Forest ManagementForestrypediaWildlife

 Planting of trees for Conservation of Birds and Pollinators.

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Birds are an important component of an ecosystem, benefiting human beings in many ways. Birds matter tremendously, and their presence near to us in cities delivers delight. Spending time connecting with the natural world is the perfect antidote to the pressures of modern life. Getting close to nature and especially listening to birds’ songs and calls helps improve our mental and emotional health, happiness and wellbeing. They make cities more interesting, infusing urban neighborhoods and spaces with a life force. Birds eat insects, which is a natural way to control pests in gardens, on farms, and other places. A group of birds gliding through the air can easily eat hundreds of insects each day, proving effective functional biological control systems. There is a lot of evidence that spending time in nature has positive effects on human well-being. Hikers who heard the bird songs reported a greater sense of well-being than those who didn’t. Therefore, any urban landscape or urban forestry plan must include trees that provide food and shelter. A list of suitable species for bird and pollinators biodiversity is given in annex 2. The Ficus species especially the Pipal (Ficus religiosa), Gular (Ficus glomerata), and Bar (Ficus bengalensis) are suitable for urban spaces.

The pollinators are needed for the reproduction of 90% of flowering plants and one third of human food crops. Pollinators include bees, butterflies, moths, beetles, flies, birds, and bats. The survival of many pollinators in Pakistan is at stake due to heavy use of agrochemicals and loss of native habitats, Abundant and healthy populations of pollinators can improve fruit quality and increase fruit size. In farming situations this increases production, and in the wild, biodiversity increases wildlife food sources. In addition, increase in honeybees can increase honey production and create livelihoods for the rural communities. While many flowering plants provide food for the wildlife and pollinators.

Tree Species Suitable for Bird Food and Pollinators

The following plants are recommended for planting in combination with other species in all forest and urban landscapes.

Scientific NameLocal NameNative/ExoticFruit/Nectar
Albizzia lebbekBlack SirisNativeNectar
Albizia proceraSafed SirisNativeNectar
Bauhinia purpureaKachnarNativeNectar
Bauhinia variegateBahariNativeNectar
Bombax ceibaSimalNativeNectar
Carissa opacaGarandaNativeFruit
Cordia dichotomaLasuriNativeFruit
Cordia myxaLasuraNativeFruit
Crateva religiosaReligious TreeNativeNectar
Ficus benghalensisBarNativeFruit
Ficus caricaFigNativeFruit
Ficus racemosaGularNativeFruit
Ficus religiosaPipalNativeFruit
Ficus virensPilkhanNativeFruit
Morus albaMulberryNativeFruit
Morus nigraMulberryNativeFruit
Phoenix dactyliferaKhajurNativeFruit
Prosopis cinerariaJand/KandiNativeNectar
Punica granatumAnnarNativeFruit
Putranjiva roxburghii PatajinNativeFruit
Salvadora oleoidesPiluNativeFruit
Salvadora persicaPiluNativeFruit
Syzygium cuminiJamunNativeNectar
Ziziphus mauritianaBerNativeFruit
Callistemon viminalisBottle brushExoticNectar
Eucalyptus micothecaSufedaExoticNectar
Eucalyptus tereticornisSufedaExoticNectar
Ficus retusaBobariExoticFruit
Gleditsia triacanthos Honey locustExoticNectar
Gmelina arboreaGumharExoticNectar
Grevillea robustaSilver OakExoticNectar
Leucaena leucocephalaIpil IpilExoticNectar
Sapium sebiferumTarcharbiExoticNecatr
Tamarindus indicaImliExoticNectar

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