Table of Contents
“The pleasurable and constructive use of spare time is known as recreation.”
CONCEPT AND INTERPRETATIONS OF RECREATION
- For children, boating is a fun.
- The morning walk or jogging is a routine.
- Movies, Music etc
- An activity that gives rests to the people from work. Traveling etc
- Games are the change to the students from the study.
- Activity, which is allowed everywhere and at any time.
- Recreation may be physical. It provides intellectual esthetic or emotion outlets. Traveling
- Use of free time is varying definitely individual and personal. For children games, for young adventure, and for elders jogging.
- Recreation for one person is work, for other just bore. Games, traveling, boating
- Time factor. Morning walking, night party, season.
- Preference and options, young need fast recreation; they prefer adventure events, an option between games, adventure and traveling.
- “Constructive” means beneficial to the individual and society. Trophy hunting.
RELATION OF LEISURE AND SPARE TIME
- Leisure is positive and in abroad sense, productive. Like if you managed your spare time use positively.
- It does not denote aimless indolence relaxation.
- Spare time may have negative implications Do nothing.
- Some time beneficial.
POPULAR OUTDOOR REACTION:
- Visits to Parks, Zoos, Fairs etc
- Driving for pleasure
- Walking for jogging
- Pool swimming
- Attending sports events
- playing outdoor sports and games
- Nature walk, Bird watching, or Wildlife photography
- Horse Riding
NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF RECREATION:
- The importance of recreation can be realized as it builds up the one’s personality.
- Recreation is important for the good balance of social welfare.
- It is necessary to get relieved from the stress and strain of modern life.
- It is necessary to refresh the brain.
- It is necessary for bodybuilding.
- Recreation helps us in knowing the reality of nature by sightseeing.
- Recreation is necessary for alteration of people attitude.
- One can achieve more knowledge through recreation.
- Recreation is necessary for use of spare time.
The need for Recreation:
Recreation is serving as the catalyst to bring comprehensive land use planning. Public need recreation activities would increase with the following:
- Improving the living standard.
- Increase in leisure time.
- Improvement in travel facilities.
- Change in attitude towards recreation.
- Greater availability of recreational opportunities.
- An overflow of wealth.
- More and more stresses grown.
The reward of recreation depends upon nature
- Rest. Gets relaxation from the daily routine.
- Relaxation (change from normal working day activity)
- Creative. (New games, New Adventure)
- Recreate (Safe the heritage)
- Improved social relation (parties, Rally)
- Balance the life (Maintain the health)
FACTORS INFLUENCING SELECTION OF SITE FOR RECREATION DEVELOPMENT
Camping, Picnicking, Skiing, and Boating are activities that require a relatively high degree of development. Other activities such as hunting and sightseeing require less development of the site.
- Principle Of Site Selection:
- The need of the users
- User convenience
- The area should be adequate enough to provide sufficient enjoyment to the user
- Site Factors:
- General Environment. ( Surrounding)
- Position on slope
PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS MET BY RECREATION
- Escape motivation: (it is a wish to escape from the routine boring environment)
- Strengthening family bonds
- Educational Opportunity
RESPONSIBILITY OF SOCIETY FOR PUBLIC RECREATIONAL NEEDS
- The public sector of society has properly assumed an increasing share of responsibility for providing opportunities for constructive spare time activities.
- The acreage of various types of both public and private lands available for recreation has greatly increased during the past several decades. Museums, Art, galleries, Zoological gardens, and similarly specialized institutes are important adjuncts of recreation.
- Schools, Churches, Mosques and other Variety of organization sponsor the recreation programs.
- Cost of these has been great.
- The factors promote recreation in the private & public sector is opportunities, facilities, and services.
- Population density
- Transportation (To reach the places in the shorter time period)
- Public attitude towards work and recreation has changed significantly over the years.
- These changes developed slowly.
Public interest indicated by the growth in a number of recreational areas and increasing restrictions relative to improper utilization of natural resources, the danger of air 7 water pollution, needless environmental destruction in the expansion of highways and industrial and urban development, and related matters affecting the natural interest and beauty of the countryside.
