Range Ecoregions or Range Ecological Regions of Pakistan

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Last Updated on July 16, 2018 by Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani

RANGE ECOREGION OR RANGE ECOLOGICAL REGIONS

Tropical Maritime:

Very thickly populated area. Avicennia officinalis and Acacia nilotica are the climax species of marine and riverain forests. Most of the rangeland is converted into an agricultural field. It is located in the southern part of Pakistan always the coastal land and river bank.

Trees / Shrubs:

  1. Avicennia officinalis
  2. Acacia nilotica
  3. Prosopis cineraria
  4. Salvadora persica
  5. Campiphora mukal
  6. Euphorbia caudicifolia
  7. Ziziphys mauritiana
  8. numuralis

Grasses:

  1. Cenchrus ciliarus
  2. Cenchrus satigerus
  3. Panicum targidum
  4. Cymbopogon jawarniusa
  5. Eleusine falgellifera
  6. Dectolyctinium scindieus

Range lands are grazed throughout the area due to continue grazing, the range production is reduced upto 50%.

Carrying Capacity:

30 ha/ AU/ year

Grazing Season:

The whole year (due to hot climate)

Grazing System:

Rotational and deferred rotational grazing system can be applied.

Livestock:

Sheep, goats, camel, cattle

Rainfall:

Less than 400 mm

Improvement:

Range improvement practice is applied for the conservation of moisture by contour trenching, micro-catchment, modified contour trenches, water spreading can be done in these areas.



Topical Plains (non-sandy):

This region has been formed by the deposition of river Sind, alluvium silt clay soil formed. It is located in Sind and Punjab. The region has been converted into the agricultural field due to canal irrigation system.

Trees / Shrubs:

  1. Prosopis cineraria
  2. Salvadora persica
  3. S. oliodies
  4. Ziziphus mauritianaZ
  5. Z. numuralis
  6. Tamarix spp

Grasses:

  1. Cenchrus ciliarus
  2. Cenchrus satigerus
  3. Cymbopogon jawarniusa
  4. Eleusine falgellifera
  5. Dectolyctinium scindieus
  6. Aristida depressa
  7. Pennisetum spp

Carrying Capacity:

25 ha/ AU/ year

Grazing Season:

Whole year

Grazing System:

Rotational and deferred rotational grazing system can be applied.

Livestock:

Sheep, goats, camel, cattle

Rainfall:

Less than 400 mm

Improvement:

Range improvement practice is applied for the conservation of moisture by contour trenching, micro-catchment, modified contour trenches, water spreading can be done in these areas.

Tropical Plains (Sandy)

Deserts of Pakistan (Thal, Tharparker, Cholistan, Dera Gazi Khan) included in this range. Sand dunes are the common features due to wind erosion. The region is located in the summer monsoon region. Most of the ppt occurs in summer.

Trees / Shrubs:

  1. Prosopis cineraria
  2. Salvadora persica
  3. S. oliodies
  4. Ziziphys mauritiana
  5. Z. numuralis
  6. Acacia jacquementii
  7. Acer tomentosa
  8. Calligonum polygoneides
  9. Haloxylon salicarinium
  10. Kochia indica

Grasses:

  1. Cenchrus ciliarus
  2. Cenchrus satigerus
  3. Cymbopogon jawarniusa
  4. Eleusine falgellifera
  5. Aristida depressa
  6. Panicum trugidium
  7. Pennisetum divistima

Carrying Capacity:

4-12 ha/ AU/ year (Thal)

40 ha/ AU/ yr  (Cholistan)

30 ha/ AU/ yr (Tharpakar)

Grazing Season:

Whole year

Grazing System:

Rotational and deferred rotational grazing system can be applied.

