ForestrypediaLexicon of Forestry (LoF)

I | Lexicon of Forestry

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Ice damage: Breakage of tops and branches and stripping of branches and needles by an ice storm.
Immature: In even-aged management, those trees or stands that have grown past the regeneration stage but are not yet mature. In uneven-aged management, established trees too young for commercial harvest.
Impeder: An individual of any value actually impeding the development of another individual of higher grade.

Improvement cut: An intermediate cut made to improve the form, quality, health, or wildlife potential of the remaining stand.

Improvement planting: Any planting done to improve the value of a stand, and not to establish a regular plantation

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Incentive: A reward for improving forest management. Incentives include reimbursement of some expenses but can also take the form of an abatement of property or income tax.
Increment: The increase in girth, diameter, basal area, height, volume, quality or value of individual trees or crops during a given period. (SAF)
Increment borer: A tool used to extract a core of wood from a tree, allowing study of the radial growth of a tree without felling it.
Increment core: That part of the cross-section of a tree extracted by an increment borer. Used to determine tree age and growth.
Incremental silviculture: See intensive silviculture
Increment felling: A heavy thinning near the end of the rotation designed to stimulate growth of the trees left to form the final crop.
Indicator species: An organism whose presence or absence in an environment indicates conditions such as its oxygen level or the presence of a contaminating substance
Industrial forester: A professional employed by a wood-using industry, usually a sawmill, who purchases timber from private woodland owners. Many industrial foresters offer free forest management or marketing services to the landowners who sell timber to the forester’s employer.
Inferior ovary: Inferior ovaries have the flower parts (calyx, corolla, and androecium) attached above the ovary to the top of the ovary.  Epigynous and inferior ovary are synonymous terms. (Pic at Epigynous)
Infilling: See fill planting
Ingrowth: The volume or number of trees that have grown past an arbitrary lower limit of measurement during a specified period.
Inorganic: without carbon: describes chemical compounds that contain no carbon, excluding the oxides of carbon, carbon disulfide, cyanides, and their associated acids and salts
Insect: [Early 17th century. < Latin insectum < insecare “cut up” < secare “to cut”] small six-legged animal: an air-breathing invertebrate animal arthropod with a body that has well-defined segments, including a head, thorax, abdomen, two antennae, three pairs of legs, and usually two sets of wings. There are more than a million species of insects including flies, crickets, bees, beetles, and gnats. Class: Insecta
Insecticides: Chemicals used to kill insects.
Integument: The integument is composed of two layers of cells and when mature, makes up the seed coat. It starts out as two layers of cells that grow out from the nucellus in the developing seed.
Integrated pest management (IPM): It is a recently developed technology for pest control that is aimed at achieving the desired control while reducing the use of pesticides. To accomplish this, various combinations of chemical, biological, and physical controls are employed. The goal of integrated pest management is to advantageously change the pest-host relationship which is a component of a larger socio-ecological system, while minimizing adverse impacts, of any sort, on the rest of the system.
Integrated resource management (IRM): Management of natural resources in order to achieve maximum benefits; integrating forest management to nontimber uses and values not only to produce timber, but also to develop the wildlife and recreational capacities of forested areas.
Intensive forest management: Basic forest management plus juvenile-stand improvement plus acceleration of artificial regeneration.
Intensive silviculture: Application of cultural measures which, in addition to simply maintaining the forest cover, will allow an increase in the value or volume of the cut.
Intensity: A measure of the effects of an earthquake at a particular place on humans, structures, and the land itself. The intensity at a point depends not only upon the strength of the earthquake (magnitude) but also upon the distance from the earthquake to the point and the local geology at that point.
Intercalary growth: Intercalary growth is growth due to the activity of the intercalary meristem.  Intercalary meristem is meristem at the base of the internode in monocot stems (particularly in grass stems).
Intercalary meristem: Intercalary meristem is meristem at the base of the internode in monocot stems (particularly grass stems).  Only the apical meristem is active.  If the tip of the stem is removed, the uppermost intact intercalary meristem becomes the apical meristem and starts intercalary growth.
Intercellular spaces: These are the spaces between plant cells where the cell walls do not quite come together. Intercellular spaces are probably most easily observed in parenchyma tissue where the cells are roundish, leaving many small spaces between the cells.  In the spongy parenchyma of the leaf mesophyll, these intercellular spaces have the special name of substomatal chambers because the spaces are so large.
Intercropping: The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop.
Interfascicular cambium: Interfascicular cambium is vascular cambium derived from the de-differtiated parenchyma cells of the pith ray.  Thus, the parenchyma cells of the pith ray between two vascular bundles de-differentiates into meristem tissue.  This is called interfascicular cambium.