MAJOR INFLUENCES ON PUBLIC RECREATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Factors which have contributed to our growing recreational needs in the past, and which will exert great influence in the future, include the nature, density, and distribution of our population, as well as the relationship between different groups and age classes. Equally significant is the amount of leisure time available to the individual, the amount of a person’s income, the nature of education, occupation, and means of transportation change in public attitude towards work and recreation has been another important influence.
Population change and their effects upon recreational patterns:
- Number Of population
- Change from rural to urban
- Effect of people on habits.
- The irregular distribution of population
Effects of variation in age classes
- Physical ability
- Nature of recreation
Improvement of living standards and an increase in leisure time:
- Activities of modern people are highly specialized.
- Together with various technical innovations, modern techniques have materially improved our living standards so that we are better able to afford the cost of spare time activities of our own choice.
- Modern technology also makes it possible for us to produce more goods with far less effort and in much less time than formerly. As a result, the amount of spare time available to the individual has been greatly increased.
Improvement in travel facilities:
- There has been a great improvement in the methods and facilities for travel. As a result, patterns of both work and play have changed materially. Our horizons as well as our activities, once much border than they once were. The automobile has been the most vital factor in this development.
- Development and wider use of motor vehicles by the public and the consequent interest in extended travel were soon followed by improved and additional highways.
- The development and improvement of various types of aircraft and the increasing diversity of sophisticated recreation equipment promise even greater impact on future recreational travel habits. Such development has positive as well as negative implications, but those that provide easier access to remote backcountry and other relatively inaccessible location threaten the overuse of such areas and the destruction of their environmental and related values.
BASIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FOREST RECREATION:
The influence of money, time, and communication on recreation is discussed below:
- People are the important factors which influence the forest recreation.
- This factor is divided into following three sub-factors.
- Available money is the factor that restricts or encourages out-door recreation with changing social values and rising affluence, diverting more money into outdoor recreation, may families or modest means are beginning to participate in the costly forms of recreation.
- For most people, a trip to a near park or lake is possible on weekend but any long trip or specialized recreation is limited because of its cost.
- Activities such as boating or skidding require high initial investment. Continued participation in these activities requires funds that are not needed for more essential uses. Even uncomplicated sightseeing trip requires the cost of transportation, meals and some time lodging.
- This loss can be prohibitive to a large family that is working on a tight budget.
- Time is listed as a basic factor influencing participation in outdoor recreation. Available time or the lack of it has an obvious effect is considered here has two facts of which first is available or leisure time.
- The second fact of time is mortality, which is a person’s relative ability to move easily from one point to another.
- Why do people want to participative in outdoor recreation? Relaxation, self-gratification, escape, and travel has already been mentioned as motives.
- Certainty enjoyment is the immediate goal of recreation. But beyond the motivating forces lies in the fact that people must know that out-door recreation exists that it is available to them and that they could and would enjoy it.
- Communication provides the media to transmit this message to the public.
- Mass and personal communication have continued to make technologic advancements to the point that now live television broadcasts can be transmitted around the world. In an orbiting satellite system; overnight mail delivery is available in the most metropolitan district, and inexpensive long-distance telephone calls can be made by direct dialing.
PRINCIPLES OF RECREATION MANAGEMENT
Gather data; try to know the recreational value, visitors usage and potentials offered.
Good planning means good management.
Organize your man, material, types of equipment, time, place and resources in terms of coordination with your total job. Good lines of authority and responsibility are fundamental to the organization.
Direct the job:
Direct movement of men, material, and equipment. Good direction takes full use of every man’s talents. Good directions mean effective coordination and communication.
It leads to optimum performance by each member of the Org. develop a system of leadership for motivation.
It implies setting up standards and holding to those. It renders supervision and checks easy regulates performance. Compare performance with standards.
Evaluate men, material, and equipment in terms of better performance. Compare performance with standards.
Total Recreational experience:
- This involves 5 things:
- Anticipation: You get anticipatory pleasure when you plan you coming trip and when you obtain information from PTDC, etc.
- Travel to the place.
- On-site experience
- Travel from one-way circulation gives max enjoyment.
