Abandoned water right: A water right which was not put to beneficial use for a number of years, generally five to seven years.
Abdomen: The third or posterior major division of the insect body; consists normally of nine or ten apparent segments; bears no functional legs in the adult stage, but may bear pro-legs or false legs in the larval stage.
Abettor: A person who assists somebody to do something, especially something illegal
Abies: The genus Abies is the fir genus of the conifers. It has single needle-like leaves with cones that stand erect on the branch.
Abiotic: Physical, not biological: describes the physical and chemical aspects of an organism’s environment
Abioticpathogen: A nonliving, disease-causing entity, e.g., drought, salt, air pollutants.
Abkalani: In Abkalani, in Riverine Forest’s broadcasting of seeds is done. When a flood comes and water is standing, then broadcasting is done by using boats. (See Pre-abkalani and Post-abkalani)
Abscission: Abscission is the orderly process by which a leaf dies and falls off the tree or a fruit ripens and falls from a plant.
Absorption: The uptake of water, other fluids, or dissolved chemicals by a cell or an organism (as tree roots absorb dissolved nutrients in soil).
Abney level: A hand surveying instrument designed to measure angles of elevation or depression, expressed in degrees or percent (Pic).
Acacia: Any of the approximately 800 species of trees and shrubs that make up the genus Acacia, of the Mimosa family. Acacias are native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly Australia and Africa. Sweet acacia (A. farnesiana) is native to the southwestern U.S. Acacias have distinctive, finely divided leaflets, and their leafstalks may bear thorns or sharp spines at their base. Their small, often fragrant, yellow or white flowers have many stamens apiece, giving each a fuzzy appearance. On the plains of southern and eastern Africa, acacias are common features of the landscape. Several species are important economically, yielding substances such as gum arabic and tannin, as well as valuable timber (Pic).
Acclimatization: Adaptation to a different climate. (SAF modif.)
Accretion: A gradual increase in land area adjacent to a river.
Accuracy: Refers to the closeness of a measurement or estimate to the true value. Accuracy may be used in either a qualitative way or as a quantitative summary of total error. Qualitative: An accurate measurement is one where the total error is small. Quantitative: A2 = B2 + P2 where B denotes a measure of bias and P denotes a measure of precision.
Achene: A small, dry, one-seeded fruit, without a predictable opening (does not split open spontaneously) and formed from a single carpel. It’s usually one of many, like an unshelled Sunflower seed.
Acid: Any substance that in water solution tastes sour, changes the color of acid-base indicators (e.g., litmus), reacts with some Metals (e.g., iron) to yield hydrogen gas, reacts with Bases to form Salts, and promotes certain Chemical Reactions (e.g., acid catalysis). Acids contain one or more hydrogen atoms that, in solution, dissociate as positively charged hydrogen Ions. Inorganic, or mineral, acids include sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, and phosphoric acid. Organic acids include carboxylic Acids, Phenols, and sulfonic acids. Broader definitions of acids cover situations in which water is not present.
Acid and basic rocks: Division of Igneousrocks on the basis of their Silicate mineral content, these minerals usually being the most abundant in such rocks. Rocks are described as acid, intermediate, basic, and ultrabasic, in order of decreasing silica content, because it was earlier thought that silica is present in rock magmas in the form of silicic acid. In modern usage, the terms do not refer to acidity in the chemical sense. In general, the gradation from acid to basic corresponds to an increase in color (i.e., light to dark).
Acidic: The condition of water or soil that contains a sufficient amount of acid substances to lower the pH below 7.0.
Acid rain: 1. A rain that contains dilute acid derived from burning fossil fuels and that is potentially harmful to the environment. 2. Any precipitation, including snow that contains a heavy concentration of sulfuric and nitric acids. This form of pollution is a serious environmental problem in the large urban and industrial areas of North America, Europe, and Asia. Automobiles, certain industrial operations, and electric power plants that burn Fossil Fuels emit the gases sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere, where they combine with water vapor in clouds to form sulfuric and nitric acids. The highly acidic precipitation from these clouds may contaminate lakes and streams, damaging fish and other aquatic species; damage vegetation, including agricultural crops and trees; and corrode the outsides of buildings and other structures (historic monuments are especially vulnerable). Though usually most severe around large urban and industrial areas, acid precipitation.
Acidity: The extent to which the pH value of a solution falls below 7.
Acre-foot: 1. The amount of water required to cover one acre to a depth of one foot. An acre-foot equals 325,851 gallons or 43,560 cubic feet. A flow of 1 cubic feet per second produces 1.98 acre-feet per day. 2. The volume of water needed to flood one acre of land to a depth of one foot. Equivalent to 43,560 cubic feet, 1,233 cubic meters or 325,851 gallons. One of the most common units of measure used for reservoir capacity. Also used in mineral resource calculations (an acre-foot of coal is a block of coal one acre in area and one foot thick – it weighs approximately 1,800 tons).
Activated carbon adsorption: The process of pollutants moving out of the water and attaching on to activated carbon.
