Forest EcologyGeneral SilviculturePlant Taxonomy

Juglans regia Linn.

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Juglans regia Linn. Family


Juglans regia Linn. English Name


Juglans regia Linn. Local Name


Juglans regia Linn.

Juglans regia Linn. Description

A large, deciduous tree, 15 to 30 m tall with diameters of 1 to 1.5 m. The crown is broad, spreading and rounded. The leaves are compound, with leaflets 7 to 20 cm long and 5 to 10 cm wide, oval to oblong, pointed and the edges not usually toothed. The bark is grey becoming darker with age. The younger bark has long vertical striations that deepen with age. Older bark will also be cracked transversely. It is monoecious. Male flowers are in bunches 5 to 12 cm long growing on last year’s shoots. Female flowers occur as singles or in two or three between February and April. The fruit is a fleshy drupe, greenish yellow spotted, oblong in shape 5 cm long. Inside the drupe is the nut in a hard, wrinkled shell. The fruiting period is June to October. It coppices at an early age. The tree is attacked by various fruit and wood borers and is susceptible to leafy mistletoe. It is generally reproduced from seed but can also be reproduced by vegetative means. Seed can be successfully cold stored for two years in air-tight containers. Diameters of 1 m in 60 years have been recorded. It is a slow growing tree which precludes rapid acceptance by farmers. It has straight heavy and resilient wood with fine even texture with greyish / brown colour and dark streaks. 

Juglans regia Linn.

Juglans regia Linn. Distribution

The tree is native to India, Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, upper Burma, China and Japan. It is cultivated in many parts of the world because of its nuts. In Pakistan it is found in Northern Areas, Dir. Swat, Hazara, Murree Hills, and Azad Kashmir. It is also planted in gardens and along streets in cities. A moderately tolerant tree that grows on deep, rich, moist soils, but prefers moist, shady sites. Its precipitation zone is 750 to 1500 mm/yr or more in a humid, cool, temperate climate with a temperature range of -10 to 35°C at elevations between 1000 and 3300 m.

Juglans regia Linn.

Juglans regia Linn. Uses

An important and valuable component of the coniferous forest but planting programs may be needed to preserve it and insure its position as a member of the coniferous forest. Because of its fruit and high value wood it could be part of a farm forestry program. Also used as Fruit, gun stocks, furniture, fodder, wood carving, burls, and medicinal (bark as an anthelmintic, leaves as an astringent, fruit to cure rheumatism).

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