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Intermediate crown class: See crown class: intermediate
Intermediate cutting: See intermediate treatments
Intermediate treatments: Any treatment in a stand during that portion of the rotation not included in the final harvest or regeneration period.
Intermediate tree: See crown class: intermediate
Intermediate tolerance: A characteristic of certain tree species that allows them to survive; though not necessarily thrive, in relatively low light conditions.
Intermediate trees: Trees shorter than those in the dominant or co-dominant classes, but with crowns either below or extending into the crown cover formed by co-dominant and dominant trees; receiving a little direct light from above, but none from the sides; usually with small crowns, considerably crowded on the sides. (See crown class).
Internodes: The regions of the stem that are between the nodes.
Interplanting: Planting young trees among existing natural regeneration or previously planted trees of similar age.
Instar: The insect itself during the time between molts in the larva or nymph, numbered to designate the various periods; i.e., the first instar is the insect between the egg and first molt.
Instigate: start trouble: to cause trouble, especially by urging somebody to do something destructive or wrong
Intermediate yield: All material from thinnings or operations preceding the principal felling in a regular forest, or its cash equivalent.
Interplant: To plant seedlings among existing trees, planted or natural.
Interveinal: Between veins
Intolerance: A characteristic of certain tree species that does not permit them to survive in the shade of other trees.
Intraveinal: Associated along or within veins.
Introduced species: A nonnative species that was intentionally or unintentionally brought into an area by humans.
Invasive: An introduced (non-native) plant that disrupts the local ecosystem and isn’t checked by climate, grazing, or other natural means. Extreme examples include (Prosipus juliflora) in Sind, Pakistan.
Invertebrates: Invertebrates are the animals that do not have backbone, e.g. insects or worms.
Iris: Irises are monocots that are in the family Iridaceae in the division Anthophyta.  They have inferior ovaries and regular flowers.  The genus Iris has all of its flower parts petaloid (texture and color of petals).  Irises produce a rhizome that becomes the perennial part of the plant.
Iron: [ Old English īren < Germanic] a heavy, magnetic, malleable, ductile, lustrous, silvery white metallic element that is present in very small quantities in the blood and is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. Source: hematite, limonite, magnetite. Use: engineering and structural products. Symbol Fe
Irregular forest: A forest composed of trees of markedly different ages. (See: Even-aged crop)
Irregular shelterwood system: See shelterwood cutting
Irregular stocking: See stocking: partially stocked
Irregular uneven-aged structure: Stands that have three or more distinct age classes which do not occupy approximately equal areas. Distribution of diameters is unbalanced.
Isinglass: Gelatin used in adhesives: a transparent or translucent gelatin made from the air bladders of various fish, especially the sturgeon. Use: clarifying agent, in adhesives and jellies
Isodiametric: Isodiametric is a word that describes parenchyma cells.  “Iso” means same and diametric has to do with the dimensions of the cell.  Thus, isodiametric literally means “same dimensions.” The dimensions of the cell are the length, width, and height.  Thus, it means that the length, width and height are approximately equal in each of the parenchyma cells.
Isohyets: A line on a map connecting places that receive the same amount of rainfall in the course of a year.
Isolation strip: See buffer strip
Isoseismic line: A line connecting points on the Earth’s surface at which earthquake intensity is the same. It is usually a closed curve around the epicenter.
I.U.C.N: An abbreviation for Internationl Union for Conservation of Natural Resources. It was found in 1948 under the auspices of UNO. IUCN encourages and assists societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable. From time to time, IUCN brings out an updated RED LIST (popularly known as Red Data Book) which contains detailed information on the conservation status of every spp in the world and identifies the region or ecosystem in which each spp lives.

Corrections and Suggestions are most welcome. Please use the comment section for feedback. If you see any missing terminology or any updated one or any latest term please use the comment section for the purpose. Also, if you have any image or data related to any above terminologies, don’t forget to mail me at
Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani

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Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani is working as Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu ( Forestrypedia (, All Pak Notifications (, Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.

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