed on nuts, fruit, other plant material, and insects. They seldom descend to the ground. They can glide 200 ft (about 60 m) or more from one tree to another. The scaly-tailed flying squirrels of Africa (family Anomaluridae) have rows of scales on the underside of their tufted tail that help them climb and cling to trees. They are similar in appearance and feeding preferences to the sciurids and are about 4–16 in. (10–40 cm) long without the tail.
Flyway: 1. The traditional route taken by migrating birds is known as Fly way. 2. The route which is being followed by birds in reaching the wetland destination. 3. It is a major migratory route taken each year by millions of waterfowl and other birds.
Flyway No 4: This term is used for Indus Flyway.

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Focal zone: See Rupture Zone.
Focus: That point within the Earth from which originates the first motion of an earthquake and its elastic waves. (Pic at earthquake)
Fog: Cloud of small water droplets near ground level that is dense enough to reduce horizontal visibility to less than about 3,000 ft (1,000 m). Fog may also refer to clouds of smoke particles (Smog), ice particles, or mixtures of these components. When visibility is more than 3,000 ft, the phenomenon is termed mist or haze, depending on whether it is caused by water drops or by solid particles. Fog is formed by the condensation of water vapour on condensation nuclei that are always present in natural air. The most stable fogs occur when the surface is colder than the air above. Fogs can also occur when cold air moves over a warm, wet surface and becomes saturated by the evaporation of moisture from the surface. Convection currents carry the fog upward as it forms, and it appears to rise as steam or smoke from the wet surface.
Fold: In geology, an undulation or wave in the stratified rocks of the Earth’s crust. Stratified rocks were originally formed from sediments that were deposited in flat, horizontal sheets, although in some places the strata are no longer horizontal but have warped. The warping may be so gentle that the inclination of the strata is barely perceptible, or it may be so pronounced that the strata of the two flanks are essentially parallel or nearly flat. Folds vary widely in size; the tops of large folds are commonly eroded away on the Earth’s surface.
Foliation: Planar arrangement of structural or textural features in any rock type, but particularly that resulting from the alignment of constituent mineral grains of a metamorphic rock along straight or wavy planes. Foliation commonly occurs parallel to original bedding, but it may not be obviously related to any other structural direction. Foliation is exhibited most prominently by sheety minerals, such as mica or chlorite.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): UN agency whose purpose is to improve nutrition and eliminate hunger by coordinating the efforts of governments in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. It also assists countries through research, training, development, and field missions, and it has helped with disaster and emergency relief. The FAO was established in 1945. Beginning in the 1960s, it concentrated on developing high-yield grain, eliminating protein deficiencies, supporting rural development, and encouraging agricultural exports. In the 1980s and ’90s, the FAO emphasized strategies for sustainable agriculture and rural development that were economically feasible, environmentally sound, and technologically appropriate to the skill level of the host country. The organization, which has more than 180 members, is governed by the biennial FAO conference, in which each member country, as well as the European Union, is represented. Its headquarters are in Rome. (See also World Food Programme).
Food chain: Sequence of transfer of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of food. These interconnected feeding relationships intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume or are consumed by more than one other type of organism. Plants and other photosynthetic organisms (such as Phytoplankton), which convert solar energy to food, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain (See Parasitism), a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by even smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter. Because energy, in the form of heat, is lost at each step, or trophic level, chains do not normally encompass more than four or five trophic levels.
Food poisoning: Acute gastrointestinal illness from eating foods containing Toxins. These toxins may be Poisons that occur naturally in plants and animals, chemical contaminants, or toxic products of microorganisms. Most cases are due to bacteria (including Salmonella and Staphylococcus) and their toxins (including Botulism). Some strains of E. Coli can cause severe illness. Chemical poisons include heavy metals, either from food or leached out from cookware by acidic foods. Food additives may have a long-term cumulative toxic effect. (See also Fish Poisoning).
Food preservation: Any method by which food is protected against spoilage by oxidation, bacteria, molds, and microorganisms. Traditional methods include dehydration, smoking, salting, controlled fermentation (including pickling), and candying; certain spices have also long been used as antiseptics and preservatives. Among the modern processes for food preservation are refrigeration (including freezing), canning, pasteurization, irradiation, and the addition of chemical preservatives.
Food web: Set of interconnected food chains by which energy and materials circulate within an ecosystem
