Cable structure: Form of long-span structure that is subject to tension and uses suspension cables for support. Highly efficient, cable structures include the suspension bridge, the cable-stayed roof, and the bicycle wheel roof. The graceful curve of the huge main cables of a suspension bridge is almost a catenary, the shape assumed by any string or cable suspended freely between two points. The cable-stayed roof is supported from above by steel cables radiating downward from masts that rise above roof level. The bicycle-wheel roof involves two layers of tension cables radiating from an inner tension ring and an outer compression ring, which in turn is supported by columns.
Cabling: See chaining
Cache: A place for storing seedlings close to the planting site.
Cactus: Any of the flowering plants that make up the family Cactaceae, containing about 1,650 species, native through most of North and South America, with the greatest number and variety in Mexico. Cacti are succulent perennials. Most live in and are well adapted to dry regions. Cacti generally have thick herbaceous or woody stems containing chlorophyll. Leaves usually are absent or greatly reduced, minimizing the surface area from which water can be lost; the stem is the site of photosynthesis. The generally thin, fibrous, shallow root systems range widely in area to absorb superficial moisture. Cacti vary greatly in size and appearance, from buttonlike peyote and low clumps of pricklypear and hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus) to the upright columns of barrel cacti (Ferocactus and Echinocactus) and the imposing saguaro. Cacti can be distinguished from other succulents by the presence of small cushionlike structures (areoles) from which, in almost all species, spines arise, as do flowers, branches, and leaves (when present). Flowers, often large and colourful, are usually solitary. Cacti are widely cultivated as ornamentals. Various species, notably prickly pears, and Chollas, are cultivated as food. Barrel cacti are an emergency source of water for people. (Pic)
Calcium: [Early 19th century. < Latin calc-, stem of calx] Chemical element, one of the Alkaline Earth Metals, chemical symbol Ca, atomic number 20. The most abundant metallic element in the human body, it is an essential part of Bones and teeth and has many physiological functions. It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth’s crust but does not occur naturally in the free state. In its compounds calcium has valence 2. It occurs in limestone, chalk, marble, dolomite, eggshells, pearls, coral, and many marine shells as calcium carbonate, or calcite; in apatite as calcium phosphate; in gypsum as calcium sulfate; and in many otherminerals. It is used as an alloying agent and in other metallurgical applications; its alloy with lead is used in cable sheathing and grids for batteries. Calcite is used as a lime source, filler, a neutralizer, and an extender; in pure form it is used in baking powder and as an antacid and calcium supplement. Calcium oxide (lime) and its product after water addition, calcium hydroxide (slaked lime), are important industrially. Other significant compounds are calcium chloride (a drying agent), calcium hypochlorite (a bleach), calcium sulfate (gypsum and plaster of Paris), and calcium phosphate (a plant food and stabilizer for plastics).
Caliper (or calipers): An instrument used to measure diameters of trees or logs. It consists of two parallel arms at right angles to a graduated rule, with one arm that slides along the rule. (Pic)
Callose: Callose is a carbohydrate substance, secreted around the sieve plate, that controls the size of the holes in the sieve plate apertures in order to control the volume of flow of photosynthetic products that flow through the phloem.
Callus: In botany, soft tissue that forms over a wounded or cut plant surface, leading to healing. A callus arises from cells of the cambium. When a callus forms, some of its cells may organize into growing points, some of which in turn give rise to roots while others produce stems and leaves. Thus a callus may be capable of regenerating an entire plant.
Callustissue: A protective tissue of thin-walled cells developed on wound surfaces, often beginning at the edges of a wound.
Calorie: Unit of energy or heat. Various precise definitions are used for different purposes (physical chemistry measurements, engineering steam tables, and thermochemistry), but in all cases, the calorie is about 4.2 joules, the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 °C (1.8 °F) at normal atmospheric pressure. The calorie used by dietitians and food scientists and found on food labels is actually the kilocalorie (also called Calorie and abbreviated kcal or Cal), or 1,000 calories. It is a measure of the amount of heat energy or metabolic energy contained in the chemical bonds of a food.
Calyx: The outer part of a flower, usually consisting of green, leafy sepals.
Camber: The difference in level b/w the crown and the edge of carriage of a road. (See Crown; Carriageway)
Cambium: A layer of cells between the woody part of the tree and the bark. Division of these cells results in diameter growth of the tree through the formation of wood cells (xylem) and inner bark (phloem). (Pic)
Camel: Either of two species of large, hump-backed Ruminants of the family Camelidae. Camels are used as draft and saddle animals in desert regions of Africa, Arabia, and Asia. Adaptations to windblown deserts include double rows of eyelashes, the ability to close the nostrils, and wide-spreading soft feet. They also can tolerate dehydration and high body temperatures. They are thus able to go several days without drinking water. Though docile when properly trained, camels can be dangerous. The Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) is about 7 ft (2 m) tall at the top of the two humps; the Arabian camel (C. dromedarius), or dromedary, has one hump and is 7 ft (2 m) high at the shoulder. When food is available, camels store fat in their humps to be used later for sustenance; water is produced as a by-product of fat metabolism. The feral camels of Australia were introduced to that continent in the 1800s. (Pic)
Canal: Artificial waterway built for transportation, irrigation, water supply, or drainage. The early Middle Eastern civilizations probably first built canals to supply drinking and irrigation water. The most ambitious navigation canal was a 200-mi (320-km) construction in what is now Iraq. Roman canal systems for military transport extended throughout northern Europe and Britain. The most significant canal innovation was the pound lock, developed by the Dutch c. 1373. The closed chamber, or pound, of a lock is flooded or drained of water so that a vessel within it is raised or lowered in order to pass between bodies of water at different elevations. Canals were extremely important before the coming of the railroad in the mid-19th century. Among the significant waterways in the U.S. were the Erie canal, several canals linking the Great Lakes, and one connecting the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River. Modern waterway engineering enables larger vessels to travel faster by reducing delays at locks. (Pic)
Cannabis: Any plant of the genus Cannabis, which contains a single species, C. sativa. It is widely cultivated throughout the northern temperate zone. Hemp fiber is obtained from a tall, canelike variety, while Marijuana is obtained from the female plant of a smaller variety.
Canker: A stem canker is a relatively localized necrotic lesion, primarily of bark and cambium; likewise, it can be any localized area of dead bark, commonly bordered by callus tissue; A plant disease symptom characterized by a sharply defined necrosis of cortical tissue, often sunken below bark surface. (Pic)
Canopy: A collective term for the layer formed by the crowns of the taller trees in a forest
Canopy class: syn. canopy cover class, crown class: Any class into which crops or stands may be divided on the basis of the degree of closure.
Canopy closure: 1. The progressive reduction of space between crowns as they spread laterally, increasing canopy density. 2. The point in time when crowns in a young stand begin to touch and interact.
Canopy density: The amount of foliar cover, combining the extent of canopy closure and crown density.
Canopy opening: See opening up
Cantilever: Projecting beam or other horizontal member supported at one or more points but not at both ends. Some engineers distinguish between a cantilever, supported at only one fixed end, and an overhanging beam that projects beyond one of its end supports. The free, unsupported end is capable of supporting a weight or surface, such as a concrete slab. Any beam built into a wall with a projecting free end forms a cantilever, which may carry a balcony, canopy, roof, or part of a building above. Cantilevering can be used for constructions as simple as bookshelves or as complicated as bridges.
Cantilever bridge: A bridge consisting of arms projecting outward from supporting piers and joined together by a simple span where the two arms meet. Pic at bridge
Canvas: Stout cloth. Canvas (probably named for cannabis, or hemp), has been made from hemp and flax fibers since ancient times to produce cloth for sails. More recently it has also been made from tow, jute, cotton, and mixtures of such fibers. Flax canvas is essentially of double warp, being invariably intended to withstand pressure or rough usage. Articles made from canvas include camera and golf bags, running shoes, tents, and mailbags. Tarred canvas is used for tarpaulins to cover goods. Artists’ canvas for painting is much lighter than sail canvas; those of the best quality are made of cream or bleached flax fiber.
