Warm-season grass: Grass that grows and “greens up” in summer, sets seed in fall, and goes dormant (loses its green color and stops growing) during winter and spring.
Water bar: V-shaped trench cut into the surface of a road, which collects water and channels it off the road surface, to avoid erosion.
Water Control: Management of water (both surface and subsurface) to maintain plant growth, water quality, wildlife habitat, and fire control
Watershed: [Early 19th century. German Wasserscheide “water divide”] any sloping area that sheds water; an area of land that collects and discharges water into a single stream or other outlet. (Syn: Catchment) Or; Watershed: It is a landmass, which drains into a stream system, circumscribed by a boundary technically known as divide, and having an outlet which is to be considered as measuring point or mouth of stream system.
: A dull green coloration of diseased tissues due to membrane leaking of cellular contents into intercellular spaces.
Water table: Groundwater level: The water table marks the top of the region underground that is saturated with water. While most precipitation evaporates back to the atmosphere or flows directly into streams, the rest percolates down through the ground to the water table. In the ground above the water table, a region called the aeration zone, pore spaces are filled with a mixture of air and water.
Weathering: The disintegration and decomposition of rocks and minerals by natural processes such as the action of frost or percolating ground water
Wedge: 1. In logging, to drive a solid V-shaped object (the wedge) into the saw cut to prevent the saw from binding and to direct the fall of the tree. 2. Slang for a prism used in cruising timber
Wedge system: A modification of the strip shelterwood system in which cuttings begin as narrow, interior, wedge-shaped strips with the apex into the prevailing wind, and are then successively enlarged and advanced; regeneration is mainly natural; regeneration interval is short and the young crop fairly even-aged.
Weeding: A release treatment in stands during the seedling stage that eliminates or suppresses undesirable vegetation regardless of crown position.
Weed tree: A tree of a species with relatively little or no value.
Weir: A dam built across a river to regulate the flow of water, divert it, or change its level
Well-stocked: The situation in which a forest stand contains trees spaced widely enough to prevent competition yet closely enough to utilize the entire site.
Wetlands: 1. Generally, a marsh, swamp, or other area of land where the soil near the surface is saturated or covered with water, especially one that forms a habitat for wildlife. 2. More specifically, area of marsh, fen, peatland, or water whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporarily with water that is static of flowing, fresh or brackish or salty including areas of marine water, the depth of which at low tide exceed 6 meters.
Whip: 1. A bare-root hardwood planting stock. 2. Any slender tree that the wind causes to lacerate the crowns of its neighbors.
Whorl: A group of branches originating at or near the base of the terminal bud. Generally, one whorl is produced each growing season.
Wilt: A common symptom of disease due to a loss of turgor and resulting in subsequent drooping and collapse of the foliage or succulent tissues.
Widowmaker: Any limb, top, leaning tree, or other material in the forest that is in danger of falling to the ground without warning, creating a safety hazard. Often applied to limbs that get lodged in the crowns of other trees during a logging operation
Wilderness area: An area of public land (usually over 5,000 acres) designated by Congress as wilderness according to the definition in the Wilderness Act. Ecosystems present are preserved in their natural states, with minimum human influence (no timber harvesting, roads, or developed areas are allowed).
Wildfire: A fire burning out of control, regardless of how or why it started.
Wildland: Uncultivated land other than fallow. Land currently little influenced by human activity.
Wildlife: 1. Wild animals, birds, and other living things, sometimes including vegetation, living in a natural undomesticated state 2. Organisms living in their natural habitat. These may be plants, animals, or microbes, other than the cultivated plants and domesticated animals.
Wildlife habitat: The native environment of an animal. Habitats ideally provide all the elements needed for life and growth: food, water, cover and space.
Wildlife Park: See Safari park
Wildlife refuge: A protected area set aside to preserve the habitats of some types of wild animals, especially migratory waterfowl, and in which people are allowed to view wildlife in a natural setting
Wildlife sanctuaries: A wildlife Sanctuary is an area owned by the government and set aside by notification in the official gazette, as an undisturbed breeding ground for the protection of wildlife. Public access to the sanctuary is prohibited. Exploration of forest in the sanctuary is not permissible except for reducing fire hazards, epidemics, insect attacks or other natural calamities.
Wildling: (Syn Wilding) A seedling naturally reproduced outside of a nursery, used in forest planting
A common symptom of disease due to a loss of turgor and resulting in subsequent drooping and collapse of the foliage or succulent tissues.