Foot: In measurement, any of numerous lineal measures (commonly 9.8–13.4 in. [25–34 cm]) based on the length of the human foot. It is used exclusively in English-speaking countries. In most countries and in all scientific applications, the foot (with its multiples and subdivisions) has been superseded by the metre. In the U.S. the definition of the foot as exactly 30.48 cm took effect in 1959. (See also Inch; International System of Units; Yard).
Forage: 1. In range management, unharvested plant material of any kind available for animal consumption. When cut, it becomes feed. 2. Vegetable food, including corn and hay, of wild or domestic animals. Harvested, processed, and stored forage is called Silage. Forage should be harvested in early maturity to avoid a decrease in protein and fibre content as crops mature.
Forage value: The relative importance for grazing purposes of a range plant or plants as a whole on a range.
Forb: 1. A small herbaceous plant, unlike grass 2. Flowering herbaceous plants that are not grasses and sedges. As grasses and sedges do produce (relatively inconspicuous) flowers, the term “forbs” is often used (instead of “flowering plants”) to specify the plants with conspicuous flowers the grow among the grasses in a meadow or prairie. Technically, this use of the term excludes small shrubs (such as leadplant, Amorpha canescens) that may grow among the grasses and forbs, produce flowers, and have a form similar to herbaceous plants.
Forced burning: A special technique in broadcast or spot burning. A time is chosen when the lower layers of duff and flashy fuels are damp, but a major part of the slash can be forced to burn by setting a large number of fires in heavier concentrations of debris over the entire area. (SAF)
Foreign exchange: Purchase or sale of one national currency in exchange for another nation’s currency, usually conducted in a market setting. Foreign exchange makes possible international transactions such as imports and exports and the movement of capital between countries. The value of one foreign currency in relation to another is defined by the Exchange Rate.
Foreign policy: General objectives that guide the activities and relationships of one state in its interactions with other states. The development of foreign policy is influenced by domestic considerations, the policies or behaviour of other states, or plans to advance specific geopolitical designs. Leopold von Ranke emphasized the primacy of geography and external threats in shaping foreign policy, but later writers emphasized domestic factors. Diplomacy is the tool of foreign policy, and war, alliances, and international trade may all be manifestations of it.
Fore shock: A small tremor that commonly precedes a larger earthquake or main shock by seconds to weeks and that originates in or near the rupture zone of the larger earthquake.
Forest: [13th century < late Latin forestis (silva) “outside (woods)” < foris “out of doors”] There is no universally accepted definition of forest. This is because the minimum size of an area and the minimum density of trees on that area are subjectively selected by the different forest management organizations to meet their own needs. The definition used by the National Forest Inventory {http://www.brs.gov.au/nfi/} quantifies the minimum area, the smallest potential tree height and the amount of crown cover: 1. An area, incorporating all living and non-living components, that is dominated by trees having usually a single stem and a mature or potentially mature stand height exceeding 2 meters and with existing or potential crown cover of overstorey strata about equal to or greater than 20 per cent. 2. A large area of land covered in trees and other plants growing close together, or the trees growing on it; A plan community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, usually with a closed canopy. (SAF modif.); An area set aside for the production of timber and other forest produce, or maintained under woody vegetation for certain indirect benefits which it provides, eg climatic or protective. (IFR modif.); In the legal sense, an area of land proclaimed to be forest under a Forest Act or Ordinance.  
Forest: Complex ecosystem in which trees are the dominant life-form. Tree-dominated forests can occur wherever the temperatures rise above 50 °F (10 °C) in the warmest months and the annual precipitation is more than 8 in. (200 mm). They can develop under various conditions within these limits, and the kind of soil, plant, and animal life differs according to the extremes of environmental influences. In cool, high-latitude sub-polar regions, taiga (boreal) forests are dominated by hardy Conifers. In more temperate high-latitude climates, mixed forests of both conifers and broad-leaved Deciduous Trees predominate. Broad-leaved deciduous forests develop in mid latitude climates. In humid equatorial climates, tropical Rainforests develop. There heavy rainfall supports Evergreens that have broad leaves instead of the needle leaves of cooler evergreen forests. Having extensive vertical layering, forests are among the most complex ecosystems. Conifer forests have the simplest structure: a tree layer, a shrub layer that is spotty or even absent, and a ground layer covered with Lichens, Mosses, and Liverworts. Deciduous forests are more complex (the tree canopy is divided into an upper and lower story), and rainforest canopies are divided into at least three layers. Forest animals have highly developed hearing, and many are adapted for vertical movement through the environment. Because food other than ground plants is scarce, many ground-dwelling animals use forests only for shelter. The forest is nature’s most efficient ecosystem, with a high rate of photosynthesis affecting both plant and animal systems in complex organic relationships.
Forestation: The establishment of forest naturally or artificially on areas where it has been absent or insufficient. (Syn. Afforestation)
Forest cover type: See forest type
Forest crop: See crop