Acuteinjury: Injury, usually involving necrosis, which develops within several hours to a few days after a high dose exposure to a pollutant; expressed as fleck, scorch, bifacial necrosis, etc.
Actual cash value: The replacement cost of sth after deduction of depreciation that is claimable on insurance.
Aecial stage (aecium): A spore stage of the rust fungi; a cuplike structure bearing aeciospores.
Acorn: [ Old English æcern, perhaps < æcer “open land”; later interpreted as “oak-corn”] The hard fruit of an oak tree, consisting of a smooth single-seeded nut that is set in a cup-shaped base and ripens from green to brown (Pic).
Acquisition: Obtaining the legal right to test a property for mineral resources and produce any that are discovered. The rights can be obtained by purchasing the entire property (surface and mineral rights), purchasing the mineral rights alone, concession, or leasing the mineral rights.
Acre: [ Old English æcer. Ultimately probably “area over which plowing oxen can be driven in a day” < Indo-European, “drive”] A unit of land measurement, 43,560 sq ft or 10 square chains, or a square 208.7 ft on each side, including the United States and the United Kingdom, equal to 4,046.86 sq m /4,840 sq yd. A circular acre has a radius of 117.75 feet.
Acuminate: Tapering gradually to a point at the apex.
Acute: Coming sharply to a point at the apex.
Adhesion: The molecular attraction asserted between the surfaces of bodies in contact. (See cohesion).
Adjacent: A term that refers to the proximity of two objects. It means that the two objects are right next to each other or beside each other.
Adjudication: A court proceeding to determine all rights to the use of water on a particular stream system or groundwater basin.
Adjuvant: An additive used in pesticide spray formulations, which enhances adherence to plants.
Adsorption: The adhesion of a substance to the surface of a solid or liquid. Adsorption is often used to extract pollutants by causing them to be attached to such adsorbents as activated carbon or silica gel. Hydrophobic, or water-repulsing adsorbents, are used to extract oil from waterways in oil spills.
Adult: (In insects) the last or final stage of development
Advanced wastewater treatment: Any treatment of sewage that goes beyond the secondary or biological water treatment stage and includes the removal of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen and a high percentage of suspended solids.
Advance germination: See Pregermination
Advance growth: Young trees that have become established naturally in a forest before cutting or regeneration begin. Syn. advance reproduction (IFR)
Advance regeneration: Young trees under existing stand capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation.
Adventitious: Of a plant part that develops outside the usual order of time and/or position, e.g., an adventitious bud arises from any part of a stem, leaf, or root but lacks vascular connection with the pith; an adventitious shoot derives from an adventitious bud; an adventitious root arises from parts of the plant other than a preexisting root, e.g., from a stem or leaf.
Adventitious buds: [Early 17th century. < medieval Latin adventitius “coming from outside,” alteration of Latin adventicius < adventus (see Advent)] 1. A bud produced from any part of the stem, leaves, or roots which are not connected with the strands of but-bearing tissue arising from the axils of the leaves. (IFR modif.) 2. Adventitious buds form along with a stem, generally after the stem has had an injury. This is a survival response for the plant. These adventitious buds will differentiate either into roots or shoots depending upon whether they are above or below ground. This is what allows gardeners to plant a cutting of a stem and it will grow up into a mature plant.
Adventitious roots: A root produced from parts of the plant other than a pre-existing root, eg from stem or leaf (Pic).
Aerated lagoon: A holding and/or treatment pond that speeds up the natural process of biological decomposition of organic waste by stimulating the growth and activity of bacteria that degrade organic waste.
Aeration: The mixing or turbulent exposure of water to air and oxygen to dissipate volatile contaminants and other pollutants into the air.
Aeration tank: A chamber used to inject air into water.
Aerobic treatment: Process by which microbes decompose complex organic compounds in the presence of oxygen and use the liberated energy for reproduction and growth. Such processes include extended aeration, trickling filtration, and rotating biological contactors.
Aesthetics: (a) Sensitivity to or appreciation of the forest’s beauty through recognition of its unique and varied components. (b) Beauty through an orderly appearance.
Aestivation/ Estivation: 1.Dormancy resulting from increased temperatures; the process of passing the summer, a hot season, or a prolonged drought in an inactive state. (BCFT) 2. The arrangement of parts of a flower within a bud
Afforest: [Early 16th century. < medieval Latin afforestare < foresta “forest”]1. To establish a forest on an area from which forest vegetation has always or long been absent (BCFT). 2. To establish a species or forest on an area in which it did not occur naturally.
Afforestation: 1. Establishment of a forest on an area not previously forested. 2. The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always, or for very long, been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation.
After-ripening: Biochemical or physical changes occurring in seeds, bulbs, tubers, and fruits after harvesting when ripe in an ordinary way; often necessary for subsequent germination or growth.
Aftershock: An earthquake which follows a larger earthquake or main shock and originates in or near the rupture zone of the larger earthquake. Generally, major earthquakes are followed by a larger number of aftershocks, decreasing in frequency with time.