Capital gains: Profit on the sale of an asset such as timber, land, or other property. Reporting timber sales as capital gains provides certain tax advantages over reporting revenues as ordinary income.
Capsule: In botany, a dry fruit that opens when ripe. It splits from top to bottom into separate segments known as valves, as in the iris, or forms pores at the top (e.g., poppy), or splits around the circumference, with the top falling off (e.g., pigweed and plantain). The spore-forming organ of liverworts and mosses is also called a capsule. (Pic)
Carbohydrate: Any member of a very abundant and widespread class of natural organic compounds that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. They are commonly classified as Monosaccharides (simple sugars; e.g., glucose, fructose), disaccharides (2-unit sugars; e.g., sucrose, lactose), Oligosaccharides (3–10 or so sugars), and Polysaccharides (large molecules with up to 10,000 monosaccharide units, including cellulose, starch, and glycogen). Green plants produce carbohydrates by photosynthesis. In most animals, carbohydrates are the quickly accessible reservoir of energy, and oxidation of glucose in tissues supplies energy for metabolism. Many (but by no means all) carbohydrates have the general chemical formula Cn(H2O)n. The carbon (C) atoms are bonded to hydrogen atoms (5H), hydroxyl groups (5OH), and carbonyl groups (5C6O), whose combinations, order, and geometric arrangement lead to a large number of Isomers with the same chemical formula but different properties. The class is further enlarged because each isomer has various derivatives: uronic acids, sugars with an oxidized group; sugar alcohols, sugars with a reduced group; Glycosides, compounds of sugars with other molecules containing a hydroxyl group; and amino sugars, sugars with an amino group.
Carbon: Nonmetallic chemical element, chemical symbol C, atomic number 6. The usual stable isotope is carbon-12; carbon-13, another stable isotope, makes up 1% of natural carbon. Carbon-14 is the most stable and best known of five radioactive isotopes; its half-life of approximately 5,730 years makes it useful in Carbon-14 dating and radiolabeling of research compounds. Carbon occurs in four known Allotropes: diamond, graphite, carbon black (amorphous carbon including coal, coke, and charcoal), and hollow cage molecules called Fullerenes. Carbon forms more compounds than all other elements combined; several million carbon compounds are known. Each carbon atom forms four bonds (four single bonds, two single and one double bond, two double bonds, or one single and one triple bond) with up to four other atoms. Multitudes of chain, branched, ring, and three-dimensional structures can occur. The study of these carbon compounds and their properties and reactions is organic chemistry (see Organic compound).With hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and a few other elements whose small amounts belie their important roles, carbon forms the compounds that make up all living things: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids. Biochemistry is the study of how those compounds are synthesized and broken down and how they associate with each other in living organisms. Organisms consume carbon and return it to the environment in the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide, produced when carbon is burned and from biological processes, makes up about 0.03% of the air, and carbon occurs in Earth’s crust as carbonate rocks and the Hydrocarbons in coal, petroleum, and natural gas. The oceans contain large amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide and carbonates.
Carbon-14 dating or radiocarbon dating: Method of determining the age of the once-living material, developed by U.S. physicist Willard Libby in 1947. It depends on the decay of the radioactive isotope carbon-14 (radiocarbon) to nitrogen. All living plants and animals continually take in carbon: green plants absorb it in the form of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and it is passed to animals through the food chain. Some of this carbon is radioactive carbon-14, which slowly decays to the stable isotope nitrogen-14. When an organism dies it stops taking in carbon, so the amount of carbon-14 in its tissues steadily decreases. Because carbon-14 decays at a constant rate, the time since an organism died can be estimated by measuring the amount of radiocarbon in its remains. The method is a useful technique for dating fossils and archaeological specimens from 500 to 50,000 years old and is widely used by geologists, anthropologists, and archaeologists.
Carbon cycle: Circulation through nature of carbon in the form of the simple element and its compounds. The source of carbon in living things is carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air or dissolved in water. algae and green Plants (producers) use CO2 in photosynthesis to make Carbohydrates, which in turn are used in the processes of metabolism to make all other compounds in their tissues and those of animals that consume them. The carbon may pass through several levels of Herbivores and Carnivores (consumers). Animals and, at night, plants return the CO2 to the atmosphere as a by-product of respiration. The carbon in animal wastes and in the bodies of organisms is released as CO2 in a series of steps by decay organisms (decomposers), chiefly bacteria and fungi (see Fungus). Some organic carbon (the remains of organisms) has accumulated in Earth’s crust in Fossil Fuels, limestone, and coral. The carbon of fossil fuels, removed from the cycle in prehistoric times, is being returned in vast quantities as CO2 via industrial and agricultural processes, some accumulating in the oceans as dissolved Carbonates and some staying in the atmosphere (see Greenhouse effect).
Carbon dating: A method of dating organic remains based on their content of carbon 14.
Carbon dioxide: Inorganic compound, a colorless gas with a faint, sharp odor and a sour taste when dissolved in water, chemical formula CO2. Constituting about 0.03% of air by volume, it is produced when carbon-containing materials burn completely, and it is a product of fermentation and animal respiration. Plants use CO2 in photosynthesis to make Carbohydrates. CO2 in Earth’s atmosphere keeps some of the Sun’s energy from radiating back into space (see Greenhouse effect). In water, CO2 forms a solution of a weak ACID, carbonic acid (H2CO3). The reaction of CO2 and ammonia is the first step in synthesizing urea. An important industrial material, CO2 is recovered from sources including flue gases, limekilns, and the process that prepares hydrogen for synthesis of ammonia. It is used as a refrigerant, a chemical intermediate, and an inert atmosphere; in fire extinguishers, foam rubber and plastics, carbonated beverages, and aerosol sprays; in water treatment, welding, and cloud seeding; and for promoting plant growth in greenhouses. Under pressure, it becomes a liquid, the form most often used in industry. If the liquid is allowed to expand, it cools and partially freezes to the solid form, dry ice.
Carbon dioxide fertilization: 1. Plant growth attributable to carbon dioxide 2. Increase in plant growth attributable to a higher-than-normal carbon dioxide concentration in the environment
Carbon emissions: Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide produced by motor vehicles and industrial processes and forming pollutants in the atmosphere.
Carbon fixation: The process by which plants synthesize carbon dioxide into organic compounds.
Carbon paper: Paper used for making copies, coated on one side with a waxy pigment that often contains carbon
Carbon sequestration: 1. storage of carbon 2. Uptake and storage of carbon, especially by trees and plants that absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen
Carbon sink: 1. A forest or other area of vegetation that absorbs large quantities of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, especially one planted specifically for this purpose. 2. An environmental reservoir that absorbs and stores more carbon than it releases, thereby offsetting greenhouse gas emissions. Forests and oceans are examples of carbon sinks.
Carbon tax: 1. Tax on fossil fuels 2. A proposed tax on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas that would be proportionately based on their respective carbon content. The purpose of a carbon tax would be to help reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
Carbon trading: A system of credits that allows a company or country that reduces its carbon-dioxide emissions below a target level to sell the extra reduction as a credit to a company or country that has not met the target level
Carbon-14 dating: See carbon dating
Carboniferous: The period of geologic time, 360 million to 290 million years ago, during which true reptiles first appeared and vast swamps created coal-forming sediments
Carbon-neutral: Relating to the maintenance of a balance between producing and using carbon, especially balancing carbon-dioxide emissions by activities such as growing plants to use as fuel or planting trees in urban areas to offset vehicle emissions.
