Management of Eucalyptus Species – Species Management

MANAGEMENT OF EUCALYPTUS
Ø  Local Name:               Sufeda, Lachi
Ø  Trade Name:               Blue Gum
Ø  Scientific Name:         Eucalyptus globules
o   OBJECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT
·       To meet the local needs of timber & Fuelwood.
·       To meet the demand of the paper and Ryon industries on a sustained basis.
·       Carbon Sequestration round the year.
o   CHARACTERISTICS/DISTRIBUTION
1.      Its first introduction as plantation work commenced in 1856 in the NILGIRIS, India.
2.      In Hazara and Lahore the planting work dates back to about the year 1895.
3.      Planting Eucalyptus for ameliorating water-logging conditions, trials in JHEEL (Lake) area of PAKHOWAL R.F. date back to the year 1932. The following species were tried:
      i. Eucalyptus camaldulensis
      ii.            Eucalyptus tereticornis
      iii.          Eucalyptus hemiphloia
iv.           Eucalyptus saligna
It was recorded in 1937 and again in 1959 that E. camaldulensis had given the best result.
4.      Extensively planted in the NILGIRIS and PALNI hills, India for fuel, oil and as industrial raw material with elevation 1500 meters – 2400 meters.
5.      Like a KANGAROO and KOALA BEAR which are symbols of peculiar and fauna of Australia the genus Eucalyptus is the most outstanding among plants.
6.      The tree is native to Australia.
7.      The crown is spreading and irregular.
8.      The leaves are simple, narrow and lance-shaped, 6 to 30 cm long and 0.8 to 2 cm wide.
9.      The fruit is a capsule containing small many seeds and is shaped like a half globe.
10.    The capsules mature between September and October.
11.    It coppices well and can be grown in mixed stands.
12.    It grows very fast. Height growth rates of 0.3 m/month for young stands have been reported.
13.    M.A.I. of 25m3/ha/year is not uncommon.
14.    It is an excellent Farm Forestry Tree ideally suited for planting on saline, sodic and waterlogged farm sites.
15.    Seeds are extremely minutes; about 2,30,000 to 3,50,000 seed weight per kg.
16.    Germination capacity varies 50 to 80%.
17.    Plant percent 10 to 30.
18.    E. globulus and E. regrans are stated to reach a height of over 400 feet.
19.    The arrangement of the leaves assists in intercepting or avoiding solar and sky radiation.
20.    Most Eucalyptus produce five different types of leaves during their lifetime.
21.    Most Eucalyptus have massive root systems both lateral as well as vertical. The roots have been traced to a distance of 120 feet from the tree in light soils, while down-ward development may go to even 100 feet deep.
22.    Eucalyptus of drier parts growing in savannah land have:-
      i.          Deep root systems to tide over a period of drought.
      ii.         Shallow roots spread in topsoil to take advantage of light rain.
23.    Eucalyptus timber wraps and splits very badly. This defect has been the main point against Eucalyptus.
24.    Like all Eucalyptus, Blue gum is a strong light demander.
25.    It has wonderful coppicing power.
o   VARIOUS EUCALYPTUS SPECIES
1.   Eucalyptus camaldulensis
      Common Name:         Sufeda, Lachi
      Trade Name:               Red River gum
2.   Eucalyptus citriodora
      Common Name:         Sufeda
      Trade Name:               Lemon Scented gum
3.   Eucalyptus microtheca
      Common Name:         Sufeda
      Trade Name:               Flooded Box
4.   Eucalyptus tereticornis
      Common Name:         Sufeda, Lachi
      Trade Name:               Mysore hybrid & Mysore gum.
5.   Species recommended for ornamental purposes:-
i.    Eucalyptus ficifolia
ii.   E. erythronema
iii.   E. caesia
iv.   E. calophylla
v.     E. macrocarpa
vi.   E. cosmophylla
6.   Species appear suitable for growing under semi-water-logging conditions:-
      i.    E. botryoides
      ii.   E. gemphocephala
iii.   E. rudis
iv.   E. grandis
v.     E. robusta
vi.   E. camaldulensis
vii.  E. occidentalis
viii. E. hemisphloia
ix.   E. redunea
x.     E. siderophloia
xi.   E. tereticornis
7.   E. eximia                    =          Suitable for Riverain areas.
8.   E. cosmophylla           =          Highly ornamental.
9.   E. longifolia                =          Suitable under coastal conditions.
10. E. leucoxylon         = Drought and frost resistant and is ornamental at the same time.
o   SILVICULTURAL SYSTEM
Ø  The silvicultural system adopted is the simple coppice.
Ø  Rotation: The rotation is fixed 10 or 15 years.
Ø  Yield: Yield is regulated on the basis of area.
Ø  Felling:
i.    An area is demarcated as an annual coupe.
ii.   Before felling, the leaves of certain varieties of Eucalyptus may be extracted to yield oil.
iii. All the trees are felled and stumps of 15 cms height are retained.
iv.  All the felled materials is immediately extracted from the forest. The felled material is not stacked over the stumps.
v.   The felling debris is removed from the forest as soon as possible.
o   REGENERATION
Ø  The following stemps are taken to ensure regeneration:-
i.       SUCCESSIVE ROTATIONS:
a.   Yield is creases in the Second Rotation by about 10%. This is so because the root system becomes fully established during this period.
b.   However, in the Third Rotation there is a fall by about 8% and in the Fourth Rotation between 10 to 15%.
c.   Re-planting of the entire forest will be done at the end of Five Rotations.
d.   During these fifty years, the coppicing power of the old stem, becomes very weak.
ii.     NURSERY OPERATIONS
a.   Sowing of seeds in nursery beds is done in December at the rate of 75 gm per bed in 10 mt x 1 mt beds.
b.   Daily watering is done on non-rainy days.
c.   The seed beds are covered with a thin layer of earth and brushwood or grass.
d.   The seeds germinate in about a fortnight or so.
e.   When seedlings attain a height of about 5 cms, they are pricked out into polyethene bags.
f.    These bags are shifted, weeded and hand-watering at appropriate regular intervals.
iii.   PLANTING
a.   The plants are transplanted in pits having the space of 2mt x 2mt or 1.5 x 1.5 mt.
b.   Pits 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm size are dug.
 SUBSIDIARY SILVICULTURAL OPERATIONS
i.       Failure is beaten up after a year or so.
ii.     Two weeding is done in the year following the planting.
iii.   Excess coppice shoots may have to be thinned out after 3 to 4 years; if natural selection does not occur.
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SEE ALSO:  Two Storied High Forest

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