Age: 1. Of a tree: a. The number of annual growth rings between the bark and the pith, as counted at breast height (1.3 m). b. The number of years required to grow from establishment to a specified condition of maturity. c. The number of annual growth rings between the bark and the pith, as counted at stump height (0.15 m) d. The number of years elapsed since the germination of the seed, rooting of cuttings, or the budding of the sprout or root sucker. 2. Of a forest, stand, or forest type: a. the average of the trees comprising it. b. The number of years between the establishment and the final harvest of a forest crop. c. The average total age of the trees comprising it.
Age clan: One of the intervals into which the range of ages of trees in a stand are divided into for classification and use
Age class: One of the intervals into which the range of age of trees growing in a forest is divided for classification or use; also the trees falling into such an interval. (See: Age gradation)
Age class distribution: The local occurrence, or proportionate representation, of different age classes in a forest.
Age-class interval: See age-class period
Age-class period: The number of years within the limits of a given age class.
Age gradation: Loosely used as synonymous with age class, but preferably restricted to an interval of one year.
Aggressive water: Water which is soft and acidic and can corrode plumbing, piping, and appliances.
Agriculture: Science or art of cultivating the soil, growing and harvesting crops, and raising livestock. Agriculture probably first developed in South Asia and Egypt, then spread to Europe, Africa, the rest of Asia, the islands of the central and South Pacific, and finally to North and South America. Agriculture in the Middle East is believed to date from 9000–7000 BC. Early cultivated crops include wild barley (Middle East), domesticated beans and water chestnuts (Thailand), and pumpkins (the Americas). Domestication of animals occurred during roughly the same period. Slash-and-burn land–clearing methods and crop rotation were early agricultural techniques. Steady improvements in tools and methods over the centuries increased agricultural output, as did mechanization, selective breeding and hybridization, and, in the 20th century, the use of herbicides and insecticides. More of the world’s aggregate manpower is devoted to agriculture than to all other occupations combined.
Agroforestry: The practice of raising trees, forage, and livestock on the same ground, at the same time. Common associations are cattle and trees or sheep and trees; forestry combined with farming: the method or practice of integrating the raising of trees into farming to provide fuel, fruits, forage, a shelter for animals or crops, and other benefits
Aggradation: A progressive build up of a channel bed with sediment over several years due to a normal sequence of scour and deposition, as distinguished from the rise and fall of the channel bed during a single flood.
Agroforestry: The deliberate integration, in space or time, of woody perennials with herbaceous crops and/or animals on the same land management unit.
Agronomics: Economics of land use: the branch of economics that is concerned with the use and productivity of land
Agronomy: Branch of agriculture that deals with field crop production and soil management. Agronomists generally work with crops that are grown on a large scale (e.g., small grains) and that require relatively little management. Agronomic experiments focus on a variety of factors relating to crop plants, including yield, diseases, cultivation, and sensitivity to factors such as climate and soil.
Air: Mixture of gases constituting the earth’s atmosphere. Some gases occur in steady concentrations. The most important are molecular nitrogen (N2), 78% by volume, and molecular oxygen (O2), 21%. Small amounts of argon (Ar; 1.9%), neon (Ne), helium (He), methane (CH4), krypton (Kr), hydrogen (H2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and xenon (Xe) are also present in almost constant proportions. Other gases occur in variable concentrations: water vapour (H2O), ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Air also contains trace amounts of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. The variable constituents are important for maintaining life. Water vapour is the source for all forms of precipitation and is an important absorber and emitter of infrared radiation. Carbon dioxide is necessary for photosynthesis and is also an important absorber and emitter of infrared radiation. Ozone in the Stratosphere (see OzoneLayer) is an effective absorber of ultraviolet radiation from the Sun but at ground-level is a corrosive pollutant and a major constituent of smog.
Air chambers: Air chambers generally refers to the open chambers in the thallus of Marchantia and other liverworts. This is a chamber in the upper portion of the thallus that has a pore at the top so that gas exchange can occur between the leaf and the open air outside the thallus (Pic).
Air layering: Inducing root development on an undetached aerial portion of a plant, commonly by wounding it, treating it with a rooting stimulant, and wrapping it in moist material under a waterproof covering, so that the portion so treated is capable of independent growth after separation from the mother plant.
Air pollution: Release into the atmosphere of gases, finely divided solids, or finely dispersed liquid aerosols at rates that exceed the capacity of the atmosphere to dissipate them or to dispose of them through incorporation into the biosphere. Dust storms in desert areas and smoke from forest and grass fires contribute to particulate and chemical air pollution. Volcanic activity is the major natural source of air pollution, pouring huge amounts of ash and toxic fumes into the atmosphere. Air pollution may affect humans directly, causing irritation of the eyes or coughing. More indirectly, its effects can be measured far from the source, as, for example, the fallout of tetraethyl lead from automobile exhausts, which has been observed in the oceans and on the Greenland ice sheet. Still less direct are possible effects on global climates.