Carcass: The dead body of an animal, especially one slaughtered and prepared for use as meat
Careful logging around regeneration: Harvesting operation based on shelterwood cutting principles, where advanced regeneration is protected during harvesting.
Carinal canal: Carinal canals are found in the stems and rhizomes of horsetails (Equisetum). There are two different canals in horsetails, carinal canals, and vallecular canals. The carinal canals are the smaller of the two and are associated with the vascular bundles, opposite the ridges of the stem and rhizome.
Carnivorous plant: Any of about 400 diverse species of plants specially adapted for capturing insects and other tiny animals by ingenious pitfalls and traps and for digesting the nitrogen-rich animal proteins to obtain nutrients. These adaptations are thought to enable such plants to survive under otherwise marginal or hostile environmental conditions. The conspicuous trapping mechanism (a leaf modification) draws the prey’s attention to the plant. More than half the species belong to the family Lentibulariaceae, most being Bladderworts. The remainder belongs to several families composed of the Pitcher Plants, Sundews, and flytraps. Most are found in damp heaths, bogs, swamps, and muddy or sandy shores where water is abundant and where nitrogenous materials are often scarce or unavailable because of acid or other unfavorable soil conditions. The smallest Drosera species are often hidden among the moss of a sphagnum bog; most carnivorous plants are small herbaceous perennials. Some become large shrubby vines.
Carpel: The wall of a simple pistil, or part of the wall of a compound pistil.
Carrier: Any material, e.g. sawdust, which is thoroughly mixed with seed, fertilizer, herbicide, etc., to protect it in transit.
Carrying capacity: The maximum number of individuals of a wildlife species that an area can support during the most unfavorable time of the year.
Cartography or Mapmaking: Art and science of representing a geographic area graphically, usually by means of a map or chart. Political, cultural, or other nongeographic features may be superimposed. Ptolemy’s eight-volume Geography showed a flat, disc-shaped projection of part of the Earth. Medieval European maps followed Ptolemy’s guide but placed east at the top of the map. In the 14th century moreaccurate maps were developed for use in navigation. The first surviving globe dates from 1492. Discovery of the NewWorld led to new techniques
in cartography, notably projection of a curved surface onto a flat surface. In particular, gerardus mercator projected landmasses onto a cylinder wrapped around the Earth’s Equator. Such cylindrical projections maintain proper directions or bearings, though they cause distortions in distances at high latitudes. Contour maps show relief by connecting points of equal elevation with lines, mean sea level being the reference point. Modern cartography uses aerial photography and satellite radar for a degree of accuracy previously unattainable. Satellites have also made possible the mapping of features of the Moon and of several planets and their moons.
Cash crop: Crop grown to sell: a crop grown for direct sale, and not for personal consumption
Cash flow: Financial and accounting concept. Cash flow results from three major groups of activities: operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities. A cash-flow statement differs from an income statement in reflecting actual cash on hand rather than money owed (accounts receivable). Its purpose is to throw light on management’s use of its available financial resources and to help in evaluating a company’s liquidity.
Cassava or Manioc or Yuca: Tuberous edible perennial plant (Manihot esculenta) of the spurge family, from the New World tropics. It is cultivated for its tuberous roots, from which cassava flour, breads, tapioca, a laundry starch, and an alcoholic beverage are derived. It has conspicuous, almost palmate (fan-shaped) leaves and fleshy roots. Different varieties range from low herbs through many-branched shrubs to slender, unbranched trees adapted to diverse habitats.
Cassia: Spice, also called Chinese cinnamon, consisting of the aromatic bark of the Cinnamomum cassia plant, of the Laurel family. Similar to true cinnamon bark, cassia bark has a more pungent, less delicate flavor and is thicker. It is used as a flavoring in cooking. Whole buds, the dried, unripe fruits of C. cassia and C. loureirii, taste like the bark and are added to foods for flavoring. Confusion sometimes arises with another group of plants because Cassia is the name of an extensive genus of legumes, the source of various medicinal products and of senna leaves.
Casuarinas: Any of the chiefly Australian trees that make up the genus Casuarina (family Casuarinaceae), which have whorls of scalelike leaves and segmented stems resembling Horsetails. Several species, especially C. equisetifolia, are valued for their hard, dense, yellowish to reddish brown wood, which is strong and reputed to be resistant to termite attack. Beefwood and ironwood are common names that reflect the wood’s color and hardness.
Catch crop: A short-term, generally agricultural crop introduced into and at the start of a longer-rotation forest crop, mainly to provide early financial returns.
Caterpillar: Larva of a butterfly or moth. Caterpillars have a cylindrical body consisting of 13 segments, with three pairs of legs on the thorax and “prolegs” on the abdomen. The head has six eyes on each side, short antennae, and strong jaws. Though not true worms, many caterpillars are called worms (e.g., the inchworm, or looper, and the cutworm). Caterpillar-like larvae are also found in other insect groups (e.g., sawflies and scorpion flies).
Cation: Atom or group of atoms carrying a positive electric charge, indicated by a superscript plus sign after the chemical symbol. Cations in a liquid subjected to an electric field collect at the negative pole (cathode). Examples include sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+), and ammonium (NH4 +).
Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC): It is the sum of the total number of exchangeable cations. Its unit is Centimoles of charge per kg (Cmolckg-1). (See Anion exchange capacity)
Catkin: A catkin is one of several types of inflorescences that can be described as a spike of unisexual flowers. The catkin can be either pendulous or erect depending upon the species. Catkins are also have the name, ament.
Cattle: Domesticated bovids that are raised for meat, milk, or hides or for draft purposes. Depending on the breed, mature bulls (fertile males) weigh 1,000–4,000 lbs (450–1,800 kg); cows (fertile females) weigh 800–2,400 lbs (360–1,080 kg). All modern cattle are believed to belong to either of two species (Bos indicus or B. taurus) or to be crosses of the two. About 277 identifiable breeds include those prominent in beef production (e.g., angus, hereford, and shorthorn) and dairy farming. Cattle feed primarily by grazing on pasture, but in modern farming their diet is ordinarily supplemented with prepared animal feeds.
Cauline: Relating to or growing on a stem.
Cedar: Any of four species of tall ornamental and timber evergreen coniferous trees of the genus Cedrus, in the Pine family. Three cedars are native to mountainous areas of the Mediterranean region and one to the western Himalayas. These “true” cedars are the Atlas cedar (C. atlantica), the Cyprus cedar (C. brevifolia), the deodar (C. deodara), and the cedar of Lebanon (C. libani). Cedarwood is light, soft, resinous, and durable, even when in contact with soil or moisture. Many other conifers known as cedars resemble true cedars in being evergreen and in having aromatic, often red or red-tinged wood that in many cases is decayresistant and insect-repellent. The giant arborvitae, incense cedar, and some junipers (red cedar) provide the familiar “cedarwood” of pencils, chests, closet linings, and fence posts. (Pic)
Cell: [Pre-12th century. Via French < Latin cella “small chamber”] In biology, the basic unit of which all living things are composed; the smallest structural unit of living matter that is able to function independently. A single cell can be a complete organism in itself, as in bacteria and protozoans. Groups of specialized cells are organized into tissues and organs in multicellular organisms such as higher plants and animals. There are two distinct types of cells: prokaryotic cells, found only in bacteria (including blue-green algae, or cyanobacteria), and eukaryotic cells, composing all other life-forms. Though the structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ, their molecular compositions and activities are very similar. The chief molecules in cells are Nucleic acids, Proteins, and Polysaccharides. A cell is bounded by a membrane that enables it to exchange certain materials with its surroundings. In plant cells, a rigid cell wall encloses this membrane. See illustration. (Pic)(See Animal cell; Plant cell)
Cell division: The process by which a cell divides to form two new cells, either to produce identical cells mitosis or to produce cells with half the number of chromosomes meiosis
Cell line: A clone or group of clones grown in a culture and derived from a single cell
Cell membrane: The membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm, through which substances pass in and out of the cell
Cellulose: Cellulose Complex carbohydrate (polysaccharide) consisting of 1,000–3,000 or more glucose units in a linear chain structure that can pack into fibres of great tensile strength. The basic structural component of plant cell walls, cellulose is the most abundant of all naturally occurring organic compounds (90% of cotton and 50% of wood). Mammals (including humans) cannot digest cellulose, but bacteria in the rumens of cattle and other Ruminants and Protozoans in the gut of Termites produce Enzymes that can break it down. Soil fungi can also break down cellulose. Its most important uses are in wood, paper, and fibre products, as an ethanol and methanol source, and specialized applications. Cellulose derivatives are used in plastics, photographic films, rayon fibres, cellophane, coatings, explosives (e.g., nitrocellulose), and foods (e.g., the stabilizer and thickener carboxymethylcellulose). Cellulose is a polymer of six-carbon sugar molecules. It is the main component in plant cell walls. Cellulose is generally undigestable by animals.