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Forest Development Program (FDP): A state- and industry-funded cost-sharing program administered by the North Carolina Division of Forest Resources. The program pays landowners for approved tree site preparation and planting activities.
Forested wetland: An area characterized by woody vegetation taller than 20 feet where soil is at least periodically saturated or covered by water.
Forester: A person who has been professionally educated in forestry at a college or
university
Forest Floor: The layer of organic matter on the ground in a forest.
Forest fragmentation: The subdivision of large natural landscapes into smaller, more isolated fragments. Fragmentation affects the viability of wildlife populations and ecosystems.
Forest genetics: The study of heredity in forest trees. 
Forest hygiene: Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting. 
Forest improvement: See timber stand improvement
Forest Management: 1. The practical application of scientific, economic, and social principles to the administration and working of a forest estate for specific objectives. 2. The application of business methods and technical forest principles to the management of forest property. 3. Proper care and control of wooded land to maintain health, vigor, product flow, and other values (soil condition, water quality, wildlife preservation, and beauty) in order to accomplish specific objectives.  
Forest Management Plan: Written guidelines for current and future management practices recommended meeting an owner’s objectives.
Forest management unit: An area of forest land managed as a unit for fiber production and other renewable resources. This unit can be the entire province or territory, a provincial forest management subdivision, an industrial timber limit, etc. 

Forest Mensuration: An extension of mensuration to include measuring the growth and change in forests. The art and science of providing quantitative information about trees, stands and forests for forest research, planning and management.

Forest model: A computer-based simulation that, within definable parameters, forecasts the development of a forest.

Forest nursery: An area in which young trees are grown for forest planting.

Forest Organization: The systematic subdivision and arrangement of forest areas with a view to regular management. (BCFT)
Forest Policy: A forest policy specifies certain principles regarding the use of a society’s forest resource which, it is felt, will contribute to the achievements of some the objectives of that society.
Forest planting: See planting
Forest practices: Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands for the purpose of facilitating harvest or forest management, and any management of slash resulting from harvesting or improvement of tree species. 

Forest Practices Act: Several states have legislation regulating private forest harvest to reasonably assure adequate regeneration and protection of soil and water values. Abbreviated in Oregon to OFPA (Oregon Forest Practices Act)

Forest protection: The activities concerned with the prevention and control of damage to forests from fire, insects, disease, and other injurious and destructive sources.
Forest residue: See slash
Forestry: Management of forested land (See Forest), together with associated waters and wasteland, primarily for harvesting timber but also for Conservation and recreation purposes. The science of forestry is built around the principle of multiple-use land management, though the harvesting and replanting of timber are the primary activities. The main objective is to maintain a continuous supply of timber through carefully planned harvest and replacement. The forest manager is also responsible for the application of other land controls, including the protection of wildlife and the implementation of programs to protect the forest from weeds, insects, fungal diseases (See Fungus), erosion, and fire. The planned management of forests originated in early medieval Europe, where laws regulated the felling of timber and the use of forests for hunting. In the 19th century private forestry schools were established in Europe; and in 1891 the U.S. government authorized its first reserves of forested land. During the 20th century many nations have undertaken reforestation or afforestation programs.
Forestry Incentives Program (FIP): A federally funded cost-sharing program of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS). FIP provides payments to landowners who complete certain approved forest management practices, including site preparation, tree planting, and timber stand improvement (TSI).
Forest sanitation: See forest hygiene
Forest site: A land unit characterized by climatic, soil and topographic features that control forest type and growth of a tree.
Forest site classification: Grouping of forest sites using either the composition or the productivity of the vegetation as well as soil and topographic position.
Forest site type: Generally, a category of forest or forest land, actual or potential. 
Forest Stewardship Plan: A written document listing activities that enhance or improve forest resources (wildlife, timber, soil, water, recreation, and aesthetics) on private land over a 5-year period.
Forest Stewardship Program: A cooperative, technical-assistance program designed to encourage multiple resource management on private forestland. Emphasis is placed on preharvest planning to enhance and protect forest-based resources. Authorized under the 1990 Farm Bill, the program is based on national guidelines but is set by individual states.
Forest survey: An inventory of forest land to determine acreage, condition, timber volume, and species, for specific purposes (such as timber purchase and forest management) or as a basis for forest policies and programs. Also refers to carefully measuring and marking property boundaries
Forest tree breeding: The genetic manipulation of trees, usually involving selection, testing, and controlled mating, to solve some specific problem or to produce a specially desired product.
Forest tree improvement: The control of parentage combined with other silvicultural activities (such as site preparation or fertilizing) to improve the overall yield and quality of products from forest lands. 
Forest tree nursery: See nursery

Forest type: A descriptive term used to group stands of similar character in composition and development, to differentiate them from other groups of stands. (See Stand, type of)

Forest types: Associations of tree species that have similar ecological requirements. Pakistan forest types include: Tropical littoral and swamp forests, Tropical thorn forests, Tropical dry deciduous forests, Sub-tropical broad-leaved evergreen forests, Sub-tropical chir pine forests, Himalayan Moist temperate forests, Himalayan Dry temperate forests, Sub-alpine forests and Alpine pastures.

Forest utilization: That branch of forestry concerned with the operation of harvesting, processing, and marketing the forest crop and other forest resources.

Forewings: Front pair of wings
Forget-me-not: Any of about 50 species of plants that make up the genus Myosotis, in the Borage family, native to temperate Eurasia and North America and to mountains of the Old World tropics. Some are favoured as garden plants for their clusters of blue flowers. The woods forget-me-not (M. sylvatica), like most other species, changes colour from pink to blue as the tubular, flaring, five-lobed flower matures.

Fork: A tree defect characterized by the division of a bole or main stem into two or more stems.
Form: The shape of a log or tree.

Formation: All the operations contributing to the creation of a new forest cover up to the stage where it is considered established. 

Form class: A measure of bole taper derived by dividing diameter inside bark at a given height (usually 16 or 32 ft) by d.b.h. These values are often required to use tree-volume tables

Forty: A land tract of 40 acres  
Fossil: Remnant, impression, or trace of an animal or plant of a past geologic age that has been preserved in the Earth’s CRUST. The data recorded in fossils, known as the fossil record, constitute the primary source of information about the history of life on the Earth. Only a small fraction of ancient organisms are preserved as fossils, and usually only organisms that have a solid skeleton or shell. A shell or bone that is buried quickly after deposition may retain organic tissue, though it becomes petrified (converted to a stony substance) over time. Unaltered hard parts, such as the shells of clams, are relatively common in sedimentary rocks. The soft parts of animals or plants are rarely preserved. The embedding of insects in amber and the preservation of mammoths in ice are rare but striking examples of the fossil preservation of soft tissues. Traces of organisms may also occur as tracks, trails, or even borings.
Fossil fuel: Any of a class of materials of biologic origin occurring within the Earth’s crust that can be used as a source of energy. Fossil fuels include coal, petroleum, and natural gas. They all contain carbon and were formed as a result of geologic processes acting on the remains of (mostly) plants and animals that lived and died hundreds of millions of years ago. All fossil fuels can be burned to provide heat, which may be used directly, as in home heating, or to produce steam to drive a generator for the production of electricity. Fossil fuels supply nearly 90% of all the energy used by industrially developed nations.
Foundation or substructure: Part of a structural system that supports and anchors the superstructure of a building and transmits its loads directly to the earth. To prevent damage from repeated freeze-thaw cycles, the bottom of the foundation must be below the frost line. The foundations of low-rise residential buildings are nearly all supported on spread footings, wide bases (usually of concrete) that support walls or Piers and distribute the load over a greater area. A concrete grade beam supported by isolated footings, piers, or Piles may be placed at ground level, especially in a building without a basement, to support the exterior wall. Spread footings are also used—in greatly enlarged form—for high-rise buildings. Other systems for supporting heavy loads include piles, concrete Caisson columns, and building directly on exposed rock. In yielding soil, a floating foundation—consisting of rigid, boxlike structures set at such a depth that the weight of the soil removed to place it equals the weight of the construction supported—may be used.
Foundation bed: The solid ground on which the foundation rests

