PROBLEMS AND CONSTRAINTS OF RANGE MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN
The major problems in Pakistan are technical, socio-economical and administrative.
- Lack of trained personnel for range mgt activates.
- Lack of range research.
The forest area of Pakistan is about 5.4% for which 1300-1400 personnel or more are working but pity is that rangelands occupy about 70% of the total area and there is no separate department for it. Moreover, there are 20 less than 100 persons in the country which have done Ph.D. Consequently the country is a deficit of technical manpower.
In 1954, the range research was started in Quetta (Balochistan); in PFI Peshawar as well, a branch is research division, but still, no institution could have been set to meet range mgt problems.
The socio-economics stands for the following cases:
2.1. Number/ quantity versus quality of problems
The people rear the cattle in villages and towns while the hospitals for their cure of diseases are provided in cities mostly; and in case of disease, the herdsmen and shepherds suffer a lot.
In 1962, the government, through an ordinance, maintained that all the goats from hilly areas should be removed. The people violated and rather disobeyed. Similarly, in Kohistan several years ago the area was fenced to keep the animal away from lands which were also defied. Consequently, the needs of people should also be reckoned otherwise the masses sack the planner’s wills which fails the plan.
2.2. Land Tenure System:
The ownership of rangelands is invested in the Revenue Department as most of Govt lands are under the revenue department. Moreover, there are people who have tends around the villages – shamilat or called no man’s property. They do not have any interest to recover and improve these lands. In Balochistan, most lands belong to chiefs of tribes. In kaghan most area belongs to Sayyad family. So it is meant that no one bothers about these properties.
2.3. Migratory herds:
The people need food for livestock which they know where it is available and when. In May and June (dry months) they move to alpine and sub-alpine areas to enjoy the severity of the season and to feed the livestock and pay for it to Sayyad or else owner. At the end of the season somewhere in September, they tread back.
3.1. Lack of incentives for the staff working in rangelands:
A range mgt conference held at Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar in 1966. It was held that staff faces hardships in the rangelands. So a resolution was recommended to the Govt that working staff should be meted out 20% additional pay and one grade higher promotion to encourage the people to take part in range mgt of Pakistan.
It was also recommended in a policy directive that people should be allocated for range mgt activities. It is however easy to set up offices.
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