Air pruning: Limiting extension of a root system beyond a container by exposure to air.
Air seeding: See seeding: aerial
Albedo: the fraction of light hitting an object that is reflected by that object, especially a planet reflecting the Sun’s light.
Alder: Any of about 30 species of ornamental shrubs and trees in the genus Alnus, of the BIRCH family, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere and western South America on cool, wet sites. Alders are distinguished from birches by their usually stalked winter buds and by CONEs that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released. Alders have scaly bark, oval leaves that fall without changing color, and separate male and female flowers (CATKINs) borne on the same tree. Some familiar North American alders are the red alder (A. rubra or A. oregona); the white, or Sierra, alder (A. rhombifolia); and the speckled alder (A. rugosa). Alder wood is fine-textured and durable, even under water; it is used for furniture, cabinetry, and lathe work and in charcoal manufacture and millwork. Alders’ spreading root systems and tolerance of moist soils lend them to planting on stream banks for flood and erosion control. (Pic)
Algae: Members of a group of mostly aquatic, photosynthetic organisms (see photosynthesis) that defy precise definition. They range in size from the microscopic flagellate Micromonas to giant kelp that reach 200 ft (60 m) in length. Algae provide much of Earth’s oxygen, serve as the food base for almost all aquatic life, and provide foods and industrial products, including petroleum products. Their photosynthetic pigments are more varied than those of plants, and their cells have features not found among plants and animals. The classification of algae is changing rapidly because new taxonomic information is being discovered. Algae were formerly classified into three major groups—the red, brown, and green seaweeds—based on the pigment molecules in their Chloroplasts. Many more than three groups are now recognized, each sharing a common set of pigment types. Algae are not closely related to each other in an evolutionary sense. Specific groups can be distinguished from Protozoans and fungi (see fungus) only by the presence of chloroplasts and by their ability to carry out photosynthesis; these specific groups thus have a closer evolutionary relationship with the protozoa or fungi than with other algae. Algae are common on “slimy” rocks in streams and as green sheens on pools and ponds. Use of algae is perhaps as old as humankind; many species are eaten by coastal societies.
Algal bloom: A phenomenon whereby excessive nutrients within a river, stream or lake cause an explosion of plant life which results in the depletion of the oxygen in the water needed by fish and other aquatic life. Algae bloom is usually the result of urban runoff (of lawn fertilizers, etc.). The potential tragedy is that of a “fish kill,” where the stream life dies in one mass extinction.
Algicide: Substance or chemical used specifically to kill or control algae.
Alkali: Used in reference to materials that are rich in sodium and/or potassium.
Alkaline: The condition of water or soil that contains a sufficient amount of alkali substance to raise the pH above 7.0.
Alkalinity: The measurement of constituents in a water supply which determines alkaline conditions. The alkalinity of water is a measure of its capacity to neutralize acids. (See pH).
All-aged: Applies to a stand that contains trees of all ages. See also even-aged and uneven-aged.
All-aged stand: All, or almost all, age classes of trees represented.
All-aged structure: A stand in which trees of most or all age classes, from seedlings to mature trees, are represented.
All-aged management: A system of growing forest trees in groups where the individual trees are not the same age (theoretically, an all-aged forest has trees scattered throughout that range in age from 1 year to the oldest tree, whatever its age may be).
Allegany hardwood forest type: A portion of Maryland’s northern hardwood forest in which black cherry, white ash, and red oak are dominant species.
Allele: Any one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that may occur alternatively at a given site on a chromosome. Alleles may occur in pairs, or there may be multiple alleles affecting the expression of a particular trait. If paired alleles are the same, the organism is said to be homozygous for that trait; if they are different, the organism is heterozygous. A dominant allele will override the traits of a recessive allele in a heterozygous pairing. In some traits, alleles may be codominant (i.e., neither acts as dominant or recessive). An individual cannot possess more than two alleles for a given trait. All genetic traits are the result of the interactions of alleles.
Allelopathic: Plant that produces chemicals affecting other nearby plants’ growth. Usually used to indicate a negative effect, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) trees inhibit the growth of many other plants.
Allelopathy: The negative influence of a plant, other than a microorganism, upon another plant, through chemical exudates during their metabolism.
Allowable cut: 1. The amount of wood that can be removed from a landowner’s property during a given period, without exceeding the net growth during that period on the property. 2. The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given period.
Alluvial: Relating to, composed of, or found in alluvium.
Alluvial fan: A fan-shaped wedge of sediment that typically accumulates on land where a stream emerges from a steep canyon onto a flat area. In map view, it has the shape of an open fan. Typically forms in arid or semiarid climates.
Alluvial soil: Relating to, consisting of, or formed by sediment deposited by flowing water
Alluvium: Sediments deposited by erosional processes, usually by streams.
Alternate: Alternate refers to the arrangement of either buds or leaves along the stem. Alternate budding or leaves is one bud or leaf per node. (Pic)
Alternatehost: One of two taxonomically different hosts required by a heteroecious rust fungus to complete its cycle; also applies to some insects.
