Silvicultural Characteristics of Forest Species

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Last Updated on June 1, 2019 by Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani

SILVICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DALBERGIA SISSOO:

Common name:

  • Shisham, Tahli, rosewood

Description:

  • Medium to large size deciduous tree
  • Height 30m
  • Branches Spreading and diameter of 3m recorded
  • Trunk: crooked
  • Leaves compound with 3-5 leaflets
  • The bark is gray; in older trees bark may peel off in strips
  • Flowers in groups and are of small size
  • Flower color dull white, yellowish white to pinkish
  • Flowers appear in March to May
  • Pods/ Fruits small ripen from June to February
  • 1 – 4 seeds in each pod

Distribution:

  • Native to Sub-continent along the sub-Himalayan tract
  • Common in river banks and streams
  • Successfully planted

Habitat and Ecology:

  • An important tree
  • Occurs in a dry sub-tropical, dry temperate climate
  • Well-drained sandy loamy soil but tolerate saline soil
  • Occurs at an elevation range of 900 – 1500 m
  • Precipitation b/w 300 – 2000 mm (ie 12in = 18 inches)
  • Frost hardy
  • Has a temperature range of 0 – 50 OC
  • Intolerant, susceptible to root diseases in IPs
  • Young trees heavily grazed and browsed

Reproduction:

  • Both by seed and vegetatively
  • Vegetatively by Stumps (ie root and shoot cuttings), by root suckers, etc

Productivity:

  • In IPs, a height of 11m and dia of 20 cm recorded during 15 years period
  • Mean annual increment MAI is 7.7 m3/ha/yr

Management Implications:

  • Under irrigation, it is grown extensively in Punjab, NWFP, and parts of Sindh
  • Leguminous therefore good for farm forestry
  • Grow slow than Eucalyptus and Poplar
  • Good shade tree

Wood Properties:

  • Grains: interlocked and coarse texture
  • Color: Sapwood white to pale brown
  • Heartwood: golden brown to dark brown
  • Density: Heavy with Specific Gravity of 0.85and caloric value of 5000 Kcal/g
  • Strength: Hard and strong

Uses:

  • Fodder, Furniture, Fruits, and Charcoals
  • Medicinal root and barks
  • Railway carriage
  • Sports goods and farm implements
  • Shade



SILVICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CEDRUS DEODARA:

Common name:

  • Deodar, Diar

Description:

  • Large evergreen tree 45 – 60 m tall with dia of 0.8 – 1.1m
  • Crown extends with branches forming conical shape
  • Leaves are three sided, needles 205 – 4 cm long
  • Needles occur in groups
  • Bark grayish or reddish brown
  • Monoecious
  • Male flower solitary on the end of branches, small in size
  • Female flower erect along the top of branches 10 -15cm long, large than male
  • Fruit is female cone
  • Blue green when young
  • Cones bloom b/w June and September
  • On ripening cone turn brown
  • Seed take one year for maturity and 2 years to complete reproductive cycle
  • Seed shed in November

Distribution:

  • Native to Himalayas of Sub-continents
  • In Pakistan, found at high elevations, in AJK, Murree hills, Hazara, Swat, Dir, Chitral (Keem ja Soo!!)

Habit and Ecology:

  • Tolerant tree grow freely well in shade
  • Grows on verity of deep rich soils
  • Growth is poor on rocky soils
  • Grow on steep, cool, northern exposures
  • Adopted to precipitation zone from 1000 – 2000cm (ie 40in – 80inches)
  • Temperature range form -20OC t0 30 OC
  • Elevation 1200 – 3000m
  • Susceptible to wood rotting fungi

Reproduction:

  • Produced from seed

Production:

  • Slow growing: MAI = 6 – 9 m3/ha/yr

Management Implementation:

  • Valuable member of Conifers
  • High demand result in over cutting
  • Harvesting should be curtailed until regeneration method have been perfected

Wood Properties:

  • Grain: Straight, even, fine textured
  • Color: White
  • Density: SG = 0.57 with caloric value of 5400 Kcal/gm
  • Strength: light and soft

Uses:

  • Construction
  • Fuel
  • Railway sleepers
  • Watershed protection
  • Medicinal



SILVICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PINUS ROXBURGHII:

Common name :

  • Chir pine , Nakhtar

Description:

  • Large evergreen tree
  • Height 21 – 33m
  • Diameter of 0.6m recorded
  • Needle in threes, 20 – 30 cm long
  • Monoecious
  • Male flowers or cones crowded in clusters 1.3 to 1.8 cm long
  • Female flowers or cones are erect solitary with 2 – 5 clusters at the end of branch
  • Cones bloom b/w January to April.
  • Fruit is a female cone.
  • On ripening turn to shiny reddish
  • Seed takes one year to maturity and 2 years to complete reproductive cycle.
  • Seed shed September to October.

Distribution:

  • Native to Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal, and India
  • In Pakistan, it is found in Himalayas, AJK, Murree, and Orakzai agencies.
  • Successfully planted in northern areas of Punjab
  • Large plantations are raised in Mansehra, Abbottabad, and Balakot.

Habitat and Ecology:

  • The intolerant tree that grows on a variety of soils from shallow to limestone, granite, and sandstone.
  • Occurs in humid, sub-humid, cool, moderately monsoon climate.
  • Well-drained sandy loamy soil but tolerate saline soil
  • Occurs at an elevation range of 500 – 2500 m
  • Drought hard, therefore, well adopted to the precipitation zone of b/w 450– 1645 mm (ie 18in = 65 inches)
  • Frost hardy and Fire resistant
  • Has a temperature range of -5 – 40 OC
  • Free of diseases and insects.

Reproduction:

  • Both by seed

Productivity:

  • Fast growing
  • Mean annual increment MAI is 7 – 14 m3/ha/yr

Management Implications:

  • Valuable for reforestation and afforestation
  • Nature stands have been heavily overcut and will need to be replanted and protected.

Wood Properties:

  • Grains: straight or spiral, medium form and uneven textured
  • Color: Sapwood white
  • Heart wood: light red turning to reddish or yellowish brown
  • Density: Heavy with Specific Gravity of 0.6and caloric value of 5015 Kcal/g
  • Strength: Hard and heavy

Uses:

  • Construction
  • Fuel
  • Resin
  • Sleepers
  • Edible seeds
  • Furniture, matchsticks
  • Tar, etc.



SILVICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PINUS WALLICHIANA:

Common name

  • Kail, Blue pine

Description:

  • Large evergreen tree
  • Height 30 – 45m
  • The diameter of 1 – 1.5m recorded
  • Crown conical
  • Needle are five, 10 – 20 cm long
  • Bole straight erect
  • Monoecious
  • Male flowers or cones crowded in clusters 1 cm long
  • Female flowers or cones are erect solitary with 2 – 3 clusters at the end of the branch
  • Cones bloom b/w April and June
  • Fruit is female cone which is 15 – 20cm long
  • On ripening turn to shiny reddish
  • Seeds take one year to maturity and 2 years to complete reproductive cycle.
  • Seed shed September to October.

Distribution:

  • Native to Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal, India and Afghanistan
  • Two varieties, wallichiana, and karakrona found in Pakistan.
  • Wallichiana in Moist Temperate
  • Karakrona in Dry Temperate

Habitat and Ecology:

  • A moderately intolerant tree that grows on a variety of soils best on fertile, well-drained, sandy-clayey to sandy clayey loam.
  • Occurs in humid cool temperate, moderately cool temperate climate.
  • Occurs at an elevation range of 1200 – 3700 m
  • Precipitation zone of b/w 300– 1500 mm (ie 12in = 60 inches)
  • Temperature range of -20 – 35 OC

Reproduction:

  • Both by seed

Productivity:

  • Mean annual increment MAI is 5 – 8 m3/ha/yr

Management Implications:

  • Valuable for reforestation and afforestation
  • Nature stands have been heavily overcut and will need to be replanted and protected.

Wood Properties:

  • Grains: straight or spiral, medium fine and textured
  • Color: Sapwood white
  • Heartwood: pink
  • Density: Heavy with Specific Gravity of 0.48and caloric value of 4995 Kcal/g
  • Strength: Moderately hard

Uses:

  • Construction
  • Fuel
  • Sleepers
  • Wood products

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Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani

NJMH is working as Deputy Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu (techurdu.net) Forestrypedia (forestrypedia.com), Majestic Pakistan (majesticpakistan.pk), All Pak Notifications (allpaknotifications.com), Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.

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