Management of Fir (Abies pindrow) and Spruce (Picea smithiana)

    MANAGEMENT OF FIR AND SPRUCE
(A)     Local Name:  Partal, Paludar
Trade Name: Silver Fir
Scientific Name:      Abies pindrow
    DESCRIPTION:
1.       It occurs within elevation range of 4500 – 10,000 feet.
2.       It is found in AJK, Dir, Swat, Shangla, Chitral, Murree hills, Hazara Galiat, Khaghan valley.
3.       The crown extends to the ground with the branches drooping, priming a conical crown.
4.       The leaves are needles 2 to 4 cm long.
5.       Cones ripen late September to early November, should be collected by mid-October.
6.       10 kg of cones produce 1 kg of clean seed.
7.       Seed weight is about 16500/kg.
8.       Good seed years occur once in about 4 years (3 to 5 years).
9.       Seed should be stored in gunny bags, which should be exposed to sun and short intervals.
10.     The seed is 1 to 1.2 cm long with a thin, papery wing.
11.     It is tolerant tree that will grow fairly well in shade.
12.     It avoids poor soils.
13.     It grows slow. M.A.I. of 4 to 6 m3/ha/year.
14.     It is difficult to regenerate.
15.     Wood is white, turning to light brown with age.
16.     It is a shade-bearer, side shade in useful.
17.     Seedlings are affected by Frost, sometimes.
18.     Extremely fire-tender.
(B)     Local Name: Kachal
          Trade Name: Spruce
          Scientific Name:      Picea smithiana

    DESCRIPTION:
1.       It occurs between 4500 – 10,000 elevation range.
2.       It is found in AJK, Dir, Swat, Shangla, Chitral, Murree Hills, Hazara, Gliat, Kaghan valley, Kurram Agency.
3.       Branches are whorled with a drooping appearance.
4.       The leaves are needle-like 2.5 to 4 cm long, arranged around the branch.
5.       The bark is grayish-brown.
6.       A moderately intolerant tree that grows in some shade.
7.       It is susceptible to a number of wood rotting.
8.       Cone is Ripen in October-November.
9.       Good seed year occur once in about 5 years.
10.     Seeds are very light.
11.     Seed weight is about 63000/kg.
12.     Germinative capacity varies from 25 to 80% and plant percent 40 to 70.
13.     Long intervals of good seed year is a limiting factor in Natural Regeneration.
14.     There are two winged seed beneath each cone scale.
15.     Seed is shed in October.
16.     Natural Regeneration is difficult.
17.     Wood is white or light brown.
    SILVICULTURE SYSTEM OF FIR AND SPRUCE
Worked under selection system.
Ø    Rotation:                120 years
Ø    Regeneration:         30 years
Ø    Periodic Blocks:      Four Periodic Blocks are constituted as under:
Period Block
From
To
P.B. I
91 years
120 years
P.B. II
61 years
90 years
P.B. III
31 years
60 years
P.B. IV
1 years
30 years
    FELLINGS IN PERIODIC BLOCK I AREAS:
Periodic Block I Areas are felled on the following principles:
1.       Seed bearers in the diameter class of 40 to 60 cms are Retained in the undermentioned numbers:-
Species
Seed Bears per Hectare
Fir
40 to 45 Nos
Spruce
30 To 45 Nos
2.       Only those trees should be selected as seed bearers which are well grown, healthy, tall and having clean boles.
3.       The mother trees should be evenly distributed all over the area.
    REGENERATION:

A new crop is obtained mainly by Artificial means.
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SEE ALSO:  Jasminum grandiflorum

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