Cell wall: The outermost layer of a cell in plants and some fungi, algae, and bacteria, that provides a supporting framework. (Pic) (Pic at cytoplasm)
Cement: It is calcareous substance, similar in many respects to the strong hydraulic lime but with for greater hydraulic proportion. Cements are very useful and superior to lime.
Cementation: Sedimentary rock formation: the process in which percolating ground water deposits a cementing material to form a sedimentary rock. Central angle: An angle with the vertex at the center of the Earth, with one ray passing through the hypocenter (and also the epicenter) and the other ray passing through the recording station.
Centromere: Structure in a chromosome that holds together the two chromatids. It is the point of attachment to the structure that pulls the chromatids to opposite ends of the cell during cell division (see Mitosis). During the middle stage of mitosis, the centromere duplicates and the chromatid pair separates, each chromatid becoming a separate chromosome. Thus, when the cell divides, both daughter cells have complete sets of chromosomes. (Pic at Chromosome)
Cercospora: It is a genus of ascomycete fungi. Several species of this genus cause plant diseases, mostly forms of leaf spot.
Cereal or grain: Any grass yielding starchy seeds suitable for food. The most commonly cultivated cereals are wheat, rice, rye, oats, barley, corn, and sorghum. As human food, cereals are usually marketed in raw grain form or as ingredients of food products. As animal feed, they are consumed mainly by livestock and poultry, which are eventually rendered as meat, dairy, and poultry products for human consumption. They also are used industrially in the production of a wide range of substances, such as glucose, adhesives, oils, and alcohols. Measured in acres planted, wheat is the world’s most widely grown cereal crop; rice is the second, but more corn is harvested than either. Grains are generally rich in carbohydrates and energy value but comparatively low in protein and naturally deficient in calcium and vitamin A. Breads are usually enriched to compensate for any nutritional deficiencies in the cereal used. Though often consumed in the areas where grown, cereal and cereal by-products are also major commodities in international trade.
Chaining (syn. chain clearing, cabling in British Columbia): A method of reducing or clearing undesirable scrub by dragging through it a heavy chain (generally further weighted by objects such as concrete cylinders or large steel balls) between two appropriately spaced tractors.
Changa Manga: The biggest man made and foremost Irrigated Plantation of Pakistan having an area of 12510 acres with a perimeter of 37 km. It is the world’s first artificially irrigated plantation. It was established in 1866.
Charcoal: Impure form of carbon, obtained as a residue when material containing carbon is partially burned or heated with limited access to air. Coke, carbon black, and soot are forms of charcoal; other forms are named for their source material, such as wood, blood, or bone. Largely replaced by coke in blast furnaces and by natural gas as a raw material, charcoal is still used to make black gunpowder and in case-hardening metals. Activated charcoal is a finely powdered or highly porous form whose surface area is hundreds or thousands of square meters per gram. It has many uses as an adsorbent, including for poison treatment, and as a catalyst or catalyst carrier.
Check: Stagnation of tree or stand growth.
Chemical pruning: The application of chemicals, e.g. plant-growth regulators, to the living tree so as to kill, suppress, or inhibit lateral shoots.
Chestnut: Any of four species of deciduous ornamental and timber trees of the genus Castanea, in the beech family. Native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, they bear burrlike fruits that contain two or three edible nuts. The usually tall trees have furrowed bark and lance-shaped leaves. The American chestnut (C. dentata), which once extended over a large area of eastern North America, has been almost eliminated by chestnut blight. The other three species are the European chestnut (C. sativa), the Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima), and the Japanese chestnut (C. crenata). The nuts of these three have local importance as food and are exported in large quantities, and varieties of all three are cultivated as ornamentals. The European chestnut produces useful timber as well; the American chestnut also was an important source of lumber and nuts before the arrival of the blight.
Chevron cuts: A modification of strip cutting where the strip is angled part way along its length.
Chewinginsects: Insects that consume all tissues of leaves or portions of leaves, using robust mandibles for chewing.
Chip-n-Saw: A cutting method used in cutting lumber from trees that measure between 6 and 14 inches diameter at breast height. The process chips off the rounded outer layer of a log before sawing the remaining cant or rectangular inside section into lumber. Chip-n-saw mills provide a market for trees larger than pulpwood and smaller than saw-timber.
Chitin: White, horny substance found in the external skeleton of crabs, lobsters, and many insects; in internal structures of some other invertebrates; and in some fungi, algae, and yeasts. It is a polysaccharide, the monomer unit being glucosamine. It is used industrially in purifying wastewater, thickening and stabilizing foods and pharmaceuticals, and sizing and strengthening paper, and as a wound-healing agent, an ion-exchange resin, a membrane for industrial separations, and a binder for dyes, fabrics, and adhesives.
Chlamydomonas: Genus of single-celled green algae considered to be primitive life-forms of evolutionary significance. The cell has a spherical cellulose membrane, an eyespot, and a cup-shaped, pigment-containing chloroplast. Though capable of photosynthesis, Chlamydomonas may also absorb nutrients through the cell surface. It is found in soil, ponds, and ditches polluted by manure. It may color water green. A red-pigmented species turns melting snow red.
Chlorenchyma: Chlorenchyma cells are parenchyma cells that contain chlorophyll and can thus carry on photosynthesis. Chlorenchyma cells are the principal cells in the palisade and spongy parenchyma of the leaf mesophyll. (Pic at Aerenchyma)
Chlorophyll: Any member of one of the most important classes of pigment molecules involved in photosynthesis. Found in almost all photosynthetic organisms, it consists of a central magnesium atom surrounded by a nitrogen-containing structure called a porphyrin ring, to which is attached a long carbon-hydrogen side chain, known as a phytol chain. In structure, it is remarkably similar to hemoglobin. Chlorophyll uses energy that it absorbs from light to convert carbon dioxide to carbohydrates. In higher plants, it is found in chloroplasts.
Chloroplast: Microscopic, ellipsoidal organelle in a green plant cell. It is the site of photosynthesis. It is distinguished by its green color, caused by the presence of chlorophyll. It contains disk-shaped structures called thylakoids that make possible the formation of ATP, an energy-rich storage compound. (Pic)
Cholesterol: Solid compound in blood: a steroid alcohol sterol made by the liver and present in all animal cells. Cholesterol is important to the body as a constituent of cell membranes, and is involved in the formation of bile acid and some hormones. Formula: C27H45OH
Chordata: [Late 19th century. < modern Latin chordata < Latin chorda “cord”]. 1. Any member of the phylum Chordata, which includes the most highly evolved animals, the vertebrates, as well as the marine invertebrate cephalochordates and tunicates. All chordates, at some time in their life cycle, possess a dorsal supporting rod (notochord), gill slits, and a dorsal nerve cord. Unlike vertebrates, tunicates and cephalochordates lack any kind of brain or skeleton. Chordate bodies consist of a body wall encasing a gut, with a space between called the coelom. The body is usually long and bilaterally symmetrical, with the mouth and sense organs at the front end.. 2. Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates.
