Gwadar (Urdu: گوادر) is a port city on the southwestern coast of Balochistan, Pakistan. The city is located on the shores of the Arabian Sea opposite Oman. Gwadar was an overseas possession of Oman from 1783 to 1958. It is about 120 km (75 mi) southwest of Turbat, while the sister port city of Chabahar in Iran‘s Sistan and Baluchestan Province is about 170 km (110 mi) to the west of Gwadar.
Gwadar is located on a narrow and sandy isthmus which connects the 150 m (480 ft) foot tall Gwadar Promontory to the Makran coastline. Fishing boats in Gwadar East Bay with the Koh-e-Mehdi Hills in the background aerial view of the Gwadar peninsula
Gwadar is situated on the southwestern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan in Gwadar District of Balochistan province. Like Ormara further east, Gwadar is situated on a natural hammerhead-shaped tombolo peninsula forming two almost perfect, but naturally curved, semicircular bays on either side.
The city is situated on a narrow and sandy 12 km-long (7 mi) isthmus which connects the Pakistani coast to rocky outcroppings in the Arabian sea known as the Gwadar Promontory, or Koh-e-Batil, which reach an elevation of 150 m (480 ft) and extend 11 km (7 mi) east to west with a breadth of 1.5 km (1 mi). The 240 m (800 ft) wide isthmus upon which Gwadar is located separates the two almost perfect semicircular bays from one another.
The western bay is known as the Paddi Zirr, and is generally shallow with an average depth of 3.7 m (12 ft), and a maximum depth of 9.1 m (30 ft). To the east of the isthmus is the deepwater Demi Zirr harbor, where the Gwadar Port was built.
The area north of the city and Gwadar Promontory is flat and generally barren. The white clay Koh-e-Mehdi (also known as Jabal-e-Mehdi) is a notable exception and rises sharply from the plans to the northeast of Gwadar. The Koh-e-Mehdi features two discernible peaks, with heights of 415 and 419 m (1,360 and 1,375 ft), and is approximately 6 km (4 mi) wide and features sharp cliffs that drop precipitously into the Arabian Sea. Following an earthquake in September 2013, a small island called Zalzala Jazeera (“Earthquake Island”) formed approximately 2 km (1.2 mi) off the coast.
Gwadar has a hot desert climate (Köppen BWh), characterised by little precipitation and high variation between summer and winter temperatures. Oceanic influence from the cool currents of the Arabian Sea moderates temperatures, resulting in notably cooler summer temperatures compared to areas inland and cities in the Persian Gulf such as Dubai. The Arabian Sea also moderates winter temperatures, resulting in warmer winter nights as compared to inland areas.
The mean temperature in the hottest month (June) remains between 31 °C and 32 °C. The mean temperature in the coolest month (January) varies from 18 °C to 19 °C. The uniformity of temperature is a unique characteristic of the Makran Coastal region. Occasionally, winds moving down the Balochistan plateau bring brief cold spells, otherwise, the winter is pleasant.
In Gwadar, winters are shorter than summers. Although Gwadar is situated outside the monsoon belt, it receives light monsoon showers in summer (June–August). However, in winter, Western Disturbance can cause heavy rainfall. Annual rainfall is only 100 mm (3 inches). In June 2010, Gwadar was lashed by Cyclone Phet with record-breaking rains of 372 mm and winds up to 121 km/h (75 mph).
Flora of Gwadar District
Here is the detailed list of the flora of Gwadar District with Botanical Name, Common or Local Name, and its Location: