Flower – Parts of Flower

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FLOWER:

A flower is a highly modified shoot (or floral axis) bearing one or more carpels or one or more stamens or both and usually one or two series of perianth parts.

Flower - Forestrypedia


Part of Flower

Parts of Flower - Forestrypedia

Pedicel:

The branch on which flower is born

Pedicellate:

If pedicel is present

Sessile:

If pedicel is absent

Sub-sessile:

If short pedicel is present

Bract:

A Special leaf which bears flower on a bundle of flower in its axial

Bracteate:

If bract is present

Ebracteate:

If bract is absent

Complete:

Flower with both calyx and corolla

Incomplete:

Sepals, petals both are absent

The four series of a complete flower - Forestrypedia
The four series of a complete flower

Unisexual (imperfect):

When either stamen or carpel is absent.

Bisexual (Perfect):

When stamen or carpel both are present.

Monoecious - Forestrypedia

Symmetry:

Actinomorphic:

A flower can be divided into similar halves in more than one plane

Zygomorphic:

If a flower can be divided into equal halves in only one plane

Symmetry - ForestrypediaSymmetry1 - Forestrypedia

Insertion of Flower:

Thalamus may be convex or flattened or cup-shaped and insertion of floral leaves on it varies

Hypogynous:

Thalamus is convex on conical and ovary is at the top, while sepal, petal, stamen are lower than ovary (ie ovary is superior.)

Perigynous:

The thalamus is a flat disc-like or cup-shaped, the Gynoecium is located at the center and other floral leaves ie calyx, corolla, androecium arise from the margin of disc or cup. The gynoecium is half superior.

Epigynous:

In some flowers, the thalamus is cup-shaped; it grows upward and completely surrounds the ovary and become fused with it. The sepal, petals, and stamen are inserted on the top of the ovary. The gynoecium is inferior.

Colour of Flower:

It can be white, pink, red, blue, etc.

CALYX:

  • The sepals, the outermost whorl, together are called the calyx.
  • In the flower bud, the sepals tightly enclose and protect the petals, stamens, and pistil from rain or insects. The sepals unfurl as the flower opens and often resemble small green leaves at the flower’s base. In some flowers, the sepals are colorful and work with the petals to attract pollinators.



Polysepalous:

If sepals are free from one another

Deciduous:

Sepal fall off as soon as flower ripe as in poppy

Caduceus:

Sepal fall off when the flower wither as in Buttercup

Persistent:

If sepal remains in place even after the fruit is formed as in pea, rose, cotton, etc.

Petaloid:

If sepals are colored like petals

Inferior:

If sepals are below ovary

Superior:

If sepals are above ovary

COROLLA:

  • Petals, the next whorl, surround the stamens and collectively are termed the corolla.
  • Many petals have bright colors, which attract animals that carry out pollination, collectively termed pollinators

Caryophyllaceous:

Calyx form a tube and the corolla consist of fine petal having very long claws the limbs of petals spread out above the tube at right angles to the claws as in dianthus, etc.

Caryophyllaceous - Forestrypedia

Rosaceous:

Petals five in number. They have a very short claw or none at all, and spread irregularly outwards, as in rose, etc.

Rosaceous - Forestrypedia

Cruciform:

Corolla consists of four clawed petals, arranged in form of a cross as in crucifer.

Cruciform - Forestrypedia

Papilionaceous:

Corolla consists of five petals, three free, two fused, upper is called standard as in pea, etc.

Gamopetalous (regular):

Petals united and a like

Tubular:

Petals united to form a tube as in sunflower.

Campanulate:

Petals unite to form bell shape structure.

Infundibuliform:

Petal unites to form funnel shape structure.

Rotate:

Petal unites to form wheel shape structure.

(Irregular):

Bilabiate:

Petal unites to form two lips.

Spurred:

Petal unites to form a long tubular structure called the spur.

Corona:

In some flowers, small outgrowth and ligules are developed in a circle on corolla or perianth. These may be free or united, are known as the corona.

ANDROECIUM:

It is the third whorl of flowers consisting of stamens.

Androecium - Forestrypedia

The number of stamens:

1,2,3,4,5 or more than 5

Monoandrous:

1 stamen

Diandrous:

2 stamens

Triandrous:

3 stamens

Tetra-– , Penta–, etc

Free or Fused:

  • If Free (Polyandrous)
Didynamous:
    • Stamen 4, 2 long, 2 short in a single whorl
Tetradynamous:
    • Stamen 6, 4 long, 2 short and in two whorls.
  • If fused:
  • It may be adelphous or syngenesious
Monadelphous:

Stamen unit at filament into single group

Monoadelphous - Forestrypedia

Diadelphous:

Stamen unites at filament into two groups.

Diadelphous - Forestrypedia

Polyadelphous:

Stamen unites to form many groups.

Polyadelphous - ForestrypediaSyngenesious:

Stamen unites by their anther, the filament if free.

Syngenesious - Forestrypedia

Synandrous:

Stamen unites by anther and filament.

Synandrous - Forestrypedia

Epipetalous or antipetalous:

Epipetalous:

Stamens fused to petals

Epipetalous - Forestrypedia

Epiphyllous:

Stamen fused to perianth.

Gynandrous:

Stamen fused with the gynoecium

Filament long, short, or flattened

Fixation of anther

Idnate:

No joint b/w filament and base of anther

Dorsifixd:

If filament is attached to back of anther and anther is immovable.

Versatile:

Filament is attached to back of anther and anther is immovable.

Dehiscense:

Longitudinal transverse, porous, etc.

GYNOECIUM:

(Carpel, 4th Whorl)

Gynoecium - Forestrypedia

Number of Carpels

Monocarpellary:

Consist of one carpel

Polycarpellary:

More carpel

United: (Syncarpous) or free (apocarpous)

Syncarpous: 

Syn = United, kerpos = ovary

Apocarpous:

Ap = free, kerpos = ovary

Monocarpus - Forestrypedia

Superior:

If over the sepals, petals

Superior - Forestrypedia

Inferior:

If below the sepals, petals.

Inferior - Forestrypeida

Number of Loci:

(Single = locule) = chamber of the ovary)

PLACENTATION: Attachment manner of seed to an ovary

Marginal:

Ovary single chambered, ovule attached to the ventral suture as in pea, gram, etc.

Marginal Placentation - Forestrypedia

Parietal:

(Towards periphery) an ovary is compound and unilocular.

Axile:

Polycarpellary, syncarpous; carpel fuse to form column eg lemon.

Parietal - Forestrypedia

Basal:

Ovary unilocular, placenta directly develops on the thalamus and single ovule is attached eg Anagalis

Basal - Forestrypedia

Number of the ovule in each locule
Style:

Free or united

Stigma:

(an Apical portion of style)

Capitate:

Stigma rounded and knob-like

Bifid:

Stigma is branched to form two lobes culled bifid. Bifid stigma indicate two carpels

Feathery:

Branched like a feather, as in grasses.

Linear:

Long, narrow, pointed as in Berberry.


For correction and improvements please use the comments section below.



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Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani

NJMH is working as Deputy Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu (techurdu.net) Forestrypedia (forestrypedia.com), Majestic Pakistan (majesticpakistan.pk), All Pak Notifications (allpaknotifications.com), Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.

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