Altitude and Azimuth: Two coordinates describing the position of an object above Earth in a coordinate system called the altazimuth, or horizon, system, and used in astronomy, gunnery, navigation, surveying, and other fields. Altitude in this sense is expressed as the angle of elevation (up to 90°) above the horizon. Azimuth, in astronomical measurement, is the number of degrees clockwise from due north to the point on the horizon directly below the object.
Alvusion: A sudden or perceptible change in a river’s margin, such as a change in course or loss of banks due to flooding.
Ambient background concentration: A representative concentration of the water quality in a receiving water body, determined from monitoring. The statistic or data used to determine the value from the range of data is dependent on the purpose of the monitoring and the application of the data.
Ambient medium: Material surrounding or contacting an organism (e.g., outdoor air, indoor air, water, or soil through which chemicals or pollutants can reach the organism.
Ament: An ament is a spike of unisexual flowers that is typically pendulous but in some species it is erect. Aments are also known as catkins. (Pic)
Amoeba: One-celled protozoan that can form temporary extensions of cytoplasm (pseudopodia) in order to move about. Some amoebas are found on the bottom of freshwater streams and ponds. Others live in the human digestive system; one type causes amebic dysentery in humans. Each amoeba contains a small mass of jellylike cytoplasm with vacuoles and a nucleus. Food is taken in and material is excreted at any point on the cell surface. Amoebas are used extensively in cell research for determining the relative functions and interactions of the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (Pic)
Amphibian: Any member of a class (Amphibia) of cold-blooded vertebrate animals that includes more than 4,400 species in three groups: frogs and toads (order Anura), salamanders (order Caudata), and caecilians (order Apoda). Probably evolved from certain fish species of the Early devonianperiod (417–391 million years ago), amphibians were the first vertebrates to move from an aquatic environment to land. Most species have an aquatic larval, or tadpole, stage that metamorphoses into a terrestrial adult, but a few species spend their entire life in water. Amphibians are found worldwide, the majority in the tropics.
Amphibole: Any of a group of common rock-forming hydrous silicate minerals. Amphiboles occur in many igneous rocks as minor and major constituents and form the major component in many gneisses and schists. Some highly fibrous forms are collectively called asbestos.
Amplitude: The maximum height of a wave crest or depth of a trough.
Amperometric titration: A way of measuring concentrations of certain substances in water using the electric current that flows during a chemical reaction.
Anabranch: A secondary channel of a stream which leaves and then rejoins the main channel. The two channels are separated by stable, vegetated lands.
Anaerobic: A life or process that occurs in, or is not destroyed by, the absence of oxygen.
Anatomy: The term anatomy refers to the internal structure of any biological entity. Plant anatomy studies the internal parts of the stem like the xylem, phloem, annual rings, fibers, etc. In animals, it is a study of their internal organs such as the stomach, liver, large intestine, gall bladder, etc.
Anchor chains: Heavy chains, often with spikes welded to the links, used in drag scarification.
Anchor-chain clearing: See chaining
Angle of repose: The maximum angle that a soil, sediment or other loose material can be placed or accumulate and be stable. The angle of repose varies for different types of materials and different moisture conditions.
Angular unconformity: An erosional surface that separates rock units of differing dips. The rocks below the surface were deposited, deformed and eroded. The younger rocks above then accumulated upon the erosional surface.
Angle planting: See slit planting
Animal: Any member of the kingdom Animalia (see Taxonomy), a group of many-celled organisms that differ from members of the two other many-celled kingdoms, the plants, and the fungi (see fungus), in several ways. Animals have developed muscles, making them capable of spontaneous movement, more elaborate sensory and nervous systems, and greater levels of general complexity. Unlike plants, animals cannot manufacture their own food and thus are adapted for securing and digesting food. In animals, the cell wall is either absent or composed of material different from that of the plant cell wall. Animals account for about three-quarters of living species. Some one-celled organisms display both plant and animal characteristics.
Animal behavior: 1.It is the sum of everything which the animals do eg walking, running, eating, protecting themselves, sitting, movement, sleeping, feeding, social contacts, and talking, etc. 2. Any change in animal’s response towards stimulus is it behavior.
