Birds are an important component of an ecosystem, benefiting human beings in many ways. Birds matter tremendously, and their presence near to us in cities delivers delight. Spending time connecting with the natural world is the perfect antidote to the pressures of modern life. Getting close to nature and especially listening to birds’ songs and calls helps improve our mental and emotional health, happiness and wellbeing. They make cities more interesting, infusing urban neighborhoods and spaces with a life force. Birds eat insects, which is a natural way to control pests in gardens, on farms, and other places. A group of birds gliding through the air can easily eat hundreds of insects each day, proving effective functional biological control systems. There is a lot of evidence that spending time in nature has positive effects on human well-being. Hikers who heard the bird songs reported a greater sense of well-being than those who didn’t. Therefore, any urban landscape or urban forestry plan must include trees that provide food and shelter. A list of suitable species for bird and pollinators biodiversity is given in annex 2. The Ficus species especially the Pipal (Ficus religiosa), Gular (Ficus glomerata), and Bar (Ficus bengalensis) are suitable for urban spaces.
The pollinators are needed for the reproduction of 90% of flowering plants and one third of human food crops. Pollinators include bees, butterflies, moths, beetles, flies, birds, and bats. The survival of many pollinators in Pakistan is at stake due to heavy use of agrochemicals and loss of native habitats, Abundant and healthy populations of pollinators can improve fruit quality and increase fruit size. In farming situations this increases production, and in the wild, biodiversity increases wildlife food sources. In addition, increase in honeybees can increase honey production and create livelihoods for the rural communities. While many flowering plants provide food for the wildlife and pollinators.
The following plants are recommended for planting in combination with other species in all forest and urban landscapes.
|Scientific Name||Local Name||Native/Exotic||Fruit/Nectar|
|Albizzia lebbek||Black Siris||Native||Nectar|
|Albizia procera||Safed Siris||Native||Nectar|
|Crateva religiosa||Religious Tree||Native||Nectar|
|Callistemon viminalis||Bottle brush||Exotic||Nectar|
|Gleditsia triacanthos||Honey locust||Exotic||Nectar|
|Grevillea robusta||Silver Oak||Exotic||Nectar|
|Leucaena leucocephala||Ipil Ipil||Exotic||Nectar|