- “The process of making hybrid species.”
- The crossing of different races, individuals or spp is called hybridization.
- “Offsprings of organisms of dissimilar genotype.”
- Hybrid is produced by crossing individuals which differ in their inherited characters.
- We cross different spp to obtain offsprings of better/ improved performance,
- Hybridization process can be done by seed till F1 and vegetatively as well eg hybrid spp of maize. Another example is that of trees which produce 30 seeds of 20 gm so total production is 600 gm another tree with 60 seeds of 10 gm each weighed total 600 gm. If we cross these two trees we get an offspring with 45 seed of 15 gm each with the total weight of 675 gm. So with the help of hybridization, we increase production.
- The natural hybridization cannot take place due to some factors. Which are discussed as under:
Barriers to Natural Hybridization:
- Geographic isolation ie generally spp are found in different zones.
- The difference in flowering time. Eg Populus alba and Polpus nigra both are found in Moist Temperate but having different flowering time.
- Due to the Genetic difference, the fertilization cannot take place.
- (And sometimes) Due to genetic difference fertilization takes place but embryo fails to develop.
- Chromosomic pairing fails to take place (in this case even the embryo develops)
Categories of Hybridization:
- There are two main categories of hybridization:
- When genera are same but spp are different.
- When spp are same but verities are different.
- Selection of parents
- Selfing of parents (not in self-pollinated)
- Emasculate for female parents
- Bagging, tagging, and labeling of males and females
- The crossing of males and females
- Collection of seeds from the crossed plants after maturity
- Handling of F1 and subsequent generations for production of a variety
- Testing, multiplication, and distribution of the produced variety
Example and Terminologies of Hybridization:
- When Poplus americana and Populus europa are crossed we obtain Populus euramericana
- If the single pair of a gene is different
- If two pair of genes are different
If more pairs of genes are different.
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Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani is working as Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu (techurdu.net) Forestrypedia (forestrypedia.com), All Pak Notifications (allpaknotifications.com), Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.