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Race: A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit. When the distinguishing characteristics are adaptive, the term is synonymous with ecotype.
Radial (surface): A horizontal surface or plane extending wholly or in part from the pith to the bark of a tree bole.
Radius: Length from the centre to the outside of the bole. It is rarely measured in forestry. Radius cannot be measured on standing trees because the centre of the tree needs to be accurately located. Because a bole is not circular, different measurements of radius are possible.
Raking: Site preparation technique using a bulldozer or similar equipment with a blade having teeth instead of a plain edge, for pushing large, coarse woody debris and rocks off a site and leaving smaller stones, soil, small finer slash, and woody debris in place.
Ramicorns: Abnormally large branches that project at sharp acute angles from the bole and are persistent (often associated with previous weevil attack).
Ramsar sites: 1. A wetland of international importance declared as conservation site. 2. For the conservation of wetlands which are breeding sites of waterfowls, an International Conservation was held of February 2nd, 1971 at Ramsar, Iran. It is also known as Ramsar Convention for Wetlands Conservation. In Pakistan, eleven wetlands have been designated as lands of International importance under the Ramsar convention called Ramsar Sites.
Range: 1. Land not under cultivation, which produces forage suitable for grazing by domestic animals and wildlife. Includes forest that produces forage. “Open range” is an extensive grazing area on which the movement of livestock is permitted. 2. A range comprises of 3 to 4 blocks. Range Forest Officer (RFO) supervises Range. (See Block)
Ranger: An administrative officer in charge of a unit of forest or other land, usually a subdivision of a public forest or park. Various classifications are recognized: forest ranger, district ranger, park ranger, county ranger
Ranging pole: pole used in surveying land: a pole, usually held vertically, used to mark a specific position when surveying a plot of land
Raptor: A bird of prey such as an owl, hawk, osprey, or eagle.
Rare species: Species which are represented by few individuals and therefore deserve special attention includes endangered, vulnerable, and rare texa.
Rasping: A type of feeding by insects that rub or grate the leaf surfaces with their mouthparts to obtain particles for consumption.
Ray: In wood anatomy, a ribbon-shaped strand of tissue formed by the cambium and extending in a radial direction across the grain in hardwoods.
Rayleigh wave: A type of surface wave having a retrograde, elliptical motion at the Earth’s surface, similar to the waves caused when a stone is dropped into a pond. These are the slowest, but often the largest and most destructive, of the wave types caused by an earthquake. They are usually felt as a rolling or rocking motion and in the case of major earthquakes, can be seen as they approach. Named after Lord Rayleigh, the English physicist who predicted its existence.
Reclaimed soil: A type of soil consisting of ballast or brick bats, ash, old iron pieces, etc used for filling the low lying areas.
Recruitment: The plants involved in supplementation of a stand; trees that have entered a particular category during a given period, especially stems that have grown to a specified diameter.
Recurrence interval: The approximate length of time between earthquakes in a specific seismically active area.
Red data book: This book is published by IUCN and is updated continually. It contains details of threatened spp and the protected areas of the world. (See IUCN)
Refill planting: See fill planting
Reforestation: 1. The natural or artificial restocking of an area with forest trees. 2. Reestablishing a forest by planting or seeding an area from which forest vegetation has been removed. (syn. Reafforestation)
Regenerated: Area where silviculture objectives have been met, and long-term timber production objectives will be achieved.
Regeneration: The process by which a forest is reseeded and renewed. Advanced regeneration refers to regeneration that is established before the existing forest stand is removed.
Regeneration area: The area selected, normally in a working plan or working scheme, for regeneration generally with a specified period of time in view.
Regeneration block: See periodic block
Regeneration class: The area, and the young trees in the area, being managed during the regeneration interval in the shelterwood silvicultural system. In this interval, old and young trees occupy the same area, the young being protected by the old.
Regeneration cut: A cutting strategy in which old trees are removed while favorable environmental conditions are maintained for the establishment of a new stand of seedlings.
Regeneration initiation: The year in which the new crop is deemed to be started at an acceptable stocking level, whether by planting, natural or artificial seeding, or by vegetative means.
Regeneration interval: The period between the seed cutting and the final cutting on a particular area under one of the shelterwood systems.
Regeneration period: 1. The period required, or allowed in a plan, for regenerating the whole of a periodic block or the whole of the regeneration area. 2. The time between the initial regeneration cut and the successful reestablishment of a stand by natural or artificial means. 3. The time from seedling felling to secondary felling.
Regeneration status: The condition of a disturbed area at time of assessment.
Regeneration survey: An inventory of the quantity and quality of regeneration over a given area.
Registered Lands: A permit-only hunting program in which land is registered with and patrolled by the Wildlife Resources Commission. Hunters without a permit issued by the landowner are cited for trespass and prosecuted without need for the landowner to appear in court or swear out a warrant.
Regolith: A layer of loose, heterogeneous material covering solid rock. The term is a combination of two Greek words: rhegos (ῥῆγος), “blanket”, and lithos (λίθος), “rock”. It includes dust, soil, broken rock, and other related materials and is present on Earth, the Moon, some asteroids, and other planets. The term was first defined by George P. Merrill in 1897 who stated, “In places this covering is made up of material originating through rock-weathering or plant growth in situ. In other instances it is of fragmental and more or less decomposed matter drifted by wind, water or ice from other sources. This entire mantle of unconsolidated material, whatever its nature or origin, it is proposed to call the regolith.
Regrowth: A term used in reference to coppice, as well as recovery of vegetation from treatment designed to impede or control its growth.
Regular uneven-aged structure (balanced): A stand in which three or more distinct age classes occupy approximately equal areas and provide a balanced distribution of diameter classes. (cf. irregular uneven-aged structure).
Reinforcement planting: See fill planting
Relative humidity: The ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature to the maximum amount air can hold at the same temperature, expressed as a percentage
Relative thinning intensity: The periodic (annual) yield of a stand from thinnings, expressed as a percentage of its periodic annual increment.
Release: To remove overtopping trees that competes with understory or suppressed trees.
Repair planting: See fill planting
Replacement cost: The amount that would have to be paid to buy a new item to replace an old one that has been lost or damaged used esp in insurance policies and for accounting purposes.
Replacement planting: See fill planting
Reproduction: 1. The process by which a forest is renewed. a. artificial. Renewal by direct sowing or planting (syn. reforestation). b. natural. Renewal by self-sown seeds, sprouts, rhizomes, etc. (syn. regeneration). 2. Seedings or -saplings of any origin (syn. young-growth).
Reproduction methods: 1. clearcutting. Removal of the entire forest in one cut. This method perpetuates even-aged stands. 2. seed-tree. Removal of the mature timber in one cut, except for a small number of seed trees (1 -7 trees/acre); called a “group cutting” when the seed trees are left in groups, a “reserve cutting” when specifically selected seed trees are left for growth, as well as to furnish seed. 3. Selection. Removal of mature timber, usually the oldest or largest trees, either as single scattered trees or in small groups at relatively short intervals, commonly 5 to 20 years, repeated indefinitely. This encourages a continuous establishment of natural reproduction, and an uneven-aged stand is maintained. Also called “thinning from above.” 4. Shelterwood. Removal of the mature timber in a series of cuttings, which extend over a period of years. Usually equal to not more than one-quarter (often not more than one-tenth) of the time required to grow the crop. The establishment of natural reproduction under the partial shelter of seed trees is encouraged, but sometimes these areas must be artificially regenerated. 5. Coppice. Forest regeneration by sprouting (vegetative reproduction) from stumps or roots.
Reproduction period: The process by which new individuals are produced from parent trees, by either sexual or asexual (vegetative) means.
Reserve: Any tree or group of trees left unfelled in a stand that is being regenerated, and kept for part or whole of the next rotation. (cf. high-forest-with-reserves system).
Reserve cutting: See seed-tree method
Reserved tree: See reserve
Residual soil: In plain areas, the products of rock weathering continue to accumulate in place over the parent rock mass and give rise ‘residual soil’.
Residual stand: Trees, often of saw log size, left in a stand after thinning to grow until the next harvest. Also called “reserve stand” or “leave trees.”
Resin: Resins, term applied to a group of sticky, liquid, organic substances that usually harden, upon exposure to air, into brittle, amorphous, solid substances. Natural resins are secreted by many plants especially conifers like Pinus roxburghii, appearing on the external surface of a plant after a wound. The resins form protective coatings over the plant wounds, preventing the entrance of pathogenic microorganisms and also excessive loss of sap from the wound. In obtaining natural resins commercially, cuts are made in the tree bark, and the globules of liquid resin that flow from the cut are directed by troughs into collecting buckets. (See: Oleo resin)(Compare: Rosin)
Resinosis: Resin flow through bark or from wounds or cankers on conifers
Restocking: Renewal by self-sown seed or by vegetative means, or through sowing or planting, that results in a desired number of seedlings for the area concerned.
Retrogression: It is the reverse process of succession. (See Succession)
Reveal: Vertical section of wall opening: the vertical section of wall that lies between a doorframe or window frame and the outer wall
Rhizomes: Roots that travel underground laterally and send up new plants. An example is the perennial sweet woodruff (Galium odorata), which travels laterally an inch or so underground, and then breaks the surface to grow a new stem.
Rhizomorph: A thread- or cordlike fungal structure made up of hyphae. (See: Mycelial cords)
Richter scale: The system used to measure the strength of an earthquake. Developed by Charles Richter in 1935 as a means of categorizing local earthquakes. It is a collection of mathematical formulas; it is not a physical device.
Ridge planting: Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough.
Rime: A thin coating of frost formed on cold objects exposed to fog or cloud.
Ring-barking: Removing a narrow strip of bark (only), all around a living stem, in order to stimulate flowering or to girdle it; or a felled stem or a log, for under-bark diameter measurement.
Ringshake: Peripheral cracks in woody tissues of stems. The pattern of damage is concentric with the annual rings.
Ringspot: A circular area of chlorosis with a green center.
