Forest EcologyGeneral SilviculturePlant Taxonomy

Quercus dilatata Royle.

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Quercus dilatata Royle. Family


Quercus dilatata Royle. English Name

White Oak

Quercus dilatata Royle. Local Name


Quercus dilatata Royle.

Quercus dilatata Royle. Description

A large evergreen tree, 24 to 30 m tall and with a diameter of 0.7 to 1.5 m. The crown is very dense. The leaves are simple, with smooth margins, 4 to 12 cm long. It is monoecious. The male flowers or catkins are hanging bunches 3 to 5 cm long. The female flowers are short, erect bunches. The flowers occur between April and May. The fruit is an acorn or nut, 2.5 cm in diameter. The fruiting period is May to October, a year after pollination. It will coppice readily. The coppice shoots are heavily browsed, and the tree is attacked by leafy mistletoe. It is reproduced both from seed and by vegetative means. The fruit, a nut, is solitary and has a very low viability. Slow growing, it has been reported to have MAI of 0.4 in diameter. Coppice shoots have been recorded to obtain heights of 0.75 m in 5 years and 3 m in 15 years. This tree is an important component of the coniferous forest. In order to maintain diversity attempts must be made to ensure that it is regenerated with the coniferous species. Grains straight to very fine even textured. Sapwood is grey, and heartwood is reddish grey with darker, streaks having specific gravity of 0.95 and a calorific value of 4900 kcal/kg.

Quercus dilatata Royle.

Quercus dilatata Royle. Distribution

The tree is native to India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nepal. In Pakistan it is found in the Himalayas Mountains. Specifically it is in Dir, Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Tirah, Kurram agency, Murree Hills and Azad Kashmir. A moderately intolerant tree that can stand shade better than most oaks. It grows on deep, rich moist, well drained soils and prefers moist shady sites. It is prone to wind throw. It requires a precipitation zone of 500 to 1200 mm/yr or more, prefers a humid to sub-humid, cool-cold, temperate climate with a temperature range of -20 to 35°C at elevations between 1600 and 2900 m.

Quercus dilatata Royle.

Quercus dilatata Royle. Uses

Heavy, hard, resilient used as fuel wood, handles, agriculture implements, fodder, charcoal, tannin and sled runners.

Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani is working as Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu ( Forestrypedia (, All Pak Notifications (, Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.

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