Table of Contents
Wildlands are natural or largely unmodified areas. Wildlands have usually located some distance from population centers.
Values of Tourism on Wildlands:
Wildlands offer excellent opportunities for health-giving leisure time pursuits, which can expand individual horizons, recreation in natural surroundings a Wildlands provides for the development of physical skills as well as intellectual and cultural interests.
- Physical values: Physical values of recreation a Wildlands come primarily from such activities as picnicking, Camping, fishing, hunting, hiking, mountain climbing, riding, Skiing, boating, and swimming.
- Picnicking and camping in a company also give social pleasures.
- Mountain climbing, skiing involves a sprite of adventure.
- Intellectual and culture value: Intellectual and cultural values are derived from such interests as photography, painting, handicraft, nature study, research, understanding archeological or historical interests.
Often spiritual uplift accompanies a recreational experience.
THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TOURISM
There are two main impacts of recreation on the people while considering their economic condition.
THE SOCIAL AND CULTURE IMPACT OF TOURISM
The social impact of the evolution of tourism in an area changes the attitude of the host community as the area gradually develops from a rural setting to a fully developed resort.
- The researcher listed the following six negative points about the cultural impact of tourism.
- Tourists do nothing to promote international/national understanding.
- The strains of hospitality eventually become intolerable
- Employment in the tourist industry is often de-humanizing
- Tourists have undesirable demonstration effects on residents. (Drinking)
- The tourist industry adversely affects community life.
- Tourism and culture activities:
- Dress and Leisure activities
- Tourism and developing areas
- Tourism and crime
THE ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF TOURISM
Due to the recreation activities, the disturbance is produced in the ecosystem. They affect the ecosystem by the following means.
(They cause Flood, Landslide)
- What they consume
- What they produce
- Tracker need water
- Wood for fire
- Flora and fauna
- Small plants are trampled under feet.
- Use of fire
- Overhunting/ Fishing
MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
Sustainable management requires two types of techniques.
- Macro techniques. (Relate to planning sites within a zone)
- The setting up of honeypots. (Honeypots are the which are more popular)
- The policy of dispersion
- The encouragement of soft tourism
- The encouragement of “green policies”
- Create environmental awareness
- Restrictive entry
- Use of the price mechanism
- Site management signposting
- Protecting footpath
- Control of access points
- Changing usage pattern
- Encouraging natural processes
MAJOR POETICAL IMPACT OF TOURISM AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
- Flora and fauna species composition
- Natural resources
- Visual impact
- Campgrounds are the improved areas which provide the visitors a good scenic beauty, sanitation, and safety.
- The primary mgt aspects of having campsites are to prove a service to the public and to protect the resources. Often these objectives are lost because of indifferent bureaucracy within public parks, overzealous administrators or restrictive regulations.
- Most of the campers, hunter, and fisherman realize the need for certain limitations; however, they show justified resentment towards being treated as delinquent book borrowers by bossy park superintendents or worrisome campground owners.
- Camp popularity has led to modification of style. Values associated with the camping are changing rapidly and those who want to adhere to certain values are moving into a specialized form of camping.
- A generalization claims that the people camp at or near the major tourist attraction to avoid a high cost of the motels and restaurants but that they camp in the secluded areas for our door environment enjoyment. Camping is the essential element of the forest recreation for some people, while it is just a means to an end for others. Many spend their vocation in camps in order to go to the place because of simple economics.
Classification of Camping Grounds:
- The need of Classification:
A system is needed for the campground classification is necessary in order to allow the land managers to choose the type of campground that is suitable for the need of his area.
- The basis of Classification:
Classification of the campgrounds depends upon:
- Location of the area
- No of the camp users
- Facilities provided
Wage’s system of the classification serves as the guide and not as a set of rules for camping grounds development.
- Central Campground:
Whenever the conditions occur that consistently attract large no of the people to a relatively small spot, the best calls of the campground is the central campground.
These are just a few steps away from the city living in the camping units are crowded together in designated locations.
Each unit is orientated next to its neighbor in a geometric pattern.
- Forest Campground:
The forest camp utilizes individual company units that are to handle a family or small company group. The camping units are located along a looping road, which winds through a wooded area where natural environment has been mentioned as much as possible. Forest camps have the four strong points for family living convenience, solitude to a degree and sight protection.
- Backcountry Campground:
The backcountry camp is designed to provide a limited facility for camping in the wilderness that is far removed for civilization. They are in the wilderness or backcountry where they can be reached by walking, horse riding, or boating.
- Peak load Campground:
The peak load camp or overflow camp is designed to handle a large number of campers for a short period of time within the minimum of service and facilities. The form of campground serves those people who arrive too late to occupy a regular campsite.
- Long-term Campground:
Long camps are designed to provide accommodation for the campers who wish to stay in any area in one location can be centered in one area that is specially equipped to meet their requirement.