Chlorosis: Yellowing of plant tissue due to failure of chlorophyll synthesis or to chlorophyll destruction.
Chloroticdwarf: An abiotic disease of Pinusstrobus characterized by reduced growth, chlorosis and mottling of the needles, and premature abscission of all but current needles.
Chopping: Destruction of plants of sapling size or smaller and their incorporation into the soil with heavy disk plough or rolling brush choppers.
Chromosome: Microscopic, threadlike part of a cell that carries hereditary information in the form of GENES. The structure and location of chromosomes differentiate prokaryotic cells from eukaryotic cells. Every species has a characteristic number of chromosomes; humans have 23 pairs (22 pairs of autosomal, or nonsex, chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes). Human chromosomes consist primarily of DNA. During cell division (see Meiosis, Mitosis), chromosomes are distributed evenly among daughter cells. In sexually reproducing organisms, the number of chromosomes in somatic (nonsex) cells is diploid, while gametes or sex cells (egg and sperm) produced by meiosis are haploid. Fertilization restores the diploid set of chromosomes in the zygote. (Pic)
Chronicinjury: Injury which develops after long-term or repeated low dose exposure to an air pollutant expressed as chlorosis, bronzing, premature senescence, reduced growth, etc.
Chute: An inclined channel or passage that wood especially firewood can slide down
Circle: 1. A circle is the combination of 3 to 4 divisions. (See Division) Circle is supervised by Conservator of the Forest. 2. Geometrical curve, one of the Conic Sections, consisting of the set of all points the same distance (the radius) from a given point (the center). A line connecting any two points on a circle is called a chord, and a chord passing through the center is called a diameter. The distance around a circle (the circumference) equals the length of a diameter multiplied by π. The area of a circle is the square of the radius multiplied by π. An arc consists of any part of a circle encompassed by an angle with its vertex at the center (central angle). Its length is in the same proportion to the circumference as the central angle is to a full revolution.
Circumference: See Girth
C.I.T.E.S: Conservation on International Trade in Endangered Species. Under the auspices of IUCN, an international agreement was signed by member countries in 1975 with the aim of regulating trade in endangered spp of plants and animals. 110 countries have ratified this agreement. CITES gives protection to 800 highly endangered spp of plants and animals by pursuing governments to restrict or ban trade in endangered spp (dead or alive) or their products such as skin, fur, tusks, horns, feathers, flowers, etc.
Cladode: A cladode is a modified stem that looks somewhat like a leaf. It is typically flat, green, and contains more width than a typical stem. It will bear leaves, flowers, and fruits. This is a synonym for cladophyll.
Clamp connection: A type of connection found within a single hyphal strand of a Basidiomycete fungus. It ensures that two adjacent hyphal cells (divided by septa) each have 2 different nuclei from mating with hyphae of another sexual type. It is used in the “nuclear shuffle” similar to that found in croziers during sexual reproduction. (Pic)
Clasping: Partly or completely surrounding the stem.
Classical Economics: School of economic thought largely centered in Britain that originated with Adam Smith and reached maturity in the works of David Ricardo and John Stuart Mill. The theories of the classical school were mainly concerned with the dynamics of economic growth. Reacting against Mercantilism, classical economics emphasized economic freedom. It stressed ideas such as Laissez-Faire and free competition. Many of the fundamental principles of classical economics were set forth in Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776), in which he argued that a nation’s wealth was greatest when its citizens pursued their own self-interest. Neoclassical economists such as Alfred Marshall showed that the forces of Supply and Demand would ration economic resources to their most effective uses. Smith’s ideas were elaborated and refined by Ricardo, who formulated the principle that the PRICE of goods produced and sold under competitive conditions tends to be proportionate to the Labour costs incurred in producing them. Mill’s Principles of Political Economy (1848) gave the ideas greater currency by relating them to contemporary social conditions. Among those who have modified classical economics to reach very different conclusions are Karl Marx and John Maynard Keynes.
Claw: The narrow, curved base of a petal or sepal in some flowers.
Clay: 1. One of the basic soil particles. It is composed of microscopic and sub-microscopic particles of weathered rocks. Size: less than 0.002mm. 2. Soil particles with diameters less than 0.002 mm; also a material composed essentially of clay particles. In soils, clays provide the environment for almost all plant growth. The use of clay in pottery making predates recorded human history. As building materials, clay bricks (baked and as adobe) have been used in construction since earliest times. Kaolin, or china clay, is required for the finer grades of Ceramic materials; used for paper coating and filler, it gives the paper a gloss, permitting high-quality reproduction, and increases paper opacity. Clay materials have many uses in engineering; earth dams are made impermeable to water by a core of clay, and water loss in canals may be reduced by lining the bottom with clay (called puddling). The essential raw materials of Portland cement include clays.
Clay mineral: Any of a group of important hydrous aluminum silicates with a layered structure and very small (less than 0.002 mm or microscopic) particle size. They are usually the products of weathering. Clay minerals occur widely in such sedimentary rocks as mudstones and shales, in marine sediments, and in soils. Different geologic environments produce different clay minerals from the same parent rock. They are used in the petroleum industry (as drilling muds and as catalysts in refining) and in the processing of vegetable and mineral oils (as decolorizing agents).
Cleaning: (Syn Brushing) A release treatment made in a stand not past the sapling stage to free the favored trees from less desirable species of the same age that overtop them or are likely to do so.
Clear-Cut Harvest: 1. A harvesting and regeneration method that removes all trees within a given area. Clear-cutting is most commonly used in pine and hardwood forests, which require full sunlight to regenerate and grow efficiently. 2. A method of regenerating an even-aged forest stand in which new seedlings become established in fully exposed microenvironments after removal of most or all of the existing trees. Regeneration can originate naturally or artificially. Clearcutting may be done in blocks, strips, or patches.
Clearing: 1. A considerable open space in a forest, which can be natural or artificial. 2. Removal of standing, usually scrubby, vegetation to prepare a site for reforestation.
Clear wood: Knot-free wood formed subsequent to pruning.
Cleavage: Tendency of a crystalline substance to split into fragments bounded by plane surfaces. Cleavage surfaces are seldom as flat as crystal faces, but the angles between them are highly characteristic and valuable in identifying a crystalline material. Cleavage occurs on planes where the atomic bonding forces are weakest; for example, galena cleaves parallel to all faces of a cube. Cleavage is described by its direction (as cubic, prismatic, basal) and by the ease with which it is produced. A perfect cleavage produces smooth, lustrous surfaces. Other degrees include distinct, imperfect, and difficult.
Climate: Condition of the atmosphere at a particular location over a long period of time (from one month to many millions of years, but generally 30 years). Climate is the sum of atmospheric elements (and their variations): solar radiation, temperature, humidity, clouds and precipitation (type, frequency, and amount), atmospheric pressure, and wind (speed and direction). To the non-specialist, climate means expected or habitual weather at a particular place and time of year. To the specialist, climate also denotes the degree of variability of weather, and it includes not only the atmosphere but also the hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and such extraterrestrial factors as the sun.
Climatic adaptation: In physical anthropology, the genetic adaptation of human beings to different environmental conditions, such as extreme cold, humid heat, desert habitat, and high altitudes. Extreme cold favours short, round bodies with short arms and legs, flat faces with fat pads over the sinuses, narrow noses, and a heavy layer of body fat. These adaptations provide minimum surface area in relation to body mass for minimum heat loss and protect the lungs and base of the brain against cold air in the nasal passages. In conditions of humid heat, where body heat must be dissipated, selection favours tall and thin bodies with maximum surface area for heat radiation. A wide nose prevents warming of the air in the nasal passages, and dark skin protects against harmful solar radiation. The desert-adapted person must compensate for water loss through sweating. A thin but not tall body minimizes both water needs and water loss; skin pigmentation is moderate, since extreme pigmentation is good protection from the sun but allows absorption of heat from direct sunlight, which must be lost by sweating. Adaptation to night cold, often part of a desert environment, provides increased metabolic activity to warm the body during sleep. High altitudes demand, in addition to cold adaptation, adaptation for low air pressure and the consequent low oxygen, usually by an increase in lung tissue.
Climatology: Branch of atmospheric science concerned with describing climate and analyzing the causes and practical consequences of climatic differences and changes. Climatology treats the same atmospheric processes as meteorology, but it also seeks to identify slower-acting influences and longer-term changes, including the circulation of the oceans, the concentrations of atmospheric gases, and the small but measurable variations in the intensity of solar radiation.
Climax community: A relatively stable and undisturbed plant community that has evolved through stages and adapted to its environment.
Climax ecosystem: The ecosystem that will eventually overtake a certain area of the globe, perhaps after the landscape has moved through a succession of other ecosystems, and will persist indefinitely thereafter, ending the process of succession. Also called the dominantecosystem.
Climax forest: One which is the culminating stage of the natural succession for its locality (environment).
Clinometers: An instrument used to determine the height of a tree. (Pic at Sunnto Clinometer)
Clone: 1. Population of genetically identical cells or organisms that originated from a single cell or organism by nonsexual methods. Cloning is fundamental to most living things, since the body cells of plants and animals are clones that come ultimately from a single fertilized egg. More narrowly, the term refers to an individual organism grown from a single body cell of its parent that is genetically identical to the parent. Cloning has been commonplace in horticulture since ancient times; many varieties of plants are cloned simply by obtaining cuttings of their leaves, stems, or roots and replanting them. The body cells of adult humans and other animals are routinely cultured as clones in the laboratory. Entire frogs and mice have been successfully cloned from embryonic cells. British researchers led by Ian Wilmut achieved the first success in cloning an adult mammal in 1996. Having already produced clones from sheep embryos, they were able to produce a lamb (Dolly) using DNA from an adult sheep. The practical applications of cloning are economically promising but philosophically unsettling. 2. All plants reproduced asexually from a common ancestor and having identical genotypes. Named clones are given non-Latin names preceded by the abbreviation “cl“.
Clonallines: A group of plants originating from buds or cuttings from the same individual.
Clonal test: Evaluation of genotypes by comparing clones in a plantation.
Closed canopy: See canopy closure
Closed forest: Forest with a closed canopy; forest in which specified acts such as hunting or burning are prohibited.
Closers: The portions made by cutting standard bricks across their length usu placed next to quoin bricks. (Pic at header) (See also Bats;Queen closer)
Cloud: Any visible mass of water droplets, ice crystals, or a mixture of the two that is suspended in the air, usually at a considerable height. Clouds are usually created and sustained by upward-moving air currents. Meteorologists classify clouds primarily by their appearance. The 10 main cloud families are divided into three groups on the basis of altitude. High clouds, which are found at mean heights of 45,000–16,500 ft (13–5 km), are, from highest to lowest, cirrus, cirrocumulus, and cirrostratus. Middle clouds, at 23,000–6,500 ft (7–2 km), are altocumulus, altostratus, and nimbostratus. Low clouds, at 6,500–0 ft (2–0 km), are stratocumulus, stratus, cumulus, and cumulonimbus. A shallow layer of cloud at or near ground level is called Fog.
Clover: Any legume of the genus Trifolium, composed of 300 or more annual and perennial species, found in most temperate and subtropical regions. The alternate, compound leaves usually have three toothed leaflets. The very small, fragrant flowers are crowded into dense heads. Clovers are highly palatable to livestock and high in protein, phosphorus, and calcium, thus providing valuable nourishment in the form of hay, pasture, and silage. They also improve and conserve soil by adding nitrogen and increasing the availability of other nutrients for crops that follow. The most important agricultural species are red clover (T. pratense), white clover (T. repens), and alsike clover (T. hybridum). (Pic)
Clump: The aggregate of stems issuing from the same root, rhizome system, or stool.
An isolated, generally dense, group of trees.
Clump-forming grass: Grass that grows as distinct plants that get larger over time. Also called bunchgrass. Contrast with sod-forming grass (also called spreading grass), which expands using running roots that create new plants from existing ones.
Clutch size: Number or set of eggs laid in particular season by birds.
Cnidarian or coelenterate: Any of about 9,000 species of mostly marine aquatic invertebrates, constituting the phylum Cnidaria (or Coelenterata), that are unique in possessing specialized stinging cells (cnidocytes) borne on the tentacles. Cnidocytes contain fluid-filled capsules (nematocysts) with a harpoonlike coiled thread used for stinging, paralyzing, and capturing prey. Cnidarians have no well-defined separate respiratory, circulatory, or excretory organs; their tissues, composed of two cell layers, surround a cavity known as a coelenterons (gastrovascular cavity), which is the basic internal organ. Tentacles surrounding the mouth are used to capture and ingest food. Cnidarians are carnivorous, feeding mostly on zooplankton but also on small crustaceans, fish eggs, worms, smaller cnidarians, and even small fish. Cnidarians range in size from nearly microscopic to more than 100 ft (30 m) long and more than a ton (910 kg) in weight. There are two basic body forms: the polyp (e.g., coral) and the medusa (e.g., jellyfish). (Pic)
Coarse woody debris: The standing and downed dead wood in a forest.
Cocoon: A covering, composed partly or wholly of silk or other sticky fiber, spun or constructed by many larvae as a protection for the pupal stage. (Pic at Sericulture)
Co-dominant crown class: See crown class: co-dominant
Co-dominant tree: A tree that extends its crown into the canopy and receives direct sunlight from above but limited sunlight from the sides. One or more sides of a co-dominant tree are crowded by the crowns of dominant trees.
Collenchyma: Collenchyma are living cells that are used for strengthening. They are elongate with thick walls in the corners where several of these cells come together. These cells are typically found just under the epidermis in a number of different types of stems. The stringy cells in celery are collenchyma cells. (Pic at Aerenchyma)
Colony: Usually refers to the way algal cells cluster together. A colony is an irregular cluster of algal cells.
Column: 1. In architecture, a vertical element, usually a slender shaft, that provides structural support by carrying axial loads in compression; columns are also subject to buckling. Columns may be exposed or hidden in walls; constructed of precast concrete, masonry, stone, or wood or of steel wide-flange, pipe, or tubular sections; they may be plain, fluted, or sculpted, with or without a capital and base. Columns may also be nonstructural, used for decorative or monumental purposes. 2. An isolated vertical load bearing member. The width of which does not exceed four times its thickness. (Pic)
Commercial clearcut: A harvest cut that removes all merchantable timber from the area.
Commercial forestland: Any area capable of producing 20 cubic feet of timber per acre per year that has not been protected from such use by law or statute.
Commercial thinning: A thinning in which harvested trees are removed from the site and used for commercial purposes. (See thinning: commercial).
Commercial treatments: Timber stand improvements, such as thinning, that generate income from the sale of the trees removed.