- Recollection: Photos of places, souvenirs, etc. bring pleasure.
INTENSIVE FOREST RECREATION:
Intensive forest recreation activities are concentrated in a relatively centralized area that has been developed for use. Camping, Swimming, Boating, Picnicking, and certain types of hiking are generally considered as intensive or developed, forest recreation activities.
EXTENSIVE FOREST RECREATION:
The fisherman, hunter, and overland hiker move about over large areas where the minimum of developments is required. These forest users are engaging in extensive forest recreation activities. The sightseer is the most important users are extensive forest recreation facilities.
The economic value of wildlife and scenery in tourism and recreation is enormous. In some countries, protected areas are major attractions. Ecotourism is a major source of foreign exchange in some countries.
Categories of protected areas:
These are the Natural areas where natural processes are allowed to operate in the absences of direct human interference. Tourism and recreation are generally banned.
These are relatively large areas where one or several ecosystems are not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, and in which the highest competent authority of the country has taken steps to prevent exploitation or occupation. Visitors are allowed to enter for inspirational, educative, cultural and recreative purposes.
These contain one or more of several specific natural features of outstanding natural significance.
Wildlife Sanctuary Areas/ Managed Nature Reserve:
The protection of specific sites or habitat is essential to the continued well being of the resident or migratory fauna of national or global significance.
Protected Landscape Or Seascape Areas:
The landscape possesses special aesthetic qualities which are the result of the interaction of man and land, and those that are primarily natural areas managed intensively for recreation and tourist use.
Limitation of Protected Areas:
- The designer of these areas is not implemented. Only paperwork is done.
- Proper locations of these areas are also a big problem.
- Proper distribution over an entire area is also a problem.
For the recreation planning following steps kept in mind.
- Objectives should be clear.
- Formation of an integrated team of experts. (Forester, Local representative, Civil engineer, Economics, Land use planner etc)
- Data collection about present future recreation demand.
- Present future data collection about recreation supply.
- Compare forest recreation and other land use. (Preference is given to the multiple use service)
- Environmental impact assessment.
- The team should jointly sketch a plan after tasking into accent the view of all experts.
- More than one plan.
- Selection of a plan after elevating all process.
- Before giving final shape to the plan it should be shown to the people.
- Recreation plan is a written form. (statement, a report describing the type of facilities and their location, timing, and cost of development)
- After the approval of the plan, the development plan is prepared for each type of facility. (On-Site plan)
- Implementation and monitoring of the plan to achieve the objectives.
FOREST RECREATION PLANNING:
- Forest recreation planning is the intelligent use of the recreation resources in providing satisfactory recreation facilities and areas to meet present and future needs of the population.
- It helps to determine the types, quality, location, and timing of recreation development.
- In order to make intelligent use of the recreation resources, the planner must understand the need for recreant in his area. He must know how much development is needed for each type of recreation and when it should be ready for public use. Also, he must know what sites can be developed for each type of recreation that is needed and what impact their development will have on other forest use.
- The recreation plan aids in the creation of related complexes of recreation opportunities instead of individual, unrelated and competing facilities. The complexes should be grouped in such a way as to complement one another.
- Hiking trails should be accessible to campers; however, the trail should have penetrated the campground.
- Fishing stream improved could be coupled with small campsites and day use areas developed near population centers around boat launching areas, and adjacent to beaches.
- By grouping recreation complexes together in a rational manner, the planner can do much to fill the recreation need, increase dispersal of use, and reduce operation cost.
Need for Planning:
- For development of areas.
- For the intelligent use of recreational resources.
- For proper administration
- For maintenance of the area
- For the convenience of people
- Proper use, get more revenue
- To deal with emergency
Principles of Recreational Planning:
The principles used as criteria by Tri sate transportation commission presents a clear and concise outline forest recreational planning they are:
- Coincide out door recreation space with land use planning (system).
- Arrange recreational land according to the purpose (service).
- Give priority to a site that can serve more than one purpose (multiple uses).
- Serve rare lands and historic sites.