Livestock:

Mixed (Sheep, goats, camel, cattle)

Rainfall:

Less than 400 mm

Temperature:

High about 45 Celsius

Improvement:

Regeneration by water conserving techniques and water spreading (trenches, micro-catchment)

Subtropical Sub-humid Ecological Region:

This region covers Potohar track, Salt Range, Foothills on NWFP and Balochistan. This region has a diversity of vegetation due to the diversity of climate, parent material. Patent material varies from gravelly, loamy to pediment alluvium. Most of the region is situated in summer monsoon belt. Parts of Balochistan are in winter ppt belt. The climax vegetation of this region is a scrub forest. The desired rangelands are very productive. The productive potential is high. Arid parts of Balochistan have a poor potential for grazing while other rangelands have well.

Deserts of Pakistan (Thal, Tharparker, Cholistan, Dera Gazi Khan) included in this range. Sand dunes are the common features due to wind erosion. The region is located in the summer monsoon region. Most of the ppt occurs in summer.

Trees / Shrubs:

  1. Ziziphus mauritiana
  2. Z. numuralis
  3. Kochia indica
  4. Acacia modesta
  5. Olea feruginia
  6. Tamarix aphylla
  7. Dodonea vescosa
  8. Adhatoda vesica
  9. Otostigia limbeeta
  10. Ryza stricta
  11. Heloxiuon spp
  12. Merium spp

Grasses:

  1. Bothridocola pestusa
  2. Chrysopogon aucheri
  3. Cenchrus ciliarus
  4. Cenchrus satigerus
  5. Cymbopogon jawarniusa
  6. Eleusine falgellifera
  7. Aristida depressa
  8. A. cylindrica
  9. Panicum trugidium
  10. P. antidetale
  11. P. maximum
  12. Heteropogon contartus
  13. Pennisetum divistima
  14. Digitaria spp
  15. Anneapogon persieus
  16. Tetropogan millosum
  17. Hypershenia minor
  18. Cynidon detylon
  19. Pennisetum orientale
  20. Themeda anathera

Carrying Capacity:

3-8 ha/ AU/ year

Grazing Season:

Whole year

Grazing System:

Rotational and deferred

Livestock:

Mixed (Sheep, goats, cattle)

Rainfall:

130 – 1000 mm

Temperature:

High about 40 Celsius

Improvement:

By planting, water conservation techniques (contour trenches, water spreading, etc.)



Mediterranean Eco-region:

These are top lands of Balochistan. This region is located in Quetta and Kalat regions of Balochistan. Rainfall mostly received during winter and spring seasons, high hills receive snow.

Trees / Shrubs:

  1. Juniperus macropoda
  2. Pinus gerardiana
  3. P. wallichiana
  4. Fraxinus xanthoxyloides
  5. Artemesia maritina
  6. Ephedra spp
  7. Carogana spp
  8. Casuarina spp
  9. Acanthdinon spp
  10. Lectuca spp
  11. Helaxilon spp

Grasses:

  1. Chrysopogon aucheri
  2. Cymbopogon jawarniusa
  3. Poa bulbosa
  4. Stifa pinnata
  5. Barumum spp
  6. Pennisetum antidotale
  7. Agropyron spp
  8. Oxyzopsis spp

Carrying Capacity:

15 ha/ AU/ year

Grazing Season:

May to October

Grazing System:

Rotational or deferred rotational system

Livestock:

Sheep, goats

Rainfall:

130 mm

Improvement:

By planting, water conservation techniques (contour trenches, water spreading, etc.) Xerophytic spp can be grown. Planting should be done during autumn before snowfall.

Himalayan Eco-region:

This region is located to the south of great Himalayan range, in general, it is mountainous. Both summer and winter ppt are common at higher altitudes. Snowfall is common. Its depth varies from 2m-5m depending upon elevation.

The vegetation varies from forest to alpine. The derived, as well as natural range lands, provide nutritious forage to fo livestock during the summer season. Sub-tropical humid, temperate humid, Sub-alpine and Alpine ecological zones are included in this area. Generally, the growing season is short at higher altitude. The entire region constitutes an important watershed area of Mangla and Tarbela dams.