Animal cell: An animal cell typically contains several types of membrane-bound organs or organelles. The nucleus directs activities of the cell and carries genetic information from generation to generation. The mitochondria generate energy for the cell. Proteins are manufactured by ribosomes, which are bound to the roughendoplasmicreticulum or float free in the cytoplasm. The Golgiapparatus modifies, packages, and distributes proteins while lysosomes store enzymes for digesting food. The entire cell is wrapped in a lipid membrane that selectively permits materials to pass in and out of the cytoplasm. (Pic) (See Plant cell)
Animal unit (AU): A measure of livestock numbers by which different kinds, classes, sizes, and ages of animals are converted to an equivalent common standard in relation to feed and forage needed by a mature cow (approximately 1,000 lb, five weight). In the western range territory, one animal unit is equal to one head of cattle, one horse, one mule, five sheep, five swine, or five goats
Anion exchange capacity: The sum total of exchangeable anion that a soil can absorb. Expressed in milliequivalent/ 100 gm of soil. (See cation exchange capacity)
Annual: A plant that lives or grows for only one year or one growing season. (Pic at Biennial)
Annual ring: (Same as growth ring) Annual rings are the layers of wood laid down by the vascular cambium in a woody dicot or a gymnosperm. Because the vascular cambium is active in the spring through the fall, xylem cells are being added to the circumference of the xylem tissue. In the spring these cells grow fast and are large, however as the summer progresses into fall, the numbers of cells being produced slows down and finally stops. At the same time, the cells get smaller and smaller. The next spring when the vascular cambium breaks dormancy, the cells are large and fast-growing again. Thus, the difference in size between the small cells (summer wood) and the new spring cells (spring wood) forms a line between the spring and summer wood. This then marks the boundary of an annual ring. (Pic)
Annual yield (Periodic yield): The volume or number of stems that can be removed annually or periodically, or the area over which felling may pas annually (or periodically), consistent with the attainment of the objectives of management. (BCFT)
Annular: Annular is a term that describes the secondary wall thickening pattern in vessels. Annular thickening is a hoop of a secondary wall that circles the vessel. Typically several annular hoops, which do not touch one another, of secondary tissue will be found along the length of a vessel.
Annular space: The space between two concentric cylindrical objects, one of which surrounds other, such as the space between the walls of a drilled hole and a casing.
Ant: Any member of approximately 8,000 species of the social insect family Formicidae. Ants are found worldwide but are especially common in hot climates. They range from 0.1 to 1 in. (2–25 mm) long and are usually yellow, brown, red, or black. Ants eat both plant and animal substances; some even “farm” fungi for food, cultivating them in their nests, or “milk” aphids. Ant colonies consist of three castes (queens, males, and workers, including soldiers) interacting in a highly complex society paralleling that of the honeybees. Well-known ant species are the carpenter ants of North America, the voracious army ants of tropical America, and the stinging Fire ant. (Pic)
Antenna: In zoology, one of a pair of slender, segmented sensory organs on the head of insects, myriapods (e.g, centipedes, millipedes), and crustaceans. Antennae of insects, which are movable, are believed to serve as both tactual and smell receptors; in some species, the development of elaborate antennal plumes and brushlike terminations has led to the suggestion that they also serve for hearing. Evidence supports this idea only for the mosquito, whose antennae are attached to specialized structures stimulated by vibrations of the antennal shaft. In social insects (e.g., ants), antennae movements may serve as communication.
Anterior: In front; before; opposite of posterior.
Antheridial head: The umbrella-like structure that contains antheridia growing attached to the upper surface of the thallus of Marchantia and other members of the liverworts.
Antheridiophore: This is the stalk upon which the antheridial disc stands.
Antheridium: The male gametangium where the sperm is produced and housed.
Anthocyanosis: Presence of abnormal red-purple coloration in foliage.
Anti-degradation clause: Part of federal and water quality requirements prohibiting deterioration where pollution levels are above the legal limit.
Aperture: The aperture is the opening in something. If the aperture is larger, then the opening into structure is larger, and if the aperture is smaller, then the opening into the structure is smaller. For example, the aperture of guard cellpore is at its maximum during the middle of the day.
Apex: The apex it the upper tip end of a stem or leaf. The apex of a stem is at the point of the terminal bud. The apex of a leaf is at the tip end opposite the petiole.
Apical buds: Buds that produce stems and that are located at the tip of the stem. (Pic at Groundmeristem)
Apical cell: The apical cell is the cell at the end of the filament on Oscillatoria that is convex because of the turgor pressure that causes it to bulge a bit on one side (Pic).
Apical meristem: Meristem is embryonic tissue. Apical meristem is meristem at the tip of the stem. Thus, apical meristem is meristem tissue that is contained in the terminal or apical buds. (Pic) (Pic at Groundmeristem)
Appressed: Pressed flat or close up against something.
Appropriative rights: “First in time, first in right” principle of allocating water rights based. Usually involves a user being allowed to take water from a particular source without regard to the contiguity of the land to the source.
Aquatic: Growing in, living in, or frequenting water.
Aquatic life use: A beneficial use designation in which the water body provides suitable habitat for survival and reproduction of desirable fish, shellfish, and other aquatic organisms.
Aquiclude: A formation which, although porous and capable of absorbing water slowly, will not transmit water fast enough to furnish an appreciable supply for a well or a spring.
Aqueous: Something made up of water.
Aqueous solubility: The maximum concentration of a chemical that will dissolve in pure water at a reference temperature.
Aquaculture: 1. The raising or fattening of fish in enclosed ponds. (See mariculture). 2. Aquaculture, or fish farming, in which aquatic organisms are raised under controlled conditions in ponds, tanks, or floating net pens, is becoming a part of fisheries management. Aquaculture techniques help increase stock populations and control predators.