Salient Features of Recreation Plan:
- Nature of recreational resources
- Recreational interest and trends
- Population related to recreational use of wild land
- Mean of access
- Socio-economic factors
- Change in nature and ideology of the political institution
- Co-operation b/w public and private landowners
- Budgetary limitation
RECREATION AREA DEVELOPMENT:
- The next step after recreation planning is the development of specific recreation areas. How many campsites? How many picnic tables? Where will they be located? Can day-use, over-use and over-high areas be developed on the available space? Where will the roads available space? Where will the road be located? How will the drinking water be supplied? The purpose of development planes to get them on the ground layout plans completed.
Investigation of Problem:
- The purpose of the problem investigation is the location selected and the layout of recreational facilities.
- This is accomplished by determining what facilities are required to meet the demand and then by placing them on the most desirable sites when over possible
Types of Activates:
- The type of recreational activity developed will be dictated by the decision made in the planning stage. These decisions will be influenced by the expected demands of the prospective users and by the resource available.
- A scarcity of land will limit both the type and quantity of recreation development.
- On the other hand, large tracts, of available land with a varied landscape offer.
- Many opportunities for diversity in development. A small area near a large population center will be able to serve the great number of people if it is developed for day use activities such as picnicking where there can be a high turn over rate among user and where a high density of use can be achieved.
- If the day use demand is not overwhelming, a small tract of land in a scenic setting and near and attraction could be developed into a campground, since the large tracts of land permit more versatility of design and variety type of activities, they are more desirable to work with the presence or absence of recreational water certainly will alter decision concerning the type or recent water for swimming is practically a must for successful private recreation areas and very desirable for all day-use areas.
- The predicted use of the different type of facilities can be obtained from recreation plan, from estimates based on location and attraction or by checking on us at the nearby development that offers similar facilities.
- This method the comparable demand method can be rather reliable in a specific area of obvious heavy use. The expected use is estimated by analogy with similar facilities in the area.
- Evidently, the success of this method predicted on the comparability of the two areas and on the unsatisfied demand for the facility.
- Turning the predicted use figures into required facilities is a trick that often appears to be sight-of-hand. The most reliable technique of this operation is that of using constants to convert predicted use into required acres of land for each type of use.
MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC IN FOREST RECREATIONAL AREAS:
- There is a point at which planning must be turned into action. Someone must turn recreational planes and development reports into facilities that a public use.
- Many facilities come about by mgt decisions and not as a result of large-scale recreational plan
- When the mgt of users is done one point kept in mind is to control the activities of visitors to protect the natural and scientific features of park and park facilities.
- The division of an area into different landscaping units for the maximum enjoyment of different categories of users eg establishing zones for walking, cycling, picnicking and boating.
- Need of Zoning:
A public park or recreational areas of forest is responsible for the provision of different facilities of cycling, walking, picnicking, boating, and tracking. For the achievement of all these facilities zoning is important.
- The basis of Zoning:
Always zoning is done on an ecological basis ie biotic pressure, climate, temp, topography, and edaphic factors.
Basically, zoning for parks in a mountainous area is done ecologically.
- Mgt of Zones:
There should be separate mgt for each zone. It is important to establish criteria for selection of zone and to stipulate the recreational activity and development within each zone.
- Boundaries of Zones:
Although zoning is a planning too, for it to be effective, mgt must be able to enforce the restrictive clauses of the policy. One solution is to declare zoning plan a legal document, even though this introduces an element of inflexibility. Boundaries should be on basis of physical features such as streams, ridges, lakes, whereas possible.
- Environmental Manipulation:
- There should be proper landscaping, the gradient of paths and trails should be suitable. Trees should be planted by privacy; view opening Vistas should be present.
A trail is a track worn by passage through the wilderness. The modern concept of the trail is different, the trail is meant to provide safe and adequate passageways to an objective. Even though it guides the users to an objective, not every trail goes to some point or destination. Indeed most hiking trails are designed to provide the opportunity for aesthetic enjoyment by taking the trail users to vistas, unique spots, and diverse environment.
Types of Trails:
- Interior Trials:
The trail constructed to guide the people around the intensely developed recreational areas should be designed for economy of purpose and site protection. These trails should be at least 2 feet in width and cleared to 8 feet in height.