Communal forest: A forest owned and generally managed by a community such as a village, town, tribal authority or local government, the members of which share in the produce or proceeds. (Syn: Community forest; Communal forestry area; Panchayat forest)
Communal forestry area: (See: Communal forest)
Community: A collection of living organisms thriving in an organized system through which water, energy, and nutrients cycle.
Community forest: (See: Communal forest)
Companion cells: Companion cells always exist together with sieve-tube members. Sieve-tube members and companion cells are called sister cells because they originate from the same procambial cell or fusiform initial in the vascular cambium. The order of development is that the meristem cell begins to differentiate by dividing once to form two cells, then one of the two cells differentiates further into a companion cell and the other into a sieve-tube member.
Compartment: The basic territorial unit of a forest estate permanently defined for purposes of location, description and record, and as a basis for forest management. (See Sub-compartment).
Compartment History File: It is a record of all operations carried out in the compartment since its inception – periodic inventories, timber removal, site improvement measures, regeneration operations, etc.
Compass: In navigation or surveying, the chief device for direction finding on the Earth’s surface. Compasses may operate on magnetic or gyroscopic principles or by determining the direction of the Sun or a star. The oldest and most familiar type is the magnetic compass, used in different forms in aircraft, ships, and land vehicles and by surveyors. Magnetic compasses work as they do because the Earth itself is a magnet with a north-south field that causes freely moving magnets to align themselves with the field.
Compensatory planting: Creating plantations in one area in order to replace, in part or whole, a loss of growing stock elsewhere.
Competition: The struggle between trees to obtain sunlight, nutrients, water, and growing space. Every part of the tree – from the roots to the crown – competes for space and food.
Competition control: A treatment designed to reduce the competitive effect of undesirable vegetation threatening the success of the regeneration of desirable tree species. (cf. brushing, cleaning)
Composition: The proportion of each tree species in a stand expressed as a percentage of the total number, basal area, or volume of all tree species in the stand.
Compound: Made up of two or more definable parts.
Compound Leaf: A compound leaf is a leaf that has more than one lamina (leaflets) as compared to a simple leaf that has only one lamina. A compound leaf can be of two types, either pinnately compound or palmately compound. There are three criteria that makes a leaf compound: Lateral buds only occur in the axils of leaves, not in the axils of leaflets. Thus, the leaf is compound if there are NO buds in the axils of the leaflets. Compound leaves have their leaflets all oriented in the same plane. Simple leaves, by comparison, have all their leaflets oriented in different planes. Compound leaves, when they fall from a tree, fall as a unit with all their leaflets intact. Simple leaves, by comparison, fall separately. Thus, if there are fallen leaves on the ground that contains several leaflets, then the leaves are compound.
Compound pistil: A pistil made up of two or more partially or completely united carpels.
Compound fertilizer: A mixture of chemical nutrients added to the soil, having a broad array of actions.
Concrete: Artificial stone made of a mixture of cement, aggregate (hard material), and water. In addition to its potential for immense compressive strength and its ability, when poured, to adapt to virtually any form, concrete is fire-resistant and has become one of the most common building materials in the world. The binder usually used today is Portland cement. The aggregate is usually sand and gravel. Additives called admixtures may be used to accelerate the curing (hardening) process in low-temperature conditions. Other admixtures trap air in the concrete or slow shrinkage and increase strength. (See also Precast Concrete, Prestressed Concrete, and Reinforced Concrete).
Condensation: Formation of a liquid or solid from its vapor. Condensation usually occurs on a surface that is cooler than the adjacent gas. A substance condenses when the pressure exerted by its vapor exceeds the vapor pressure of its liquid or solid phase at the temperature of the surface where the condensation is to occur. The process causes the release of thermal energy. Condensation occurs on a glass of cold water on a warm, humid day when water vapor in the air condenses to form liquid water on the glass’s colder surface. Condensation also accounts for the formation of dew, fog, rain, snow, and clouds.
Cone: A cone is the reproductive fruiting structure of many tracheophytes. The cone may or may not be woody but is consists of many scales with the seeds borne on the surface of the cone scales. The cone starts out as a cluster of sporophylls at the tip of a branch, each sporophyll producing either spores or seeds on its upper surface. The sporophyll, at maturity, becomes a cone scale.
Cone collection: Harvesting of cones after seed maturation but before their dispersal.
Cone rake: A device for collecting cones from a standing tree; it is lowered from a helicopter, over the crown of a tree. Cones or cone-bearing branches are removed and retrieved by the device.
Cone Scale: A cone scale is one of the “leaves” of a cone. The cone scale starts out as a sporophyll with either spores or seed developing on its upper surface. A cluster of sporophylls at the tip of a branch is termed a strobilus. In pines and firs these strobili are woody and produce seeds.
Cone year: See seed year
Confession: In the Judeo-Christian tradition, acknowledgment of sinfulness, in public or private, regarded as necessary for divine forgiveness. In the Temple period, Yom Kippur included a collective expression of sinfulness, and the day continues in Judaism as one of prayer, fasting, and confession. The early Christian Church followed John The Baptist’s practice of confession before Baptism, but soon instituted confession and penance for the forgiveness of sins committed after baptism. The fourth Lateran Council (1215) required annual confession. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches consider penance a Sacrament, but most Protestant churches do not.
Confiscation: In law, the act of seizing property without compensation and submitting it to the public treasury. Illegal items such as narcotics or firearms, or profits from the sale of illegal items, may be confiscated by the police. Additionally, government action (e.g., zoning or rate setting) that reduces the value of property to an owner so as to make it nearly worthless has been held to constitute confiscation.
Conifer: Any member of the order Coniferales, woody plants that bear their seeds and pollen on separate, cone-shaped structures. They constitute the largest division of Gymnosperms, with more than 550 species. Most are evergreen, upright trees and shrubs. They grow throughout the world (except in Antarctica) and prefer temperate climate zones. Conifers include the Pines (Pinus), Junipers (Juniperus), Spruces (Picea), Hemlocks (Tsuga), Firs (Abies), Larches (Larix), Yews (Taxus), Cypresses (Cupressus), Bald Cypress cypresses (Taxodium), Douglas Firs (Pseudotsuga), Arborvitaes (Thuja), and related groups. They include the world’s smallest and tallest trees. Conifers supply Softwood timber used for general construction, mine timbers, fence posts, poles, boxes and crates, and other articles, as well as pulpwood for paper. The wood is also used as fuel and in the manufacture of cellulose products, plywood, and veneers. The trees are the source of resins, volatile oils, turpentine, tars, and pharmaceuticals. Conifers leaves vary in shape but generally have a reduced surface area to minimize water loss. Especially in the pines, firs, and spruces, the leaves are long and stiff and are commonly referred to as needles. Cypresses, cedars, and others have smaller, scalelike leaves. Conifers were the dominant type of vegetation just before the advent of angiosperms. (See Flowering plant) (See softwood)
Conk: A conk is a fibrous but sometimes fleshy fruiting body of a wood-rotting fungus that has a definite form and structure.
Conservation: 1. In forestry, the wise use of natural renewable resources. A key idea for understanding “conservation” is “use” by people. The protection, improvement, and wise use of natural resources for present and future generations. 2. Planned management of a natural resource or of a particular ecosystem to prevent exploitation, pollution, destruction, or neglect and to ensure the future usability of the resource. Living resources are renewable, minerals and fossil fuels are nonrenewable. In the West, conservation efforts date to 17th-century efforts to protect European forests in the face of increasing demands for fuel and building materials. National Parks, first established in the 19th century, were dedicated to the preservation of uncultivated land not only to provide a safe haven to wildlife but to protect watershed areas and help ensure a clean water supply. National legislation and international treaties and regulations aim to strike a balance between the need for development and the need to conserve the environment for the future.
