Forest EcologyGeneral SilviculturePlant Taxonomy

Pinus halepensis Miller

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Pinus halepensis Miller. Family


Pinus halepensis Miller. English Name

Aleppo pine

Pinus halepensis Miller. Local Name

Quetta pine

Pinus halepensis Miller

Pinus halepensis Miller. Description

A medium sized tree 12 to 27 m tall with an average diameter of 0.4 m. The crown is rounded, diffuse with spreading branches. The needles are in twos, 6.25 to 15 cm long. It is monoecious. The male flowers or cones are many, crowded in headlike clusters. The female flowers are erect and clustered at the ends of branches. The cones bloom between April and June. The fruit is the female cone. As it ripens it turns a shiny reddish-brown color. The seed in the cone takes a full year to mature after pollination or 2 years for the reproductive cycle to be completed. There are two, winged seed beneath each cone scale. Seed is shed September through October. The tree is free of disease and insect problems. It is reproduced from seed. Seeds crops are frequent, and seed can be stored in sealed containers in a refrigerated environment for a number of years. This is considered a fast-growing tree. Yields of 3 to 12 m3/ha/yr have been recorded on different quality sites. Height growth of 0.3 to 0.5 m/yr has been recorded over a fifty-year period. Grain straight, medium fine and un-even textured. Wood is light brownish white with a resinous odor, with moderately hard strength having specific gravity of 0.71

Pinus halepensis Miller. Distribution

The tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. However it is not found in either Libya or Egypt. In Pakistan it has been successfully planted in NWFP and Balochistan, especially in Quetta and even in Ziarat with hand watering. An intolerant tree that grows on a variety of soils, including shallow, eroded and soils low in nutrients. Although it grows best on well drained soils it will not grow on saline or wet sites. This is one of the few pines that does grow on heavy clay soil. It is drought hardy and is well adapted to a precipitation zone of 250 to 800 mm/yr and can survive 7 to 8 months of drought. It prefers a semi-arid, cool temperate Mediterranean climate with a temperature range of -20 to 40 C at elevations up to 2000 m. It can withstand short periods of hard frosts.

Pinus halepensis Miller

Pinus halepensis Miller. Uses

This is a valuable tree for reforestation and afforestation of denuded areas of Pakistan that have a Mediterranean type of climate. It is also used in construction, fuel, resin, erosion control, and packing crates.

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