Aquifer: A geologic formation that will yield water to a well in sufficient quantities to make the production of water from this formation feasible for beneficial use; permeable layers of underground rock or sand that hold or transmit groundwater below the water table.
Aquifer (artesian): An aquifer that is bounded above and below by impermeable rock or sediment layers. The water in the aquifer is also under enough pressure that, when the aquifer is tapped by a well, the water rises up the well bore to a level that is above the top of the aquifer. The water may or may not flow onto the land surface.
Aquifer (confined): An aquifer that is bounded above and below by impermeable rock or sediment layers. There may or may not be enough pressure in the aquifer to make it an “artesian aquifer”.
Aquifer (unconfined): An aquifer that is not overlain by an impermeable rock unit. The water in this aquifer is under atmospheric pressure and is recharged by precipitation that falls on the land surface directly above the aquifer.
Aquitard: A Geological formation that may contain groundwater but is not capable of transmitting significant quantities of it under normal hydraulic gradients. May function as confining bed.
Arboriculture: The cultivation, which is, growing and tending, of trees and shrubs, individually or in small groups, generally for ornament, protection, and instruction rather than direct use or profit
Arch: 1.A trailer or structure in the shape of an inverted V or U, which is used in logging and is towed behind (or attached to the back of) the skidding machine, lifting one end of the logs off of the ground during the yarding operation. 2. A curved structure that spans the opening between two piers or columns and supports loads from above. The masonry arch provides the stepping stone from the post-and-beam system to the evolution of the vault and was first widely used by the Romans. Its construction depends on a series of wedge-shaped blocks (voussoirs) set side by side in a semicircular curve or along two intersecting arcs (as in a pointed arch). The central voussoir is called the keystone, and the two points where the arch rests on its supports are known as the spring points. An arch can carry a much greater load than a horizontal beam of the same size and material because downward pressure forces the voussoirs together instead of apart. The resulting outward thrust must be resisted by the arch’s supports. Present-day lightweight monolithic (one-piece) arches of steel, concrete, or laminated wood are highly rigid, and thereby minimize horizontal thrust. (Pic) (Pic at Bridge)
Area ignition: The setting of a number of individual fires throughout an area, either simultaneously or in quick succession, and so spaced that they soon coalesce, influence, and support each other to produce a hot, fast-spreading fire throughout the area.
Aril: An outer covering or appendage of some seeds.
Armillaria: (See: Honey Fungus)
Array: An ordered arrangement of seismometers or geophones, the data from which feeds into a central receiver.
Arris: [Late 17th century. Via French areste “sharp edge” < Latin arista (see arête)] sharp edge: a sharp edge made by the meeting of surfaces of bricks. (Pic at brick)
Arrival: The appearance of seismic energy on a seismic record.
Arrival time: The time at which a particular wave phase arrives at a detector.
Arroyo: A flat-bottom gully with steep sides that is a channel for an intermittent stream.
Arthropod: (from Greek ἄρθρονarthron, “joint”, and ποδόςpodos “foot”, which together mean “jointed feet”). Any member of the largest phylum, Arthropoda, in the animal kingdom. Arthropoda consists of more than one million known invertebrate species in four subphyla: Uniramia (five classes, including Insects), Chelicerata (three classes, including Arachnids and horseshoe Crabs), Crustacea (Crustaceans), and Trilobita (Trilobites). All arthropods are bilaterally symmetrical and possess a segmented body covered by an exoskeleton containing chitin, which serves as both armor and a surface for muscle attachment. Each body segment may bear a pair of jointed appendages. The phylum includes Carnivores, Herbivores, Omnivores, detritus feeders, filter feeders, and parasites in nearly all environments, both aquatic and terrestrial. (Pic)
Artificial regeneration: Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings.
Ascending: Rising upward gradual from a prostrate base.
Ascomycota: A Division/Phylum of the kingdom Fungi, and subkingdom Dikarya, whose members are commonly known as the SacFungi. They are the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 30,000 species. Characteristically, when reproducing sexually, they produce nonmotile spores in a distinctive type of microscopic cell called an “ascus” (from Greek: (askos), meaning “sac” or “wineskin”).
Ascus: An ascus (plural asci) is the sexual spore-bearing cell produced in ascomycetefungi. On average, asci normally contain 8 ascospores.
Aseismic: Not associated with an earthquake, as in aseismic slip. Also used to indicate an area with no record of earthquakes; an aseismic zone.
Ash: Any tree of the genus Fraxinus, in the Olive family. The genus includes about 70 species of trees and shrubs found mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. The U.S. boasts 18 species of ash, 5 of which furnish most of the ash cut as lumber. Most important are the white ash (F. americana) and the green ash (F. pennsylvanica), which yield wood that is stiff, strong, and resilient, yet lightweight. This “white ash” is used for baseball bats, hockey sticks, paddles and oars, tennis and other racket frames, and the handles of agricultural tools. Black ash (F. nigra), blue ash (F. quadrangulata), and Oregon ash (F. latifolia) produce wood of comparable quality that is used for many more purposes, including furniture, interior paneling, and barrels.