- Exterior Trials:
These are those passageways designed to serve extensive recreational activities such as hiking, horseback riding, bicycling, snow moiling and skating.
- Nature Trail:
The nature trial interpretative trail is a route designed to lead users to places where points of geologic, biologic, historic or cultural interests can be explained to them by guides, signs, pamphlets and electric devices. They are thematic in the subject matter. These types of trails are designed for use by every form of transport in the forest.
To ensure the enjoyment of sightseers, foresters can plan vistas cutting at the places where a view is rewarding. Panoramic views, bodies of water and agriculture patterns are favorite sites of sightseers. Vistas cutting open the world of the traveler so that he can see something besides tree just outside the window.
- Type and location of Facility developed:
- There should be waiting for tracks in the area. Shades should be provided in different places. Benches should be present. Research should be made on the type of benches whether they are made of wood, plastic, cement or any other materials. Attention should be paid to the development of parking places in the recreational area.
- Rules and Regulations:
There should be some rules and regulations present for the convenience of people about where to go and where not to go. Guidelines in form of pamphlets, broachers, and signboards should be present in recreational areas.
- Public Relations:
There should be an appointment of PRO (Public Relation Officer). PRO assists in mgt of recreational land. All communication media are used for better public relations eg signs, broachers, campfire, talks, TV, radio, and newspapers, etc.
Interpretative activates are designed to enhance visitor’s enjoyment of outdoor recreational areas by developing public understanding. A good interpretative programmer can contribute to the protection of recreational land also. The interpretative activities include visitor’s centers, museums, rest houses, trail sides exhibits, and published materials.
- Research on Problems of Recreational Mgt:
Research should be made on recreational mgt in order to know:
Whether users are satisfied with mgt.
What are the hazards that are coming in way of proper mgt and their possible solutions should be made.
- The use sign in forest recreation is a major form of communication. Signs are used to diving directions, regulations, identifying areas,, gives warnings and supply interpretative information. The purpose of the sign is to inform people there is permanently emplaced to give a message to users at any season of the year or time of the day.
Classification of Signs:
Generally, signs are classified into:
- Administrative Sign:
Identify boundaries, offices field headquarters.
- Directional Sign:
They guide the visitors to their destination whether they are within or outside of the recreational area.
Kinds of Directional Signs:
- Inter-directional Sign:
It is an important type of sign used. They aid the visitors in finding the way around the area.
- Utility Sign:
The utility sign is used to point the way to the drinking water, toiler, boating landings and other facilities.
- Orientation Sign:
Showing a diagrammatic sketch of the area pointing out the reader location is very important in both intensive and extensive recreation. These signs are well received by the public and are often photographed; therefore, they should be shaded from direct sunlight but easily photographed. They should be bight color.
- External Directional Signs:
These are needed to guide visitors into the forest recreation area from the major high way road. Destination sign gives the motorist an idea of distance to his destination as he drives to forest recreation areas. Approach sign alerts the driver that he is about to drive at the turnoff to his destination that is marked by entrance sign.
- Restrictive Sign:
These are those sign that is needed to post-regulation, to remind people of their responsibilities to control the visitor’s movement in a certain situation. These signs bear messages that restrict the activities of the users to various degrees. They must be placed in the prominent places, but should not overpower the visitors.
- Interpretative Sign:
Those signs tell the story of the area in view. These signs interpret the highlight the outstanding attractive. Interpretative signs enrich the visitor’s forest experience by adding a natural or historic interest to just where trees and landforms previously existed. Interpretative signs are recommended for such places as vistas, roadsides, information sites, and certain forest trails.
- Designs of Signs:
- All signs that are needed for one area should be designed at some time so that to prevent duplications and conflicts.
- The design should fit into its environment, therefore, its site should be known before the sign is designed.
- It should never be so large.
- Wood is generally used for signs construction because it is strong, easily worked and durable.
- All signs serving the same purpose should have the same shape and size.
- A well-designed sign has an emotional pleasing experience, dignity, and purpose.