Trees / Shrubs:

  1. Pinus roxbrughii
  2. Berberis lycium
  3. Indigofera gerardiana
  4. Rosa spp
  5. Zizyphus oxylophylla
  6. Myreina africana
  7. Rubus spp

Grasses:

  1. Bothriocula intermedia
  2. Chrysopogon aucheri
  3. Cymbopogon montanus
  4. C. martinii
  5. Aristida cylindrica
  6. Heteropogon contartus
  7. Digitaria spp
  8. Themeda anathera
  9. Cynedon decylon
  10. Brachiaria spp
  11. Seteria spp
  12. Heteropogon spp

Carrying Capacity:

2-4 ha/ Au/ year

Grazing Season:

April to January

Grazing System:

Rotational or deferred rotational system

Livestock:

Sheep, goats

Rainfall:

130 mm

Temperature:

30 Celsius

Improvement:

By planting broadleaved spp. Constructing check dams. Pit planting. Spp like Robinia should be preferred.

Temperate Humid Eco-zone:

This ecological region is situated above the sub-tropical humid eco-region and below sub-alpine, alpine ecologies zone. The climax vegetation of this zone is Pinus wallichiana forest. Due to increase in population steep slopes have been broken for agriculture by making terraces.

The derived ranges are productive and contain temperate grasses and shrubs.

Trees / Shrubs:

  1. Pinus wallichinana
  2. Cedrus deodara
  3. Picea smithiana
  4. Quercus spp
  5. Taxus buccata
  6. Juglans regia
  7. Acer pictum
  8. Aesculus indica
  9. Populus indica
  10. ciliate
  11. alba
  12. Viburnum nerbosum
  13. Salix spp
  14. Fraxinus spp
  15. Rododendron arboreum

Grasses:

  1. Chrysopogon aucheri
  2. Themeda anathera
  3. Cymbopogon jawarniusa
  4. Poa bulbosa
  5. Stifa pinnata
  6. Pennisetum antidotale
  7. Agropyron dentatum
  8. Oxyzopsis spp
  9. Stipa siberica

Carrying Capacity:

2-4 ha/ Au/ year

Grazing Season:

May to November (depends upon elevation)

Grazing System:

Rotational or deferred rotational system

Livestock:

Sheep, goats, cattle

Improvement:

By planting fodder trees and shrubs. Pit planting



Sub-alpine Alpine Eco-zone:

This zone is situated above temperate humid below the perpetual snow line. Sub-alpine eco-zone consists of the spp of both temperate humid and alpine zone. Sub-alpine is a transitional or eco-tone. The rangelands of subalpine eco-zone are converted into agriculture fields for potato production. Alpine eco-zone grasses of temperate zone are absent. At higher altitudes topography becomes steep and grazing is not possible but goats can graze in this area. This zone is grazed by migratory livestock during summer.

Trees / Shrubs:

  1. Pinus wallichiana
  2. gerardiana
  3. Betula utilis
  4. Cedrus deodara
  5. Berberis lyceum
  6. Rosa spp
  7. Salix spp
  8. Juniperus communis
  9. Rododendron arboreum

Grasses:

  1. Agropyron dentatum
  2. canium
  3. Agrostis gigantean
  4. Trisetum spp
  5. Poa bulbosa
  6. P. annua
  7. P. pratensis
  8. Agropyron canium
  9. Corex spp

Carrying Capacity:

1.5-3 ha/ Au/ year

Grazing Season:

June to September

Grazing System:

Rotational grazing system or continuous

Livestock:

Sheep, goats, cattle, horses, and mules

Improvement:

Can be improved by proper management also by control grazing

Image: Aamach Mastung Balochistan | Captured by Author


For correction and improvements please use the comments section below.




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Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani

NJMH is working as Deputy Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu (techurdu.net) Forestrypedia (forestrypedia.com), Majestic Pakistan (majesticpakistan.pk), All Pak Notifications (allpaknotifications.com), Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.

One thought on “Range Ecoregions or Range Ecological Regions of Pakistan

  • July 16, 2018 at 3:19 pm
    Permalink

    I’m sure there are spelling mistakes of Botanical Names so make sure to check these out, plz.

    Reply

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