- Traveler’s Campground:
Camper’s en route b/w their destination and home often stop overnight at camps that have been signed to serve the travelers.
A large percentage of campers stay at the traveler’s camp at the same time during their trip because these camps provide cheap and convenient accommodation.
Development of the Camping Grounds:
- Site Selection for the camp
- The layout of the campgrounds
- Site Selection:
The places that provide good sanitation, scenic beauty and safety are best for campgrounds. These may be:
- River or lake branch
- Flat grounds
- Vegetative area
- Fit for accommodation
- Easy approach
- Days spent on the recreations sites that are at least 5 – 40 km far from the city. The launch is not cooked there.
- Commonly a picnic refers to a trip away from the city. Development facilities not only aid to a convenience, safety and enjoyment of the users. They also serve to keep the people grouped together in places designed to accommodate them.
- Picnic units:
The picnic unit is approx 400 sq ft in size and is oriented around the tables.
In addition to the tables, a picnic unit usu contain a fireplace of some sort and refuse container.
Tables should have attached seat of durable materials.
Fireplaces are not as important in picnic areas as they once were, but they cannot be eliminated.
- Picnic Ground Layout:
Picnic grounds must serve a variety of users under the different circumstances these must be situated in such a position as to afford the best view possible, however, it should be kept back at least 150 feet away from the water’s edge. This 150 feet buffer strip sis recommend for:
- Damage to the natural environment
- Discouraging swimming in the area
- The gentle slope of less than 20% is favorable. Well marked trails are necessary to tie the recreational area together.
Classification of Picnic Areas:
- In order to satisfy the different needs of picnickers, picnic grounds are classified into:
- General Use Picnic Grounds:
- These are small areas not restricted for ladies, children, and gens. The unit density varies for 10-50 per acre, however, 15 tables acre is most favorable density in general use.
- Group Picnic Grounds:
- Group picnicking is a common activity and should be recognized as a need during recreational planning.
- These groups should be catered to proved separate area. These grounds should be separate from general use area by enough distance. Shelters are of particular importance to the success of these grounds.
- Cluster Picnic Grounds:
- The cluster picnic grounds are low-density picnic facility designed for use by families and small groups that desires privacy. These areas have a density of 4 units per acre and incorporate the least site modification. Spacing approx 100 ft to left b/w each unit within the cluster.
- En-route Picnic Grounds:
- One of the most heavily used recreational facilities in the roadside is the picnic table on a major highway. Roadside tables and rest areas have long catered to a traveler who wishes to prepare a meal rather than to visit a restaurant.
- Roadside rest should include picnic table, sanitary facilities, drinking water facility as well as a safe place to pull off the highway. Grills and fireplace are not important in the layout.
WATER ORIENTED RECREATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
- Intensive water orientated recreational includes:
- Extensive water orientated recreational includes:
- Stream floating
INTENSIVE WATER ORIENTED RECREATION:
- Picnicking and swimming are supplemental activities that rely upon each other for mutual success. In most cases, swimming becomes an intensively used forest recreation activity when it is supplemental with another type of forest activity.
- Swimming Sites:
Swimming sites should be located on either natural bodies of water at poles. Much literature is available concerning the design and operation of swimming pools however the swimming pool is not favored by forest user.
The safety of the user is the primary obligation of any recreation manager. Therefore, he must supply the uses within a swimming area that is bacteriological safe and physically free from hazards.
- Quality of Water:
The bacteriological quality of water must be sufficiently high so as to be considered safe for swimming by local health code.
- Physical Hazards:
Physical hazards are the second limiting factor associated with user safety. All hazards should be removed from improved swimming areas when possible. Warning signs barriers should be erected to protect the public from hazards.
- Safety Equipment:
Some areas require lifeguards to be stationed at any paid swimming areas.
- Beach Development:
- The bottom of the swimming area should have a uniform and gently slope into the water depth of six feet.
- Coarse sand or fine gravel marks the best for swimming.
- For the protection of bare feet, the beach area should be kept clean of rocks, glasses, and pieces of medals. In areas where grass will grow well, it can be used to improve the quality of the waterfront area.
- Privacy should be maintained.
- Screening should be done to separate the beach areas with campgrounds.
- Required Supporting Facilities:
It requires the building maintenance and operations of sanitation, dressing and parking facilities. Al least one toilet per six is needed at all swimming areas.
One drinking fountain is needed. Refuse container should be placed at the entrance to the beach and at convenient places.
- Supporting Facilities:
Day user usu combine swimming with other activities like playing games, games of tag, volleyball and softballs.
- Boating has an important place in outdoor recreation.
- Types of Boats:
There is a wide variation in types of boats used by Pakistani public. These include:
- Machine boat
- Paddle boat
- Oars boat
- Low capacity boat
- High capacity boat
- Water Quality:
Water to be used for boating should meet certain quality limitations. Bacteriological pollution in itself is not a limiting factor to prevent boating.
Odor: offensive odor probably is the largest detracting factor in boating water quality. Anaerobic bacteria cause both an odor and dark color.
Color: decomposition of OM in the absence of dissolved oxygen causes dark color water. Chemical pollutants are a different matter and must be controlled at their source.
- Supporting Facilities:
Points of access are needed to permit the public to put their boats into the water. A formal boat landing area usu provided with launching ramp, a turnabout area, a parking lot and adequate sanitary facilities.
- Launching ramp:
A launching ramp is used to back the boat trailer down into the winter so that the boat can be floated off. Concrete is the recommended material for reap construction.
- Approach road:
A two-way road ending in a paved or gravel circle at the shore end of launching ramp will provide a normal head on driving for a max distance towards the water.
Since many of the cars will come, so the swimming area requires a large parking lot.
- Boat storage:
The concept of onsite, dry rack storage has been given a wide application in recent years. Dry rack storage permits boats to be stored in a large building on racks.
- Water and sanitation:
Some forms of outlet should be constructed to provide drinking water. A well and pump with built-in the fountain are very satisfactory where the use is relatively low or no central water supply can be developed. Pit toilets are not recommended in areas that lie on low traces, floodplains or other such areas that are susceptible to periodic flooding.
EXTENSIVE WATER ORIENTED RECREATION:
- Fishing has an important place in recreation. It is a type of sport. For the development of fishing three things are important.
- Rules and regulations
It includes rod, baits, strings, bag, tag, stool, and umbrella.
- Rules and Regulations:
There should be some rules and regulations for the development of fishing:
- Place area zone should be along lake, river and other places should be restricted.
- The timing of fishing should be fixed.
- There should be some fee or license for number and kind of fish.
- There should be some limit for catching fish per day.
- Size should be fixed ie small one should not be allowed.
- Explosives or poisons should not be used.
- There should be rules for using nets and knots.
- Supporting Facilities:
Following facilities will increase the joy of recreation if provided with:
- Parking Facilities
- Refuse tank
FOREST RECREATIONAL/TOURISM POTENTIAL IN PAKISTAN:
- God has gifted Pakistan with a charming natural beauty. The fascinating landscaping, valleys, mountains, lakes,, springs, peaks and variety of faunae and flora are the factors attracting the tourists from all over the world.
- The need is to improve the outdoor recreational facilities so that max tourists come here and the tourism industry can be developed
- The main forest recreational regions of Pakistan are given below.
- Northern areas are the perhaps the riches tourist regions in Pakistan.
- Nature has been substantially liberal in endowing this part of the world with a variety of tourist attractions.
- It is here that the world’s three famous mountain ranges meet the Himalayas, the Karakorum, and the Hindukush.
- The whole of northern Pakistan has come to be known as a paradise for mountaineers climbers, trekkers, and hikers.
- The huge glaciers are some of the many natural features of its districts including Diamer, Ghazir Chanche and Gilgit.
- It is perhaps due to the rich tourist’s potentials of the region that the number of tourists is increasing in the areas.
- The peaks of the Northern areas are well known all over the world.
- There are scores of over 7000 meters peaks in the Karakoram Range and hundreds of nameless summits below 6000 meter. K-2, the undisputed monarch of the sky, broad peak, Muztagh tower Gasherbrum-II Chogolisa, the bride peak and paiya are some important peaks of the Karakoram Range.
- The Hindukush also contains hundreds of peaks may above 7000 meters including Trichmir (705 m). The western bastion of the Himalaya range is Nanga Parbat once dreaded as Killer Mountain.
- At an elevation of 1454 m lies the Gilgit valley.
- The quaint little town of Gilgit has spectacular scenic beauty.
- 10 km from Gilgit town is a beautiful rock engraving of Buddha of the 7th century at the mouth of Kargah Nallah.
- The bridge over the fast flowing Gilgit River is the largest suspension bridge in Asia.
- The favorite sport in Gilgit is polo, which local folk claim originated here.
- The streams and lakes of Gilgit are full of trout, so angling is common here.
- Trekking and hiking in rugged mountains and verdant valleys of Gilgit are only allowed in the open zone.
- Around Gilgit are towering mountain peaks waiting to be scaled by mountaineers.
- The visitors to Hunza are overwhelmed by the rugged charm, the fragrant breeze singing through graceful poplar trees and the velvet-like green carpet of wheat fields, set against the background of snow-covered mountains.
- Hazimabad, the capital of Hunza valley offers an awe-inspiring view of Rakaposhi 7799 m.
- Hunza is ideal for mountaineering, trekking, and hiking.
