Forest EcologyGeneral SilviculturePlant Taxonomy

Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

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Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Family


Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. English Name

Beleric Myrabolam

Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Local Name


Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Description

A large deciduous tree 24 to 30 m tall with a diameter of 0.6 to 2.5 m. It has a massive spreading crown. The leaves are simple but clustered near the ends of the branches. The leaves are oblong or elliptic 8 to 20 cm long and leathery. The trunk is buttressed with pronounced ridges. The bark is thick, bluish or ash grey with vertical furrows. The flowers are greenish yellow with an offensive odor and occur in bunches 7 to 15 cm long. It is monoecious with the flower bunches divided into separate male and female flowers. The female flowers are in the lower parts of the bunch with the males in the upper portion. The flowers appear between April and June. The fruit is a fleshy nut 3 cm long. The nuts mature in December. There are fungi that attacks the tree but does not cause significant damage. It can be reproduced both from seed and by vegetative means. It is a fast-growing tree. Diameter growth MAI of 0.24 to 0.69 cm have been recorded. Grains are straight, coarse and even-textured. Wood is Hard, heavy and resilient having Specific gravity of 0.69.

Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Distribution

The tree is native to the subcontinent. In Pakistan it is in the sub-Himalayan tract east of Rawalpindi, to Sialkot and Azad Kashmir. It has been planted throughout the plains, in gardens and as a roadside tree. An intolerant tree that grows on a variety of moist soils if they are well drained. It requires a precipitation zone of 750 to 1750 mm/yr. It prefers a humid, hot tropical, sub-tropical monsoon climate with a temperature range of -5 to 40°C on elevations up to 900 m. The tree is not frost hardy.

Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Uses

This is a fast-growing tree, valuable for fuel and other wood products. The nut is a favorite food for many animals. It will coppice. It is an excellent farm forestry tree. Also used for fuel, implements, boats, tannin, fodder (nuts) medicinal (fruit is a laxative) timber and ornamental purposes.

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