Forest EcologyGeneral SilviculturePlant Taxonomy

Populus deltoides Bartr

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Populus deltoides Bartr. Family


Populus deltoides Bartr. English Name

Northern Cottonwood

Populus deltoides Bartr. Local Name

Sufed Poplar

Populus deltoides Bartr

Populus deltoides Bartr. Description

A large, deciduous tree 25 to 30 m tall, with diameters of 40 cm or more. The trunk is erect and the crown broad and spreading. The leaves are simple, 7.5 to 12.5 cm long. The bark on older trees is grey to grey black and rough. On younger trees the bark is smooth and shiny. It is dioecious. The male catkins are 7.5 to 10 cm long and the female catkins are 15 to 20 cm long. Flowering and seed production occurs between June and August. It does coppice. It is susceptible to many insect and disease problems especially when stressed. It is reproduced both from seed and by vegetative means. The seed is small with silky hairs (cotton), light and wind disseminated. Seed viability is low. It is fast growing. Yields of 20 to 40 m3/ha/yr have been recorded. Several clones of this tree have given excellent performance. Grains very fine, straight and even textured, Sapwood is white, and heartwood pale to brownish grey, moderately light, soft having specific gravity of 0.46 and a calorific value of 5900 kcal/kg.

Populus deltoides Bartr

Populus deltoides Bartr. Distribution

The tree is native to North America. In Pakistan it has been successfully planted in the plains as well as in the hills. Several clones of this species have been tested in different parts of Pakistan and the best ones suited to local conditions have been identified. An intolerant tree that grows on sandy loams and alluvial soils. It requires considerable amounts of water to maintain growth and is adapted to a precipitation zone of 750 to 1250 mm/yr or more, in a temperature range of -20 to 35°c. It prefers a semi-humid to semi-arid, cool, sub-tropical temperate climate

Populus deltoides Bartr

Populus deltoides Bartr. Uses

This is a good farm forestry tree. It has been extensively planted and intercropped on farms in Pakistan. Under some conditions it will compete with crops for water. It is also a good shelter belt tree because of its rapid growth. Also used as fuel, packing cases and crates, matches, erosion control and reforestation, plywood, pulp, fodder, and roadside tree plantation.

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