GILGIT KALASH VALLEY:
- This 332 km long mountain hideout, in the Hindukush range, is a place of fascinating scenic beauty and grander.
- Chitral’s collection of rugged mountains, sulfur springs; river teeming with trout, orchard-dotted slopes, friendly people and annual festivals are enchanting beyond description.
- For the modern-day traveler, this scenic region offers an exciting experience.
- In three narrow valleys, about 40 km from the town of Chitral live the famous Kafir Kalash Tribe. They are known the world over for their primitive pagan traditions and their love for dance and music.
- Valley of Swat with its rushing torrents, lakes, fruit-laden orchards, and flower-bedecked slopes is an idyllic valley
- Swat was once the treadle of Buddhism where at one time more than 14000 monasteries flourished.
- The main town of the valley is Saidu Sharif and Manghzar and kalam are rich with scenic beauty.
- Swat River is teemed with trout; so angling is done for recreation.
- Hiking, climbing, and mountaineering is done at Tiber line regions.
- This is 155 km long picture square valley striated at the bank of Kunhar River.
- The snow-capped peaks, lakes, springs, and glaciers are the characteristics features of the valley.
- The roaring Kunhar River what an attractive landscaping gives the tourist more joy.
- Angling is done in the Kunhar River.
- Naran is also included in the Kaghan valley.
- Here lithe camping site is provided.
- The tourists here enjoy the recreation of camping.
- From Naran, at a distance of 6km Saif-ul-Malook Lake is present which is worth seeing.
- It is present in the center of mountains with high snow-capped peaks.
- The wildflowers all around the lake, the transparent water, and the natural scenic beauty give the image of the supernatural place.
- Shogran is another tourist place in Kaghan Valley.
- It is the great gift of Allah for nature lovers and found of scenic seeing.
- The tourist also joy by walking to Sir Pai and Makra Top from Shogran
- It is also a good place for hiking and tricking.
- Murree is the most enveloped out of all the hill stations having cool climates in summer and crispy cold in winter.
- The town has metalloid roads, good hotels, nice restaurants and eating places, souvenir and handicraft shops, covered bazaars and the Mall Road where people stroll up and down shoulder to shoulder in peak tourist season.
- The Pindi Point overlooks the twin cities of Islamabad Rawalpindi and the other end known as Kashmir Point gives the panoramic view of the hill ranges spread up to Azad Kashmir.
- The life at Murree is gay, colorful, and nerve soothing.
- Cable car and chairlift at Bansra Gali and Partiata.
- Ayubia is of more attraction for tourists.
JALLO FOREST RECREATION PARK:
- Tehra reserve forest near village “Jallo” sprawling over an area of 18461 hectares and situated at 18 km in the Eastern side of Lahore on Wagha Railway line
- This reserve forest has been provided for the visitors. Some are as following:
- Grassy lawns
- Cafeteria and Snack Bars
- Children’s’ playing gadgets.
- Bamboo and log huts
- Rocky gardens, Japanese garden, and waterfall
- Lake, boats
- Fountain, sprinklers
- Drive in a zoo, Animals
CHANGA MANGA PLANTATION:
Forest Recreation Working Circle:
- Changa Manga plantation was established in 1866. It covers a total area of 12,510 acres. It is situated in dist Qasur.
- The plantation is at present working under three working circle:
- Shisham and mulberry working circle.
- Poplar working circle
- Recreation working circle
The recreation working circle is extended to the whole of the plantation. Since 1963 Changa Manga plantation is being managed as an outdoor recreation park also following are the main recreational facilities available now.
- Forest Tramway:
The forest tramway with its 24 inches wide track spread over 16.5 miles is serving as one of the main attractions for the tourists in the plantation.
- Artificial Lunar Lake:
It was constructed in 1963. The facilities of boating, both manual and motor driving is available for the recreation of the visitors.
- Parks and Open Spaces:
The lake is surrounded by 40 acres of grassy plots with perennial ornamental vegetation and seasonal flowerbed to add colors and provide space for the picnickers.
- Children Park:
Children park with usual play gadgets caters for the amusement of children.
- Log Huts:
Seven log huts have been constructed at the lake site for overnight stay of desirous tourists at a nominal rent.
- Swimming Pool:
To provide and cool dip during summer.
INDUS DELTA MANGROVE:
- The coastal areas of Pakistan are lucky in this respect that it bears one of the world’s most unique and rare forests, The Mangroves.
- Apart from its tangible products; the mangroves are also a well known and great source of aestheticism and outdoor recreation.
- People all over Pakistan visit the mangroves for its fascinating scenic beauty and boating through it
- Fishing is the main source of income for the local community, but the visitors also do fishing for enjoyment.
- A special attention should be paid to improve the recreational values of these forests. By providing proper recreational facilities, it may become a source of revenue for the government.
Image: Ziarat Balochistan Pakistan
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