Pinus roxburghii Sargent. Family
Pinus roxburghii Sargent. English Name
Pinus roxburghii Sargent. Local Name
Pinus roxburghii Sargent. Description
A large tree 21 to 33 m tall with an average diameter of 0.6 m. The crown is rounded. The needles are in threes, 20 to 30 cm long. The bole is straight, erect. It is monoecious. The male flowers or cones are many crowded in headlike clusters, 1.3 to 1.8 cm long. The female flowers are erect solitary with 2 to 5 clustered at the end of branches. The cones bloom between January and April. The fruit is the female cone. As it ripens it turns a shiny reddish-brown color. The seed in the cone takes a full year to mature after pollination and 2 years for the reproductive cycle to be completed. There are two, winged seeds beneath each cone scale. Seed is shed September through October. The tree is free of disease and insect problems. Natural regeneration occurs readily on hare mineral soil. It is reproduced from seed. Seed crops are erratic, but seed can be stored in sealed containers in a refrigerated environment for a number of years. This is considered a fast-growing tree. Yields of 7 to 14 m3/ha/yr are recorded on sites of different quality. Grains straight or spiral, medium fine and un-even textured, Sapwood white, heartwood light red turning to reddish or yellowish brown with age, having specific gravity of 0.61 and a calorific value of 5015 kcal/kg.
Pinus roxburghii Sargent. Distribution
The tree is native to Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal, India, and Afghanistan. In Pakistan it is found in the Himalayas specifically in Azad Kashmir, Murree, Hazara, Swat, Dir, Bajaur, Khyber, Malakand, and Orakzai Agencies. It is easily cultivated in the northern areas of the Punjab and the NWFP. Large plantations have been raised in Mansehra, Abbottabad and Balakot areas of NWFP. An intolerant tree that grows on a variety of soils, including shallow soils and soils originating from limestones, granites, and sandstone. It is drought hardy and is well adapted to a precipitation zone of 450 to 1625 mm/yr and can survive 2 to 4 months of drought. It prefers a humid sub-humid, cool-moderately cool, sub-tropical monsoon climate with a temperature range of -5 to 40°C at elevations between 500 to 2500 m. It is frost hardy and fire resistant.
Pinus roxburghii Sargent. Uses
This is a valuable tree for reforestation and afforestation of denuded areas in the foothills of Pakistan. Native stands have been heavily overcut and will need to be replanted. Also used in construction, fuel, resin erosion control, sleepers, food (edible seed), various wood products (furniture, match sticks, etc.) tar (roots) and tannin