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What is Ecology? Branches of Ecology. Plant and Forest Ecology.

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Ø  Derived from the Greek word “OEKLOGIE” “OIKOS” meaning “HOUSE”.
Ø  LOGY From Logos Means “The study Of”.
Ø  Thus ecology is the study of the earth’s “house Holds” Including the plants, Animals, Micro-organisms and the people that live together an Independent component.
Ø  The study of the structure and function of nature. (By E.P. ODUM).
Ø  The word Ecology first proposed by German zoologist H. Reiter in 1885.
 Ecology is divided into two major divisions:
1.     Autecology
2.     Syn Ecology.
Attention is concentrated on the individual plant their life histories and their reaction to the environment.
“Thus Autecology is the study of individual or a particular species with  regard to its life history and behaviour as a mean of adaptation to the environment.” e.g. Relation study of Dalbergia sissoo (SHISHAM).
§  Study is concentrated with the structure, development, composition and causes of distribution of plant community and their relationship to their environment.
§  “If the study of whole group of living organism or communities under a particular set of environment.”
      If the Ecology of a community comprising different species then it is known as synecology.
§  Ecologist further sub-divided synecology into the following types;
1.   Species Ecology
2.   Population Ecology
3.   Community Ecology
4.   Ecosystem Ecology.
1.     Plant ecology is defined as the study of organisms in reciprocal relationship with their environment.
2.     Forest management not known in plant ecology.
3.     Plant ecology overlaps a number of sciences like physics, chemistry, geology, soil science, plant taxonomy, meteorology.
4.     Plant geography is closely associated with plant ecology.
5.     Floristic plant geography from a part of plant ecology.
6.     Plant ecology may be studied in two subdivision:-
i.    Autecology
ii.   Synecology
1.               Forest ecology is the study of a forest in reciprocal relationship with its environment.
2.               Forest are to meet both physical and economic needs of the population forest ecology combines in itself the study of all these factors that affect both natural and economic importance of forest.
3.               Forest management becomes an important environmental factor in forest ecology.
4.               Forest ecology is considered as in applied plant ecology.
5.               As a science forest ecology is related both to plant ecology and silviculture.
6.               Forest ecology overlaps a number of sciences like physics, chemistry, geology, meteorology, soil science, taxonomy of plants etc.
7.               Plant geography form part of forest ecology.
8.               Forest ecology may be studied in two sub divisions:
1.         Autecology
2.         Synecology
1. Autecology:      The study of an individual forest tree or trees species.
2. Synecology:      The study of a group of forest trees or forest communities.
9.               Forest ecology is related to silvic and silviculture and such other branches of forest biology as forest botany, forest mycology, forest genetics, forest zoology, forest entomology etc.
10.       Silviculture is applied forest ecology.
11.       Forest ecology, recognizes as the basis of the development of forest vegetation the actions, reactions and co-action of trees and other organisms to the complex of the environment.
12.  Forest ecology has thus to contended its, If very often with quasi-natural conditions, rather than natural.
13. Forest ecology ordinarily forms the basis for forest management practices.
14.       Forest ecology has helped in the selection of a management system in conifer forests of the Himalayas.
15.       Forest ecology has necessarily made certain departures from plant ecological concepts so that both protective and productive roles of vegetations are properly balanced.
16.       Forest ecology thus deals invariably with non climax units of vegetations that are much shaped by the human hand as climate and soil.
17.       The study of relationships that exists among forest trees of same or different species themselves and their collective response to environmental factors/stresses.
            It explains:-
–        Why forests exist?
–        Wherever they do?
–        How forest vegetation spreads in various regions of the world?
–        Why is their structure, density, distribution, growth rate, competition, survival, cooperation, succession, organization, food chain etc?
–        Ways and means of overcoming hurdles in their growth, promoting their health etc?
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Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani is working as Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu ( Forestrypedia (, All Pak Notifications (, Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.

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