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Species Recommended for Different Edaphic Climatic Sites and Method of Planting

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Here is the detailed list of which types of species are recommended for different edaphic climatic sites. Besides, the method of planting and necessary remarks are also added.

The Site Species recommended Method of planting Remarks
Sandy soils/sand dunes Inland hot sand dune Acacia senegal, A. tortilis, A. victorae, Calligonum polygonoides, Prosopis cineraria, cineraria, P. juliflora, Saccharum munja, Tamarix aphylla, Zzyphus mauritiana, Znummularia, Parkinsonia. 15-20 cm cuttings in case of Calligonum, Tamarix, Arundo donax, Vitex negundo, with winter rains. Other species 6-9 month old plants in polythene tubes. In parallelsstrips or chess board design from crest to the heel of the dune. If irrigation available plant Acacia modesta, Dalbergia sissoo and Eucalyptus camaldulensis around the toes of sand dunes.
Inland cold sand dunes Arundo donax, Calligonum polygonoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tamarix gallica, Vitexnegundo. Plant cuttings, tube plants with winter rain/snow.
Coastal sand dunes Prosopis juliflora. Plant one-year old tube stock. Use sub-soil water to irrigate, daily for one month and later on as and when necessary.
Saline Alkali soils Acacia nilotica, Casuarina equisetifolia, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E.microtheca, Leucaena leucocephala, Phoenix dactyh’fera, Pithecolobium duice, Populus euphratica, Prosopis cineraria, P.juliflora, Sesbania aculeata, S.aegyptiaca, Tamarix aphylla. Sesbanea aculeata for 1-2 years and plough it back. Plant 6-9 month old plants in polythene tubes either on flat ground or on the berm of 0.3-0.5m deep trenches. Replace salty soil with sweet soil in pits. Plough and dibble seed of A. nilotica Provide hand watering or flow irrigation, if possible, otherwise plant with the onset of rainy season.
Waterlogged swampy lands Acacia nilotica, Casuarina equisetifolia, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E.microtheca, Leucaena leucocephala, Phoenix dactyh’fera, Pithecolobium duice, Populus euphratica, Prosopis cineraria, P.juliflora, Sesbania aculeata, S.aegyptiaca, Tamarix aphylla. Use one year old poly bag plants. Plant on raised beds, mounds and along deep continuous channels dug for drainage. Channels should be dug in herring bone design i.e. channels at 45° angle leading into one main bigger channel.
Calcareous soils Acacia nilotica, Albizzia spp. Azadirachta indica, Eleagnus hortensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Melia azedarach, Tamarix aphylla. Plant 6-9 month old polythene tube plants in 30 cm deep pits in monsoon season or with winter rains, if any. Breaking of the hard pan layer is essential. In areas below 250 mm annual provide hand watering in the first year if no flow irrigation is available.
Shallow/stony soils Acacia cyanophylla, A.modesta, A.tortilis, A-victorae, Ceratonia siliqua, E.camaldu-lensis, Zizyphus mauritiana. Plant 6-12 month old polythene tube stock in winter with rains and again in monsoon season in 0.3 m deep pits. Hand water or irrigate for a year.
Drought prone areas Acacia albida, A.aneura, A.nilotica A.modesta, A-victoria, A.tortilis, Tamarix aphylla, Tecoma undulata. Adopt techniques for water harvesting/ moisture conservation such as trenches with catchment, mulches, deep planting, drip irrigation. Use 6-9 month old tube plants. Hand water for one year in areas with less than 250 mm rainfall, Hand water in other areas also if summer rains fail. Use drip irrigation system
Flood prone areas Hills and Foot hills Ailanthus altissimia, Amorpha fruitloose, Bauhinia Variegata, Cassia fistula, Dalbergia sissoo, E.camaldulensis, E.tereticornis, Impmoea carnea, Robinia pseudoacacia, Saccharum munja, Salix tetrasperma, Poplars, Wex negundo. Dig 30-50 cm deep pits of 30 cm Use 6-9 month old tube plants in other cases. Use entire plants of Ailanthus, Robinia, Amorpha, Bauhinea and Eucalyptus. Use root-shoot cuttings of Dalbergia sissoo and rhizomes or tufts of Saccharum munja. Plant cuttings of Ipomoea, Vitex and Willow in moist soil. Plant one year old poplar plants in deep moist soil.
Plains Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia sissoo, E.camaldulensis, Populus euphratica, Prosopis cineraria, Tamarix dioica Bamboos. Broad cast seed of A. nilotica from boats during inundation. Do aerial seeding with A; nilotica and P_ cineraria seed. Plant 6-9 month old tube plants of other species. Use root-shoot cuttings of Dalberpia sissoo. Plant bamboo culms. Hand water tube plants/ root-shoot cuttings by digging small wells; 16-18 waterings In the first year, 10-20 in the second.
Northern dry mountains eroded rainfed lands, foot hills Acacia nilotica, A-modesta, Arundo donax, Broussonetia papyrifera, Dodonaea viscosa, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E.microtheca, Ipomoea carnea, Saccharum munja, Tamarix aphylla, Prosopis juliflora, Zizyphus mauritiana, Agave sissalana, Dendrocalamus strictus. Sow/plant on berms or beds of trenches/troughs in monsoon season/winter rains. Dig trenches along the contour. Prepare staggered ridges. Give one or two hand waterings after planting.
Western dry mountains and dry western plateau Cupressus arizonica, Fraxinus xanthoxyloides, Gleditschia triacanthos, Juniperus excelsa, Pinus elderica, Pistacia khinjuk, Prunus eburnea, Ephedra nebrodenses Two year old tube plants in 0.3m deep pits with stone mulch in one metre radius eitherm early spring with the start of snow melt or in monsoon. Snow fencing is helpful to retain moisture for a longer period. Irrigate twice a month, for survival of plants for first six months.
Northern moist mountains Conifers:Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Picea smithiana, Pinus roxburghii, P.wallichiana.Broad Leaved:Acer caesium, Aesculus indica, Ailanthus excelsa, AInus nitida, Cedrela serrata, Celtis australfs, Gleditschia triacanthos, Juglans regis, Platanus orientalis, Populus ciliata, P.deltoides, P.nigra, Quercus dilatata, Q.ilex, Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix babylonica, S.tetrasperma. One to two year old poly bag plants in 0.3m deep pits in early spring or monsoons. or Direct sowing of seed. Plant rooted plants of Poplar and Willows, others raised in polythene tubes, all one year old. Land may have to be terraced along contours. Mulching would be helpful.


Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani is working as Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu ( Forestrypedia (, All Pak Notifications (, Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.

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