Forest EcologyGeneral SilviculturePlant Taxonomy

Quercus incana Roxb

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Quercus incana Roxb. Family


Quercus incana Roxb. English Name

White Oak

Quercus incana Roxb. Local Name


Quercus incana Roxb

Quercus incana Roxb. Description

A medium to large evergreen tree, 18 to 24 m tall and with a diameter of 0.8 to 1.0 m. The crown is rounded. The leaves are simple, oblong to ovate, 6 to 15 cm long. The bark is grey to greyish brown, silvery when young and peels off in rounded flakes. It is monoecious. The male flowers or catkins are hanging bunches 6 to 14 cm long. The female flowers are solitary, 1 to 2 cm long. The flowers occur between April and May. The fruit is an acorn or nut, 2.5 cm in diameter. The fruiting period is November to January. The tree is attacked by leafy mistletoe. It is reproduced both from seed and by vegetative means. The fruit, a nut, is solitary, viability is low, and storage is difficult. Slow growing, it has been reported to attain 10 cm in diameter in 30 years. A plantation has been recorded as producing up to 21 m3/ha in 70 years. This tree is an important component of the Chir Pine Forest. In order to maintain diversity, attempts must be made to ensure that it is regenerated with the coniferous species. Because of heavy exploitation, planting programs may be needed to preserve this tree. Grains straight to very fine, even textured. Heartwood is heavy, hard, resilient and reddish brown having Specific gravity of 0.97 and a calorific value of 4600 kcal/kg.

Quercus incana Roxb

Quercus incana Roxb. Distribution

The tree is native to India, Pakistan, Nepal and upper Burma. In Pakistan it is found in the Himalayas Mountains. Specifically it is found in Swat, Hazara, Murree Hills, and Azad Kashmir. It is a moderately intolerant tree that grows on deep, rich moist, well drained soils and prefers moist shady sites. It requires a precipitation zone of 1000 to 2300 mm/yr or more. It prefers a humid to sub-humid, cool-cold, temperate climate with a temperature range of -10 to 35°C at an elevation range of 1600 to 2400 m.

Quercus incana Roxb

Quercus incana Roxb. Uses

It coppices readily, and the coppice shoot may be heavily browsed. Fuel, handles, agriculture implements, fodder, charcoal and tannin.

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