Ring stripping: See band girdling
Riparian Forest: Tree growth which owes its existence or condition to its proximity to a water course, lake, swamp or spring. (IRF modif.) (Syn: Forest reserve; Demarcated forest) (SAF)
Riparian zone: That area adjacent to rivers and streams identified by vegetation, wildlife, and other qualities unique to these locations.
Ripper: A toothed blade or set of heavy tines mounted at the front or rear of a vehicle for breaking up soft rock and hard ground, and tearing out stumps and boulders. Also a vehicle so equipped.
Ripper plough: A V-shaped plough mounted with a ripper blade used for scarification on frozen soil.
Ripping: The mechanical penetration and shearing of range soils to depths of 3-7 cm for the purpose of breaking hardpan layers to facilitate penetration of plant roots, water, organic matter, and nutrients.
Riprap: Stones or other energy-absorbing material used to stabilize a roadbank, streambank, or stream channel.
Rock: [14th century. < Old French ro(c)que] hard mineral aggregate: any consolidated material consisting of more than one mineral and, sometimes, organic material, e.g. granite or limestone
Rock blade: See brush blade
Rodent: [Mid-19th century. < modern Latin Rodentia < Latin rodent-, present participle of rodere “gnaw”] a small animal of an order with large gnawing incisor teeth that continue growing throughout the animal’s life, e.g. a mouse, rat, squirrel, or marmot. Rodents make up more than a third of all living mammal species and are adapted to all terrestrial habitats.
Rouging: Systematic removal of individuals not desired for the perpetuation of a population, e.g., from a seed orchard or a nursery.
Root: The below-ground tree or plant parts that provide physical support, absorb water and nutrients from the soil, and store food produced by photosynthesis.
Root ball: The clump consisting of the main roots of a plant and the soil (or other growing medium) clinging to them. The root ball should be kept intact when transplanting.
Root collar: The transition zone between stem and root. Usually recognizable in trees and seedlings by the presence of a slight swelling.
Root pruning: The act of reducing one or more roots considered to be superfluous, usually at some stage before outplanting, in order to improve the shape and size of a root system and/or induce root proliferation by increasing the number of third- and higher-order roots within the root system when lifted.
Root puddling: The act or treatment of immersing, sometimes several times in close succession, the root systems of bare-root planting stock in a clay slurry with the aim of improving outplant performance.
Root rake: An implement, either mounted on the front of a dozer, skidder or forwarder, or trailed, having tines for collecting stumps and slash.
Root raking: See raking
Rootstock: The root-bearing plant or plant part, usually stem or root, onto which another plant is grafted. (cf. budding, graft, scion)
Root stripping: 1. The accidental removal of roots during lifting, handling, and planting, especially when caused by improper practices. 2. The removal of bark from roots.
Root sucker: See sucker
Root-to-shoot ratio: The total mass or volume of the plant root system divided by the total mass or volume of the shoot system, usually on an oven-dry basis.
Root trimming: The trimming of roots by a cutting tool after lifting and prior to outplanting.
Root wad: The mass of roots, soil and rocks that remains intact when a tree, shrub, or stump is uprooted.
Rootwood: The secondary xylem of roots.
Root-wrenching: A nursery operation to condition nursery stock by loosening the contact between soil and roots of seedlings in a nursery bed.
Root zone: The area of ground under which a given tree’s (or other plant’s) roots spread. Often the root zone covers the area encircled by the drip line; that is, the roots often spread underground to the same distance that the tree’s branches extend above.
Rosin: The most important of the hard resins, and possibly the most commercially important of all the resins, is rosin, which is used in sizing paper, in soapmaking, as a constituent of varnishes and paints, and as a friction-producing coating for the bows of stringed instruments. Rosin is obtained by distillation of the oleoresin turpentine.
Rot: Wood in a state of decay.
Rotary tiller: A site preparation machine using hammers, teeth, tines, or flails mounted on a horizontal drum or horizontal or vertical shaft revolving at high speed.
Rotation: The period of years required to establish and grow a timber crop to a specified condition of maturity, when it may be harvested and a new tree crop started. (See also: Financial rotation, Physical rotation, Silvicultural rotation, Technical rotation)
Rotation age: The age at which a stand is considered ready for harvesting under an adopted plan of management. (See: Exploitable age)
Rotation burning: Prescribed burning applied at regular intervals on a specific site as a means of pest control.
Rotation of the highest income: The rotation that yields the highest average annual net income, irrespective of the capital value of the forest. (BCFT)
Rotation of the maximum volume production: The rotation that yields the greatest annual quantity of material. It coincides with the age at which the mean annual increment culminates. (IFR)
Rotational grazing: The use of the different parts of the grazing area or pasture in orderly sequence. (SAF)
Roundwood: Wood products that are round (pulpwood, posts, poles, piling, firewood, sawlogs).
Row thinning: See thinning: row
Rubble Masonry: Stone masonry in which either undressed or roughly dressed stones are laid in a suitable mortar. (See: Ashlar Masonry)
Rupture zone: The area of the Earth through which faulting occurred during an earthquake. For very small earthquakes, this zone could be the size of a pinhead, but in the case of a great earthquake, the rupture zone may extend several hundred kilometers in length and tens of kilometers in width.
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Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani