MANAGEMENT OF MULBERRY
- Common Name: Tut, Mulberry
- Scientific Name: Morus alba
· The crown is spreading and rounded.
· The fruit is a berry containing 5 to 15 seeds.
· The berries are white to pinkish to purple to red to black.
· The fruiting period is from March to June.
· The tree is native to Pakistan, China, Central Asia, and Afghanistan.
· It has been planted in many other parts of the world.
o SILVICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS
· It will coppice easily and can be grown in mixed stands.
· It is frost hardy and can tolerate hot drought conditions.
· It has numerous insects and pest enemies including porcupines, defoliators, powdery mildew, Root Rots and die back.
· It is reproduced both from seed and by vegetative means.
· It grows very fast and M.A.I. of 5 to 8.5 m3/ha/year is not uncommon.
· Diameter of 60 cm is recorded for 20 years old trees.
· It is important as silkworm feed.
· This is a good farm forestry tree.
· The sports goods, fodder, veneer, plywood, furniture, and shelterbelts.
· Medicinal bark is a vermifuge and purgative, fruit is a laxative.
· Mulberry is indigenous to China.
· It ascends up to about 1200 meter altitude, confined mostly to stream beds or moist valleys.
· It grows in areas with sub-tropical or mild temperate climate.
· Ripen seeds are collected from the trees, never from the ground, due to insect attacked.
· Dry seed is mixed with Ash or sand, put in sealed tins and stored in dry place, can be stored for two years.
· Seed average 4,50,000 per kg.
· Germination percentage is low 8-16% averaging 10% only.
· Stratification of seed in moist sand for 30-40 days is reported to improve germination.
· Soaking in cold water mixed with CAMPHOR for about a weak ensure uniform germination.
· Dipping the seed in kerosene oil is suggested to protect it against insects.
o METHODS OF PROPAGATION
· Mulberry regenerates naturally through seed dispersed by water and birds, and by coppice.
· Factors favorable for Natural Regeneration are:
· i. Adequate shade;
· ii. Freedom from tall and thick weeds;
· iii. Adequate soil moisture.
· vi. Protection against browsing animals.
· Because of its shade tolerance and fast rate of growth, Mulberry tends to be aggressive in irrigated plantations e.g. Changa Manga plantation.
o ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION
· Direct sowing does not give good results.
· It can be propagated either:
i. By planting out nursery raised entire plants with a ball of earth or
ii. stumps or
iii. Rooted branch cuttings.
· Budding, grafting and layering can also be done to multiply valuable planting material.
· It coppice vigorously, however coppicing power of trees bigger than 30 cm diameter is generally poor.
· Mulberry pollards very well.
· Mulberry is a valuable multi-purpose tree. Its timber is fine, close-grained.
· Its chief demand is by the sports industry for hockey sticks, cricket bats, tennis and badminton rackets etc.
· Its twigs are used for basket making.
o SILVICULTURAL SYSTEM
· Irrigated mixed plantation are generally worked under coppice with STANDARD SYSTEM; standards being sissoo.
· Since most of the regeneration is of seedling origin, the system is more in the nature of Two-STOREYED HIGH FOREST.
· Coppice rotation range from 18 to 22 years are those for standards 54 to 66 years, three times the coppice rotation.
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