Forest Engineering (Building Construction) Short Notes from Past Papers
Dampness and Causes
“The access or penetration of moisture content inside a building through its walls, floors, or roofs.”
Dampness – Ill-effects/Harmful effects
- Dry rot to wooden members
- Corrosion of metals used in the construction
- Peeling off and removal of plaster
- Paints to get blistered and bleached, and the surface thus get disfigured
- Floor of the building to remain ugly
- Carpet, if used, gets destroy
- All electric installings get deterioted
- Bricks to disintegrate and fall to powder
- Reduces the life of the structure as a whole
- Causes unhygienic conditions for the occupants and adversely affects their health
Causes of Dampness
- Rain penetration
- Level of site
- Drainibility of the soil (sand drains more)
- Climatic conditions
- Defective orientation (no sunlight; more shade)
- Moisture entrapped during construction
- Defective material (like porous bricks)
- Defective construction (roof is not level)
- Moisture which originate in the originates itself (leakage)
Methods to Prevent Dampness
- By providing damp proof courses
- By surface treatment (painting with waterproof repellant)
- By integral waterproof construction (iron filling in a mortar, etc)
- By special devices (thick wall, good quality bricks, rich cement, fixing down water pipes, etc)
“Stonemasonry in which either undressed or roughly dressed stones are laid in a suitable mortar”.
“The stone masonry in which finely dressed stone are laid in cement or lime mortar.”
“Final treatment with cement or lime mortar made to the joints of a masonry neat appearance.”
“The paint consisting of powdered chalk, some coloring pigment, and mixed in the water”.
“The art of applying tow or three coats of distemper on the plastered or whitewashed surface.”
Asphalt and Bitumen
Asphalt is a brownish-black solid or semisolid substance. Source: oil-bearing rocks, the byproduct of petroleum distillation. Uses: paving, waterproofing, fungicides.
It is the name given to the combination of a mineral matter which is either calcareous or siliceous, and an organic matter which is a hydrocarbon, known as Bitumen (a sticky mixture of hydrocarbons found in substances such as asphalt and tar. Source: petroleum).
Uses of Asphalt
- Widely used as waterproofing material and as a binder
- It forms good expansion joints and fills up the cracks of leaking roofs
- It posses sanitary properties and is used in lavatories and floors of bathrooms, kitchens, etc.
- It is used for providing a damp proof course in a building.
- Asphalt is also used for making paints and plastics
The open side of a natural rock from which useful stone is obtained by digging, blasting, drilling or cutting is called Quarry and the process is known as Quarrying.
It contains 2 – 6% of carbon. It contains 92 – 95% iron.
It contains high %age of carbon. It contains 90 – 92% iron.
It is the purest iron. It contains the smallest proportion of carbon not exceeding 0.25%.
It is calcareous substance, similar in many respects to the strong hydraulic lime but with for greater hydraulic proportion. Cement are very useful and superior to lime.
Types of Cement
- Normal Setting cement (“Portland cement” in England)
- Rapid hardening cement
- Quick setting cement
- Low-heat cement
- Blast furnace cement
- High alumina cement
- Calcium chloride and cement
- White cement
- Colored cement
- Sulphate Resistance cements.
Galvanized Iron (GI) Sheets
- GI sheets are commonly used as a roofing material
- Light in weight and easy to handle and fixing
- Very durable and fire proof
- Galvanized with zinc to protect from rusting
- Main Advantage is that it transmits and heat easily
- Creates condensation problem on the inner side in cold climates
- 66 cm width (60cm – 125cm)
- Length (1.5m – 3.5m)
Used for covering roofs of a workshop, sheds, etc.
“The temporary structure constructed to support a safe working platform for workmen and materials required during operation is called Scaffold and method of construction is called Scaffolding.”
“The temporary support provided to an unsafe structure or to a structure undergoing alterations in a shore, and method is Shoring”.
“The method of supporting a structure while strengthening its existing footing or while providing a new foundation (below the existing one) to take the increased load”. Before underpinning, shoring may be done.
“An isolated vertical load bearing member. The width of which does not exceed four times its thickness.”
“An isolated vertical load bearing member of considerable height used for support ornament or as a memorial”. It is usu square or rectangular in plan and may be constructed of any material.
1. A trailer or structure in the shape of an inverted V or U, which is used in logging and is towed behind (or attached to the back of) the skidding machine, lifting one end of the logs off of the ground during the yarding operation. 2. Curved structure: a curved structure that forms the upper edge of an open space such as a window, a doorway, or the space between a bridge’s supports.
A rectangular block of clay or a similar material that is baked until it is hard and is used for building houses, walls, and other large permanent structures. The standard size of a brick is 19cm × 9cm × 9 cm. The number of bricks required for one cubic meter of brick masonry is taken as 500.
An arrangement of bricks in a wall in which layers courses of bricks laid end to end stretchers alternate with layers of bricks laid side to side headers. The stretchers of all layers are aligned vertically, and the headers are centered on the stretchers and the mortar joints between them.
A style of brickwork in which bricks laid with the end facing out headers alternate with those laid lengthwise stretchers, horizontally and vertically.
Crosswise brick: a brick or stone positioned crosswise in a wall and level with its outer surface. A header provides transverse strength to the wall.
Stone with long edge facing out: a brick or stone laid in a wall so that its longer edge forms part of the face of the wall. A stretcher provides longitudinal strength to the walls.
“The separation or places of weakness introduced at different location in a building are known as joint.”
“The arrangement of bricks or items in each layer so as to avoid continuity of vertical joints in any two adjacent courses both on the face and inside of a masonry structure.
These doors are made with ply wood and give better appearance. They are solid and semi-solid doors and are constructed in many ways.
The size of flush door varies according to requirements. The general size is 0.9m * 1.00m to 1.2m * 2.1m.
“The top horizontal member of a door or window frame.”
“The bottom horizontal member of a door or window frame.”
“The vertical sides of a door or window opening which support the frame of a door or window”.
“The portion of the sides of a door or window opening extending beyond the frame towards the face of the wall”.
A series of steps which provide access from one floor to another in a stair and the part of the building accommodating the stair is known as stair case.
Requirements of Good Stairs
- Must be well designed so as to provide maximum comfort.
- Should be centrally located which can be easily accessible from all corners of building.
- All the steps should have uniform width and height.
- The pitch should never be more than 40O nor be less than 25.
- The width must not be less than 1m.
- The maximum number of steps in a flight should be greater than 12 and not less than 3.
- The height of hand rail should neither be more than 0.85m and nor less than 0.75m.
- It must be constructed of sound material which possesses fire resistance qualities.
- Should have good workmanship.
- Located that sufficient natural light and ventilation is ensured.
The framework consisting of handrail and balusters is called as balustrade.
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NJMH is working as Deputy Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu (techurdu.net) Forestrypedia (forestrypedia.com), Majestic Pakistan (majesticpakistan.pk), All Pak Notifications (allpaknotifications.com), Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.