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Foundation course: introductory course: an introductory course of study, usually taken as a first level in more extended studies
Foundation stone: stone beginning construction: a stone laid during a ceremony to mark the start of construction of a building or institution
Four-colour map problem: In Topology, a long-standing conjecture asserting that no more than four colours are required to shade in any map such that each adjacent region is coloured differently. First posed in 1852 by Francis Guthrie, a British math student, it was solved by Kenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken using a computer-assisted proof in 1976.
Four Freedoms: Essential social and political objectives described by Pres. Franklin Roosevelt in his State of the Union message in January 1941: freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, and freedom from fear of physical aggression. He called for the last freedom to be achieved through a “worldwide reduction in armaments.” In August 1941 he and Winston Churchill included the four freedoms in the Atlantic Charter.
Four-o’clock: Ornamental perennial plant (Mirabilis jalapa; family Nyctaginaceae), also called marvel-of-Peru or beauty-of-the-night, native to the tropical New World. It is a quick-growing species up to 3 ft (1 m) tall, with oval leaves on short leafstalks. The stems are swollen at the joints. The plant is called four-o’clock because its flowers, which vary from white and yellow to shades of pink and red, sometimes streaked and mottled, open in late afternoon (and close by morning).
Fox: Any of various Canines resembling small to medium-sized, bushy tailed dogs. Foxes have long fur, pointed ears, relatively short legs, and a narrow snout. They have often been hunted for sport or fur. In a more restricted sense, the name refers to about 10 species of true foxes (genus Vulpes), especially both the Old and New World Red foxes.
Fraction: In arithmetic, a number expressed as a quotient, in which a numerator is divided by a denominator. In a simple fraction, both are integers. A complex fraction has a fraction in the numerator or denominator. In a proper fraction, the numerator is less than the denominator. If the numerator is greater, it is called an improper fraction and can also be written as a mixed number—a whole-number quotient with a proper fraction remainder. Any fraction can be written in decimal form by carrying out the division of the numerator by the denominator. The result may end at some point, or one or more digits may repeat without end.
Fracture: In mineralogy, the appearance of a surface broken in directions other than along Cleavage planes. There are several kinds of fractures: conchoidal (curved concavities resembling shells, as in glass); even (rough, approximately plane surfaces); uneven (rough and completely irregular surfaces, the commonest type); hackly (sharp edges and jagged points and depressions); and splintery (partially separated splinters or fibres).
Framed structure or frame structure: Structure supported mainly by a skeleton, or frame, of wood, steel, or reinforced concrete rather than by load-bearing walls. Rigid frames have fixed joints that enable the frames to resist lateral forces; other frames require diagonal bracing or shear walls and diaphragms for lateral stability. Heavy timber framing was the most common type of construction in East Asia and northern Europe from prehistoric times to the mid-19th century. It was supplanted by the balloon frame and the platform frame. Steel’s strength, when used in steel framing, made possible buildings with longer spans. Concrete frames impart greater rigidity and continuity; various advancements, such as the introduction of the shear wall and slip forming, have made concrete a serious competitor with steel in high-rise structures.
Frass: Solid larval insect excrement; mixed with wood fragments in wood-boring or bark-boring insects.
Free from non-crop competition (FNC): (syn. free-to-grow (FTG) The condition of a forest stand when it is established and acceptable for entry into the productive timber land base. The stand must meet these criteria (locally defined): minimum stocking, desired species composition, minimum height development, and freedom from competition that impedes growth.
Freemasonry: Teachings and practices of the fraternal order of Free and Accepted Masons, the largest worldwide Secret Society. Originating with the Guilds of medieval stonemasons, the organization became an honorary society in the 17th and 18th century, adopting the rites and trappings of ancient religious orders and chivalric brotherhoods. The first association of lodges, the Grand Lodge, was founded in England in 1717, and Freemasonry soon spread to other countries in the British Empire. Freemasons took an active role in the American Revolution and later in U.S. politics, and in the 19th century popular fears of their influence led to the Anti-Masonic Movement. Membership is extended only to adult males willing to express belief in a Supreme Being and the immortality of the soul. In Latin countries, the lodges have often attracted freethinkers and anticlerical types; in Anglo-Saxon nations, membership has mostly been drawn from white Protestants. Freemasonry has also given rise to social organizations such as the Ancient Arabic Order of the Noble Mystic Shrine, or Shriners.
Free thinning: See thinning: free
Freezing: Method of Food Preservation in which low temperatures (0 °F [−18 °C] or lower) inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Used for centuries in cold regions, it was not until the advent of mechanical Refrigeration in the mid 19th century that the process became widely applicable commercially. In the 20th century, quick (or flash) freezing was developed by Clarence Birdseye. Except for beef and venison, which benefit from an aging process, meat is frozen as promptly as possible after slaughter. Fruits and vegetables are often frozen in a syrup or vacuum-sealed to exclude air and prevent oxidation and desiccation.
Freezing point: Temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid. When the Pressure surrounding the liquid is increased, the freezing point is raised. The addition of some solids can lower the freezing point of a liquid, a principle used when salt is applied to melt ice on frozen surfaces. For pure substances, the freezing point is the same as the Melting Point. In mixtures and certain organic compounds, the early solid formation changes the composition of the remaining liquid, usually steadily lowering its freezing point, a principle that is applied in mixture separation. The freezing point of pure water at standard atmospheric pressure is 32°F (0°C). To change a liquid at its freezing point to a solid at the same temperature, the heat of fusion (See Latent Heat) must be removed.