- The signs should reflect care and talent in manufacture as well professional skill in the composition of the text.
- Bright colors have a place on signs as a part of the small illustration, but not as a background for text. The background should be neutrally shaded.
- The text of Signboards:
The text is a reason for the existence of the sign. Any other part of the sign or the landscaping should be so destined as to make the text more effective the text should be readable, accurate and brief. There are some guides for making signs easier to read:
- Do not capitalize the entire text
- Do not crow the text with inadequate margins
- Do not set the text in a solid block form
- Leave extra space b/w the words
- The spacing of sentences should be adequate
- Leave extra space at the end of the sentences
- Maintenance of Sign Boards:
- The sign should be kept in good form at all the times
- If the sign has served its purpose and is no longer needed it is removed. It might be better simply to remove the damaged signboard.
- Quick repair of the damages probably the best defense against the sign shooting.
MANAGEMENT OF FOREST RECREATION AREAS
- Outdoor recreation management consist of two types of actions:
- Direct management.
- Choice of site
- Modification of settings
- Provision of facilities, structure, and access.
- Regulation and direction
- Interpretation (Information and Education)
- Multiple use situation (Scenic quality of the landscape)
- Recreation management can be divided into two main categories.
- Visitor management
- Site or resources management
- Following points should be kept in mind while managing both the above.
- Zoning and related controls of land and users.
- Facility development and maintenance
- Environmental manipulation / Silvicultural treatments
- Rules and regulation
- Public relation
- Visitor health and safety
FOREST USER SAFETY:
It is important for the forest manager that he provides a safety measure to the different activities in the forest area.
- Picnicking And Camping:
- In the swimming areas, the depth of water is not too much.
- In the area, the markers and sign are posted.
- Lives saving equipment are available.
- The beach areas should be free from hazard.
- Boating and tracking area should be free from stumps, logs, and rocks.
- Inspection of the camping area before the season. That looks for the dead and dying trees, trees tops, which might fall on campers.
- Fire protection.
- Hunting And Hunter Safety:
- For the safety of hunters, logging areas should be posted to warn hunters about logging crews, presence, or posted to prohibit hunting.
- The road access should be controlled.
- Logging areas are visible by the bright color.
- Use Of Private Roads By Public:
- The sign must be installed to advise the recreationist.
- Roads should properly maintain to avoid accidents.
BASIC FACTOR INFLUENCING OUTDOOR RECREATION:
The most popular forms of outdoor recreation are the least expensive and the most convent ones. The following are the main factors influencing outdoor recreation participation.
- Living Areas:
- Urban areas ( more welling for recreation activities)
- Rural areas (they do not perform much of recreational activities)
- Yong people
- Aged ones
- Family Vs Single:
- Culture/ Government Policy:
- Supply Of Recreation Facilities:
- Time/ Season
MULTIPLE USE FORESTRY AND RECREATION:
Forest provides a number of products and series at the same time. The major products/ services are timber, firewood, forage, recreation, wildlife, water, scenery, biodiversity etc. there are three type relationships between the various services/ products.
If efforts to increase the output of one servic3e do not affect the output of the other. e.g. light grazing+ timber, Light Thinning+ water.
If the increase in the output of one services/ product is accompanied by an increase in the output of the other. e.g. within specific limits, reducing the density of tree stands will increase the yield of timber, water, and forage.
If efforts to increase the output of one service or product will reduce the output of the other services or products. e.g. timber+ recreation, wilderness+ Timber etc.
The recreation policy of the forest services emphasizes.
- Integration of recreation with all other uses.
- Maintenance and preservation of scenic beauty, flora, and fauna.
- Providing service to all the people, rich or poor etc.
- Encouraging people to physically take part in recreation activities.
- Favoring activities that require low cost, equipment or ability.
- Minimum restrictions on users consistent with the protection of the environment, public health and safety and rights of others.
- Coordination with other departments to develop a wide range of recreation facilities in a given locality
- Until now the tourism policy of Pakistan has neglected the preservation and maintenance of our natural and cultural resources. Perhaps the tourism department is of the view that our natural and culture recourses are being looked after by other departments and it has no duty in this respect.
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