EXTRACTION OF SEED:
It is the process of separation or removing out of seeds from the fruits.
Seeds of several types require no extraction, except removal from chaff or thrash.
Methods of Seed Extraction:
There are several methods of extracting seeds. Namely:
- By rolling seeds in the hands
- By beating, walking, feeding, kneading _ esp for pulpy fruit like mango, mulberry, etc
- By direct sowing of seeds of some spp _ like in shisham, seeds are not separated from the pods rather pods are broken down into pieces and each piece is sown directly.
- By spreading in the sunlight _ especially for cones, capsules, and pods which become open on sunlight.
- By winnowing _ to separate grain from its husks chaff by tossing it in the air or blowing air through it
- By watering
- By floatation
CLEANING OF SEED:
- After extraction of seed from fruit, some debris ie parts of cones, capsules; pods, etc are also with seed. Moreover, some diseased seeds are also present. So cleaning of all the debris is necessary otherwise it will affect the germination.
- Seed collection from the field is rarely fit for immediate storage. Drying extraction from the pods (in case of leguminous) and further cleaning are required.
After collection and before storage the seed collected must be inspected to determine its conditions. In case of pods, it becomes more expeditious. Moist and fomenting pods must be spread out to dry and also require treatment with fungicide to avoid further fermentation.
Methods of Cleaning:
Put the seeds along with debris in the water. Seeds will settle down and debris will start floating on the surface. Remove the debris and let the dry.
Put the seeds along debris in the winnowing apparatus (ie Chujj _ in Brahvi). Drop the material from some height in the direction of the wind as a result seeds will fall down on the ground and debris will blow off.
If the debris which is mixed with seeds is easily removable then clean the seeds with hands. See pic _ picture from Masroor Bhai’s Seminar.
This method is applicable when the amount and size of debris are smaller than seed. In this method, seeds along with the debris are put in sieves and then by shaking, the debris pass through sieves and seeds remain in the site.
Image: Seeds of Avecinia spp and Propagules Rhizophora spp. The picture at Lasbela Daam. | June 8, 2011 | Image by Author.
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NJMH is working as Deputy Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu (techurdu.net) Forestrypedia (forestrypedia.com), Majestic Pakistan (majesticpakistan.pk), All Pak Notifications (allpaknotifications.com), Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.