Frequency distribution In statistics, a graph or data set organized to show the frequency of occurrence of each possible outcome of a repeatable event observed many times. Simple examples are election returns and test scores listed by percentile. A frequency distribution can be graphed as a Histogram or pie chart. For large data sets, the stepped graph of a histogram is often approximated by the smooth curve of a distribution function (called a Density Function when normalized so that the area under the curve is 1). The famed bell curve or Normal Distribution is the graph of one such function. Frequency distributions are particularly useful in summarizing large data sets and assigning probabilities.
Frieze: 1. Decorative band along wall: a band of decoration running along the wall of a room, usually just below the ceiling 2. Horizontal band on classical building: a horizontal band forming part of the entablature of a classical building, situated between the architrave and the cornice, and often decorated with sculpted ornaments or figures
Frill: Vshaped cut in the cambial tissue of the tree made with a machete or other sharp tool, used as a place to apply herbicides.
Frill girdling: Girdling by making a series of downward, more or less overlapping incisions, generally for the introduction of herbicide. Spaced incisions are termed frill cuts. A double series of such incisions is referred to as double-frill girdling.
Frilling: The method of killing trees by inflicting a series of cuts around the bole and applying an herbicide to the wounds. Frilling or girdling can be used to reduce the density of a stand or to kill individual undesirable trees.
Frog: Any of various tailless Amphibians in the order Anura. The name may be limited to any member of the family Ranidae (true frogs); more broadly, it often distinguishes smooth-skinned, leaping anurans from squat, warty, hopping ones (Toads). Frogs generally have protruding eyes, strong, webbed hind feet adapted for leaping and swimming, and smooth, moist skin. Most are predominantly aquatic, but some live on land. They range in length (snout to anus) from 0.4 to 12 in. (9.8 mm–30 cm). Though frogs have poisonous skin glands, they rely on camouflage for protection from predators. Most eat insects and other small arthropods or worms, but several also eat other frogs, rodents, and reptiles. They usually breed in freshwater, where they lay eggs that hatch into Tadpoles. Since 1989 researchers have become increasingly alarmed by striking declines in frog populations worldwide, suspected to be linked to climatic factors or a fungal disease.
Frog: The depression provided in the face of a brick during its manufacturing. Size: 10 × 4 × 1 cm (Pic at brick)
Frond: The leaf of a fern.
Front: In meteorology, the interface or transition zone between two air masses of different density and temperature. Frontal zones are frequently accompanied by low barometric pressure, marked changes in wind direction and relative humidity, and considerable cloudiness and precipitation.
Frost: Atmospheric moisture that crystallizes directly on the ground and on exposed objects. The term also refers to the occurrence of subfreezing temperatures that affect plants and crops. Frost crystals, sometimes called hoarfrost in the aggregate, form when water vapour in the atmosphere passes into the ice-crystal phase without going through the intermediate liquid phase. Frost forms under conditions that would form Dew if the temperature were above freezing. In agriculture, frost refers to the freezing of the water in plant cells, which causes the cells to burst and thereby destroys the plant.
Frost heaving (heave, lift): Upward displacement of normal soil level as a result of expansion due to ice formation in frozen soil; in nurseries and plantations, the partial or total extrusion of seedlings or other small plants caused by such soil displacement.
Frost crack: Longitudinal crack on the outside of a tree, caused by extreme cold. Especially common on thinbarked species, such as hemlock and true fir.
Fructose or levulose or fruit sugar: Organic compound, one of the simple Sugars (Monosaccharides), chemical formula C6H12O6. It occurs in fruits, honey, syrups (especially corn syrup), and certain vegetables, usually along with its Isomer Glucose. Fructose and glucose are the components of the disaccharide Sucrose (table sugar); hydrolysis of sucrose yields invert sugar, a 50:50 mixture of fructose and glucose. The sweetest of the common sugars, fructose is used in foods and medicines
Fruit: In its strict botanical sense, the fleshy or dry ripened ovary (enlarged portion of the pistil) of a flowering plant, enclosing the seed or seeds. Apricots, bananas, and grapes, as well as bean pods, corn grains, tomatoes, cucumbers, and (in their shells) acorns and almonds, are all technically fruits. Popularly, the term is restricted to the ripened ovaries that are sweet and either succulent or pulpy. The principal botanical purpose of the fruit is to protect and spread the seed. There are two broad categories of fruit: fleshy and dry. Fleshy fruits include berries, such as tomatoes, oranges, and cherries, which consist entirely of succulent tissue; aggregate fruits, including blackberries and strawberries, which form from a single flower with many pistils, each of which develops into fruitlets; and multiple fruits, such as pineapples and mulberries, which develop from the mature ovaries of an entire inflorescence. Dry fruits include the legumes, cereal grains, capsules, and nuts. Fruits are important sources of dietary fiber and vitamins (especially vitamin C). They can be eaten fresh; processed into juices, jams, and jellies; or preserved by dehydration, canning, fermentation, and pickling.
Fruit fly: Any dipteran species of two families: large fruit flies (Trypetidae) and small fruit flies, or vinegar flies (family Drosophilidae; see Drosophila). The larvae feed on fruit or other vegetation. The adults’ wings are banded or spotted with brown. Many species attack cultivated fruits, sometimes causing enough damage to create significant economic loss. Some species are leaf miners; others burrow in plant stems. Well-known fruit-fly pests include the Mediterranean Fruit fly and the apple maggot of the U.S., the Mexican and Oriental fruit flies, and the olive fruit fly of the Mediterranean region.
Fruiting body: A specialized structure, often macroscopic, on or in which spores are produced.
Fuel Loading: A buildup of fuels, especially easily ignited, fast-burning fuels such as pine straw.
Fuel plantation: (syn. fuelwood plantation) Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning.
Fuel wood: A log having the diameter less than 8 in. at thick end side. (Compare Timber; Billet)
Fruit: The seed-bearing part of a plant.
Full seed: Seed showing apparently complete embryo and endosperm or megagametophyte structures, irrespective of actual viability.
Full-sibs: Trees with both parents in common.

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Fumigate: [Mid-16th century. < Latin fumigat-, past participle of fumigare “to smoke” < fumus “smoke”] treat with fumes: to treat something with fumes, or be treated with fumes, especially to kill microorganisms or pests
Fumigation: The natural or controlled exposure of plants to toxic gases or volatile substances.
Fungal diseases or mycoses: Diseases caused by any fungus that invades the tissues. Superficial fungal infections (e.g., athlete’s foot) are confined to the skin. Subcutaneous infections, which extend into tissues and sometimes adjacent structures such as bone and organs, are rare and often chronic. In systemic infections, fungi spread through the body of a normal (or, more often, an immune-suppressed) host. Some fungal diseases (e.g., Yeast infections) may be either superficial or systemic, affecting certain target organs.
Fungicides: Any Toxin used to kill or inhibit growth of fungi (See Fungus) that cause economic damage to crop or ornamental plants (including rusts in cereals, blight in potatoes, and mildew in fruits) or endanger the health of domestic animals or humans. Most are applied as sprays or dusts; seed fungicides are applied as a protective coating to seeds before germination. Copper compounds, especially copper sulfate mixed with Lime and water (Bordeaux mixture), and sulfur have long been used for this purpose, but now synthetic organic compounds are commonly used. Many antifungal substances occur naturally in plant tissues.
Fungus: Any of about 200,000 species of organisms belonging to the kingdom Fungi, or Mycota, including Yeasts, rusts, Smuts, Molds, Mushrooms, and Mildews. Though formerly classified as plants, they lack chlorophyll and the organized plant structures of stems, roots, and leaves. Fungi contribute to the disintegration of organic matter resulting in the release of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus from dead plants and animals into the soil or the atmosphere. Fungi can be found in the water, soil, air, plants, and animals of all regions of the world that have sufficient moisture to enable them to grow. Essential to many food and industrial processes, fungi are also used in the production of Enzymes, organic acids, Vitamins, and Antibiotics. They also can destroy crops, cause such diseases as athlete’s foot and ringworm, and ruin clothing and food with mildew and rot. The thallus, or body, of a typical fungus consists of a mycelium through which cytoplasm flows. The mycelium generally reproduces by forming Spores, either directly or in special fruiting bodies that are generally the visible part of the fungus. The soil provides an ideal habitat for many species. Lacking chlorophyll, fungi are unable to carry out photosynthesis and must obtain their carbohydrates by secreting enzymes onto the surface on which they are growing to digest the food, which they absorb through the mycelium. Saprophytic fungi live off dead organisms and are partly responsible for the decomposition of organic matter. Parasitic fungi invade living organisms, often causing disease and death (See Parasitism). Fungi establish symbiotic relationships with algae (forming Lichens), plants (forming mycorrhizae; See Mycorrhiza), and certain insects. (Pic)

Funnelform: Descriptive of a flower whose corolla tube widens gradually and uniformly from the base.
Fusarium: It is a large genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed in soil and in association with plants.

Fuse: Firefighters also use these colored flares to ignite fires in burnout operations.

Fusiform Rust: A disease resulting in a canker or swollen area on the limbs or trunks of pine trees from orange spores produced by infected oak leaves. Fusiform rust degrades stem quality and tree value, often leading to breakage, disfigurement, and eventual death of the tree.
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Corrections and Suggestions are most welcome. Please use the comment section for feedback. If you see any missing terminology or any updated one or any latest term please use the comment section for the purpose. Also, if you have any image or data related to any above terminologies, don’t forget to mail me at tulaib_javid@yahoo.com.
Regards
Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani

SEE ALSO:  Elasticity of demand

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