Asexual reproduction: Reproduction without fertilization. New individuals may develop from vegetative parts such as tubers, bulbs, or rooted stems, or from sexual parts such as unfertilized eggs or other cells in the ovule.
Asexualstage: Vegetative; without sexual organs or spores.
Ashlar masonry: The stone masonry in which finely dressed stone are laid in cement or lime mortar. (See: Rubble masonry)
Aspect: [14th century Latin specere “look at”]. The direction toward which a slope faces. Syn. exposure
Asphalt: Semisolid bituminous substance: a brownish-black solid or semisolid substance. Source: oil-bearing rocks, by product of petroleum distillation. Use: paving, waterproofing, fungicides.
Assessment: Any procedure designed to determine stocking (and/or FNC status) on a disturbed area.
Associated species: See accessory species
Association: A collection of plants with ecologically similar requirements, including one or more dominant species from which the group derives a definite character.
Atmosphere: 1. Atmosphere, a mixture of gases surrounding any celestial object that has a gravitational field strong enough to prevent the gases from escaping; especially the gaseous envelope of Earth. The principal constituents of the atmosphere of Earth are nitrogen (78 percent) and oxygen (21 percent). The atmospheric gases in the remaining 1 percent are argon (0.9 percent), carbon dioxide (0.03 percent), varying amounts of water vapor, and trace amounts of hydrogen, ozone, methane, carbon monoxide, helium, neon, krypton, and xenon. 2. Gaseous envelope that surrounds the Earth. Near the surface, it has a well-defined chemical composition (see Air). In addition to gases, the atmosphere contains solid and liquid particles in suspension. Scientists divide the atmosphere into five main layers: in ascending order, the troposphere (surface to 6–8 mi, or 10–13 km); the stratosphere (4–11mi, or 6–17 km, to about 30 mi, or 50 km); the mesosphere (31–50 mi, or 50–80 km); the thermosphere (50–300 mi, or 80–480 km); and the exosphere (from 300 mi and gradually dissipating). Most of the atmosphere consists of neutral atoms and molecules, but in the ionosphere a significant fraction is electrically charged. The ionosphere begins near the top of the stratosphere but is most distinct in the thermosphere. (Pic)
ATP (in full adenosine triphosphate): Organic compound, substrate in many enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the Cells of animals, plants, and microorganisms. ATP’s chemical bonds store a large amount of chemical energy. ATP, therefore, functions as the carrier of chemical energy from energy-yielding oxidation of food to energy-demanding cellular processes. Three such processes of metabolism are sources of ATP and stored energy: fermentation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and cellular respiration (also called oxidative phosphorylation). All form ATP from adenosine monophosphate (AMP) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. When the reaction goes in the other direction, ATP is broken down to ADP or AMP and phosphate, and the released energy is used to perform chemical, electrical, or osmotic work for the cell.
Auction: Sale by bidding:a sale of goods or property at which intending buyers bid against one another for individual items, each of which is sold to the bidder offering the highest price
Auger planting: Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger.
Auricle: The auricles are too small fingers of tissue at the base of the leaf blade of a grass that extend partially around the grass stem. (Pic at Grass leaf)
Autoecious: Completing entire life cycle on one host; especially applied to the rust fungi.
Available water: The amount of moisture in the soil that plants can “tract, usually not including water that drains readily and water beyond the “wilting point”.
Avalanche: Large mass of material, such as snow or rock debris, that moves rapidly down a mountain slope, sweeping everything in its path. Avalanches begin when a mass of material overcomes the frictional resistance of the sloping surface, often after the material’s foundation has been weakened by rains or the snow has been partially melted by a warm, dry wind. Other weather conditions that can lead to avalanches are heavy snowfall and high winds. A common method of avalanche control consists of detonating explosives in the upper reaches of avalanche zones, which intentionally causes the snow to slide before accumulations have become very great.
Average annual stand depletion: See thinning intensity
Awn: A bristle characteristic of the spikelets in some grasses.
Axial System: The axial system is the vascular transport system in a stem that runs vertically (up and down). This is in contrast to the lateral system that runs right and left, or out two the margin of the stem. The axial system carries water and raw minerals up the stem in the xylem and it carries glucose in the phloem up and down the stem. The axial system is composed of fibers for strength, sieve-tube members and companion cells in the phloem and fibers, vessels and tracheids in the xylem. The fusiform initials are what produces the axial system.
Axil: The angle formed by a stem with a branch, leaf stalk, or flower stalk growing from it. (Pic)
Axillary: Growing from an axil.
Axis: The main stem of a plant, or a central line of symmetry, development, or growth.
———- Corrections and Suggestions are most welcome. Please use the comment section for feedback. If you see any missing terminology or any updated one or any latest term please use the comment section for the purpose. Also, if you have any image or data related to any above terminologies, don’t forget to mail me at firstname.lastname@example.org. Regards Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani