Forest EcologyGeneral SilviculturePlant Taxonomy

Gmelina arborea Roxb.

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Gmelina arborea Roxb. Family


Gmelina arborea Roxb. English Name


Gmelina arborea Roxb. Local Name

Gumhar. Yemane

Gmelina arborea Roxb.

Gmelina arborea Roxb. Description

A medium to large sized, deciduous tree. It reaches heights of 20 to 30 m with average diameters of 60 cm. large trees may have clear boles of 6 to 9 m. Open grown trees have wide crowns, heavy branches and tapered boles. Its large leaves are simple, alternate, 7 to 15 cm long with long stalks. The leaves are heart shaped (cordate). The bark is corky, smooth, grey to cream colored. On older trees the bark will peel off in large pieces giving the bole a patchy appearance. The reddish brown or yellow flowers are borne when the trees are leafless. They are tubular in shape, 2.5 cm across and occur in bunches at the ends of the branches. The fruits are a succulent drupe 3 cm long. It flowers in February to April, and its fruit matures between May and June. Each drupe contains a hard stone (seed). It is susceptible to root and stem rots as well as shoot destroying insects. It can be reproduced both from seed and vegetatively. Seeds lose their viability after a year of storage. A relative fast-growing tree with reported volume yields of 25 to 35 m3/ha/yr on rotations of 5 to 8 years. Straight, interlocked, medium course textured Grains. Color light yellow to brown, with high strength having specific gravity of 0.48 and a calorific value of 4763 Kcal/kg.

Gmelina arborea Roxb.

Gmelina arborea Roxb. Distribution

The tree is native to the moist forests of India, Southeast Asia and as far east as southern China. In Pakistan there may be natural stands in Mirpur and Azad Kashmir. It has been successfully cultivated in the plains and in irrigated plantations. It appears to be well established in parts of the Sindh. An intolerant tree that grows on a variety on deep, well drained soils, including acid or calcareous loams. Thin soils will retard growth rate, and it will not grow on waterlogged sites. It is adapted to a precipitation zone of 1000 to 2500 mm/yr, although it can stand periods of extended drought. It has a temperature range of 5 to 40°C but is very susceptible to frost damage. It prefers a humid to sub-humid, hot tropical climate, usually at elevations up to 1000 m.

Gmelina arborea Roxb.

Gmelina arborea Roxb. Uses

A tree potentially used in irrigated plantation in Sindh and Punjab and as an ornamental. With good management it’s an excellent wood producer. The fruit is edible, and the flowers are used by honeybees. A good farm forestry tree in many areas of Pakistan. Also used for construction, particle board, match sticks, pulp, pit props, fodder, furniture, cordage, plywood, apiculture, fruit, and medicinal.

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