Wind bend: Condition of trees having a curved stem as a consequence of wind action or compression due to heavy load on the crown of the tree.
Windbreak: A wind barrier of living trees and shrubs maintained to protect the farm home, other buildings, garden, orchard, or feedlots. (Syn. Shelterbelt).
Windthrow: Trees uprooted by excessive wind. Shallow-rooted trees are almost always affected.
Wind erosion: The detachment, transportation, and deposition of soil particles by wind, is called wind erosion.
Windfall: A tree uprooted or broken off by wind; an area on which the trees have been thrown by wind. (Syn. Blowdown, wind-thrown)
Wind firm: Describes trees capable of withstanding heavy wind
Wind lean: Condition of trees having a leaning stem, result of partial uprooting or wind action.
Wind rock: Movement of tree stems in the wind, which may lead to chafing of the collar and sometimes of the roots, and, in very wet soil, loosening of the ground.
Windrow: A long, narrow row of vegetation, debris, and some soil created during site preparation and clearing operations.
A witch’s broom is a disease or deformity in a woody plant
, typically a tree
, where the natural structure of the plant is changed
Wolf tree: 1. A vigorous tree that has merchantable value but occupies more space than its value warrants, usu very limby. 2. A large older tree with a spreading crown and little or no timber value, but often great value for wildlife.
Wood: i) Wood is the combination of cellulose and lignin ii) area with trees: an area of land covered by trees or bushes. A wood is usually smaller than a forest.
Woodland: The wooded portion of a farm or ranch, or the wooded land operated in connection with a farm or ranch.
Wood-processing industry: That segment of the forest industry that manufactures lumber, paper, plywood, and other primary forest products.
Wood technology: The study of wood and all its aspects, including anatomy, chemistry, properties, and treatment.
: As opposed to herbaceous plants
, woody plants have a year-round structure of live stems and branches, and these woody parts increase in diameter each year. Includes both evergreen
trees and shrubs, even small ones that may look like herbaceous plants.
Working Circle: A forest area (forming the whole or part of a working plan area) organized for a particular object and under one set of working plan prescriptions, embodying one Silvicultural system or a designated combination of systems; a unit of Silvicultural organization of the forest. (BCFT). 1. Selection w/c: In Pakistan selection w/c, are in Blue Pine and Fir-Spruce forests with good stocking. Good stocking means good growing stocks on easy slopes (idea of old mgt) or even (in modern sense) on upto 70-80% (> 10% = road construction and <50% mean no agriculture allowed). However if the forests are not connected with road construction and are too steep for commercial type of forestry, the mgt will be intensive. 2. Improvement w/c: They may be suited on easy slopes but they are under stocked and can be managed for timber. But since these w/c are depleted so they need improvement (from grazing, illicit cutting, etc) 3. Plantation w/c: These are the blank areas, or much depleted forests which cannot be regenerated naturally or they are unable to regenerate themselves naturally. So in such w/c artificial plantations are raised. 4. Shelterwood w/c: This w/c, contain the trees which give shelter to the infantile seedlings ie the seedlings which are unable to sustain themselves independently. This w/c is chir-pine forests. 5. Recreation w/c: This w/c includes the areas in which aesthetic plantains are raised. 6. Protection w/c: The term protection w/c is used for the mgt activities in the areas where there are steep slopes all the time (> 80% or even upto 100%). These are not productive forests and are usu poorly stocked so they are managed for the protection of slopes only. (All other activities are usu accompanied by conservation of wildlife and water-shed etc.) 7. Commercial w/c: Means the mgt of forests for the production of timber. This word should not be confused with selection or shelterwood w/c. all the three are the same.
Working group: An aggregate of forest stands, or forest stand and forest sites, which are grouped for the purpose of applying a common set of silvicultural treatments (also called operational group).
Working Plan: A working plan is an instrument for applying the principles of forest management, Silviculture, economics, and sociology to the task of managing a forest tract to fulfill the objectives of management in the most efficient manner possible.
Wrenching: See root-wrenching
W.W.F: Abbreviation of World Wide Fund for Nature (formerly known as the World Wide Fund). It was established in 1961 and has it’s headquarter in Switzerland and there are 25 national organizations in five countries, with more than 2 million volunteers. It raises funds for the conservation of nature and to heighten public awareness of its urgency.
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Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani