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Mitigation Strategies to Combat Climate Change in Different Specific Sectors of Balochistan Pakistan

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Climate change mitigation holds utmost significance in Balochistan, aiming to curtail GHG emissions and enhance Balochistan’s capacity to withstand the repercussions of climate change. These strategies align with Pakistan’s NDCs, strategically linked with Vision 20259 and the 5E Framework”, which delineate the nation’s commitments to mitigating GHG emissions and fortifying its resilience against climate change impacts. Within the NDCs, several mitigation measures of relevance to Balochistan are outlined, including the promotion of renewable energy sources, the enhancement of energy efficiency, and the preservation of forested areas.

MITIGATION STRATEGIES to Combat Climate Change in Different Specific Sectors of Pakistan

Climate change mitigation strategies are of paramount importance for Balochistan, driven by multiple compelling reasons. Firstly, they serve as a pivotal tool in curtailing Balochistan’s GHG emissions, thus contributing significantly to global climate change mitigation endeavors. Secondly, they play a pivotal role in augmenting Balochistan’s resilience against the impacts of climate change, bolstering its ability to withstand future challenges. Thirdly, these strategies have the potential to stimulate economic growth and job creation, providing a much-needed boost to the regional economy. Nonetheless. the development and execution of mitigation strategies pose substantial challenges for Balochistan, stemming from various factors, including:

Limited Provincial GHG Inventories:

To implement efficient greenhouse gas a (GI-1G ceimisGsioHnGs mitigation strategies across various sectors, it is imperative to develop sector-specific inventories. These inventories serve the purpose of pinpointing the principal sources of emissions, quantifying the volume of emissions, and providing the essential data needed for the formulation of mitigation plans. Presently, a conspicuous absence of GHG emission data exists for the sectors in Balochistan. To bridge this data gap, the GoB will provide necessary support to compile comprehensive GHG inventories, adhering to methodologies that align with the national GHG inventory standards and guidelines established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), for each sector in Balochistan. Such an approach will ensure the accuracy and uniformity of the data, thereby facilitating the implementation of effective GHG emissions mitigation strategies.

Financial Constraints:

Balochistan contends with financial constraints as Pakistan’s most economically-disadvantaged province. Limited financial resources impede significant investments in mitigation measures.

Technical Capacity Gaps:

Balochistan grapples with a shortage of technical capacity necessary for the formulation and implementation of mitigation strategies.

Sector-specific Mitigation Actions

Notwithstanding these hurdles, Balochistan will adopt and adapt several mitigation strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, primarily aligned with the NDCs (2021). These strategies can be categorised into the following key sectors:

Energy:

Balochistan boasts substantial potential for renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power. Balochistan will actively promote the development and deployment of renewable energy technologies to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels. Enhancing energy efficiency in buildings and industrial processes is also viable.

Transportation:

Encouraging the use of public transportation, electric vehicles, and bicycles will significantly reduce emissions in the transportation sector. Infrastructure investments that support walking and biking in urban centres can further bolster emission reduction efforts.

Industry:

Balochistan will advocate for energy efficiency measures and sustainable manufacturing practices within the industrial sector. Supporting the development and adoption of low-carbon industrial technologies is another avenue for emissions reduction.

Agriculture:

Improving livestock management practices, such as optimising feed composition and introducing suitable livestock breeds, represents an effective approach to mitigating methane emissions originating from enteric fermentation within the agricultural sector. Balochistan can embrace sustainable and climate-smart agricultural practices, encompassing methodologies like no-till farming, judicious fertiliser management, the promotion of manure composting to partially replace chemical fertilisers, agroforestry systems, and water-efficient rice cultivation. These practices serve a dual purpose by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, enhancing carbon sequestration, fostering soil health, conserving water, and bolstering the livelihoods of farmers.

Forestry:

Balochistan possesses substantial potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions through well-planned forest conservation and expansion initiatives. Balochistan will pursue two primary strategies: a) implementing stringent measures to prevent deforestation and degradation of existing forests through regulatory enforcement, the promotion of sustainable forest management practices, and active community engagement in conservation efforts, and

b) expanding afforestation and reforestation programs with a focus on native and climate-resilient tree species.

Blue Carbon:

Boasting the longest coastal belt in Pakistan, stretching over 750 kilometres, Balochistan is rich in marine ecosystems, including extensive mangrove forests. This ecological wealth, particularly the mangroves, presents an exceptional opportunity for participation in carbon markets. Balochistan can harness its abundant coastal ecosystems not only to augment its carbon sequestration potential but also to tap into the growing carbon market. This endeavour can generate financial resources to further conservation efforts, enhance climate resilience, and improve the livelihoods of coastal communities.
In addition to these sector-specific strategies, Balochistan will implement cross-sectoral mitigation approaches, such as:

Carbon Pricing:

Balochistan will align itself with the nationally instituted carbon pricing mechanism to incentivise businesses and individuals to reduce their emissions, thereby aligning economic incentives with emission reduction goals.

Research and Development Investment:

Investing in research and development of innovative mitigation technologies and practices will foster the adoption of cutting-edge solutions.

Awareness Building and Capacity Development:

Balochistan will prioritise raising awareness about climate change and building the capacity to formulate and implement effective mitigation strategies. This will empower local stakeholders to actively engage, in mitigation efforts.

By strategically addressing these challenges and proactively pursuing these mitigation strategies, Balochistan will make significant strides towards reducing its GHG emissions and enhancing its resilience in the face of climate change, while concurrently promoting sustainable development and economic growth.

Courtesy: REDD+ Pakistan

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