Conservation Reserve Program (CRP): A federal program designed to remove highly erodible, marginal farmland from production through a one-time cost-sharing payment to establish trees, grass, or other cover. The landowner receives a 10-year annual rental payment to maintain the cover.
Conservative grazing: A grazing intensity that results in an approximately proper utilization of the grazing area in all abut the most severe drought years, and causes little or no soil disturbance. (SAF)
Consolidated: Tightly packed. Composed of particles that are not easily separated
Constitution: Set of doctrines and practices that form the fundamental organizing principle of a political state. It may be written (e.g., the constitution of the United States) or partly written and uncodified (e.g., Britain’s constitution). Its provisions usually specify how the government is to be organized, what rights it shall have, and what rights shall be retained by the people. Modern constitutional ideas developed during the enlightenment, when philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and John Locke proposed that constitutional governments should be stable, adaptable, accountable, and open, should represent the governed, and should divide power according to its purpose. The oldest constitution still in force is that of the state of Massachusetts (1780).
Consulting forester: An independent professional who manages forests and markets forest products for private woodland owners. Consulting foresters do not have direct connections with firms that buy wood products, but are retained by woodland owners as their agents.
Consumer goods: Any tangible commodity purchased by households to satisfy their wants and needs. Consumer goods may be durable or nondurable. Durable goods (e.g., autos, furniture, and appliances) have a significant life span, often defined as three years or more, and consumption is spread over this span. Nondurable goods (e.g., food, clothing, and gasoline) are purchased for immediate or almost immediate consumption and have a lifespan ranging from minutes to three years.
Consumer price index (CPI): Measure of living costs based on changes in retail prices. Consumer Price Indexes are widely used to measure changes in the cost of maintaining a given Standard of Living. The goods and services commonly purchased by the population covered are priced periodically, and their prices are combined in proportion to their relative importance. This set of prices is compared with the initial set of prices collected in the base year to determine the percentage increase or decrease. The population covered may be restricted to wage and salary earners or to city dwellers, and special indexes may be used for special population groups (e.g., retirees). Such indexes do not take into account shifts over time in what the population buys; when modified to take subjective preferences into account, they are called constant-utility indexes. Consumer price indexes are available for more than 100 countries.
Consumer’s surplus: In economics, the difference between the total amount consumers would be willing to pay to consume the quantity of goods transacted on the market and the amount they actually have to pay for those goods. The former is generally interpreted as the monetary value of consumer satisfaction. The concept was developed in 1844 by the French civil engineer Arsene-Jules-Etienne-Juvenal Dupuit (1804–1866) and popularized by Alfred Marshall. Though economists adopted a nonquantifiable approach to consumer satisfaction in the 20th century, the concept is used extensively in the fields of Welfare Economics and taxation.
Consumption: In economics, the final using up of goods and services. The term excludes the use of intermediate products in the production of other goods (e.g., the purchase of buildings and machinery by a business). Economists use statistical information on income and purchases to trace trends in consumption, seeking to map consumer demand for goods and services. In Classical Economics (See Classical Economics), consumers are assumed to be rational and to allocate expenditures in such a way as to maximize total satisfaction from all purchases. Incomes and Prices are seen as consumption’s two major determinants. Critics of the model point out that there are many exceptions to rational consumer behaviour—for example, the phenomenon of conspicuous consumption, in which the high price of a product increases its prestige and adds to demand.
Consumption tax: Levy such as an excise tax, a Sales tax, or a Tariff paid directly or indirectly by the consumer. Consumption taxes fall more heavily on lower-income than on upper-income groups because people with less money consume a larger proportion of their income than those with more money. (See also Progressive tax, Regressive tax).
Conversionvalue: The value of a convertible security when converted eg when convertible bonds in a company are exchanged for its shares.
Contained root: A root that does not elongate beyond the confines of the original rooting volume within a container, even when out planted with the container removed.
Container: Portable receptacle (pot, bag, or linked spaces) to hold rooting medium for growing planting stock.
Container-grown:syn. Containerized (See seedling: container)
Containerized seedling: See seedling: container
Container nursery: A nursery where the stock is raised individually in containers.
Container planting: Setting out of young trees (generally individually) from, or together with, receptacles containing the soil, etc., in which they have developed, either from seed or less commonly as transplants.
Container seedling: See seedling: container
Contempt: In law, willful disobedience to or open disrespect of a court, judge, or legislative body. An act of disobedience to a court order may be treated as either criminal or civil contempt; sanctions for the latter end upon compliance with the order. An act or language that consists solely of an affront to a court or interferes with the conduct of its business constitutes criminal contempt; such contempt carries sanctions designed to punish as well as to coerce compliance. In the U.S., a congressional committee can compel the attendance of witnesses. Any witness failing to appear or otherwise obstructing the committee in the course of exercising its powers may be in contempt. Witnesses are, however, protected by the 5th Amendment against forced self-incrimination.
Continent: One of seven large continuous masses of land: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia (listed in order of size). Europe and Asia are sometimes considered a single continent, Eurasia. The continents vary greatly in size and in ratio of coastline to total area. More than two-thirds of the world’s continental land area lies north of the equator, and all the continents except Antarctica are wedge-shaped, wider in the north than in the south. (See also Continental drift).
Continental drift: Large-scale movements of Continents over the course of geologic time. The first complete theory of continental drift was proposed in 1912 by Alfred Wegener, who postulated that a single supercontinent, which he called Pangea, fragmented late in the Triassic Period (248– 206 million years ago) and that the parts began to move away from one another. He pointed to the similarity of rock strata in the Americas and Africa as evidence to support his hypothesis. Wegener’s ideas received support from the concepts of Seafloor Spreading and Plate Tectonics beginning in the 1960s. The modern theory states that the Americas were joined with Europe and Africa until c. 190 million years ago, when they split apart along what is now the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Subsequent tectonic plate movements brought the continents to their present positions. (Pic)
Continental shelf: Broad, relatively shallow submarine platform that forms a border to a continent, typically extending from the coast to depths of 330–660 ft (100–200 m). Continental shelves average about 40 mi (65 km) in width. Almost everywhere they are simply a continuation of the continental landmass: narrow, rough, and steep off mountainous coasts but broad and comparatively level offshore from plains. Continental shelves are usually covered with a layer of sand, silts, and silty muds. Their surfaces feature small hills and ridges that alternate with shallow depressions and valley-like troughs. In a few cases, steep-walled V-shaped submarine canyons cut deeply into both the shelf and the slope below. (Pic).
Contour furrow: Trench made along a contour (i.e., horizontal) line, for the purpose of checking run-off and soil loss, and conserving moisture, in a hillside plantation.
Contour interval: The interval between contour lines on a map, or the altitude the interval represents, eg contour intervals of 50 to 100 feet.
Contour line: A line on a map connecting points on a land surface that are the same elevation above sea level.
Contour map: A map that uses contour lines to show the shapes and elevations of land surfaces.
Contour planting: Setting out of young trees along a contour line.
Controlled burning: Any burning that a landowner starts intentionally to accomplish a particular purpose, and over which he or she exercises some surveillance or control
Convection: Process by which heat is transferred by movement of a heated fluid such as air or water. Most fluids expand when heated. They become less dense and more buoyant, and so rise. The heated molecules eventually cool, become denser, and sink. This repeated process sets up convection currents that account for the uniform heating of the air in a room or water in a kettle. Air convection can be forced by a fan and water convection by a pump. Atmospheric convection currents can be set up by local heating effects such as solar radiation or contact with cold surfaces. Such currents are usually vertical and account for atmospheric phenomena such as clouds and thunderstorms. Conversion: A change from one silvicultural system to another, also called conversion cut, or from one stand of trees or ecosystem to another, termed species conversion, the silvicultural procedures involved constituting a conversion system. Note: the change may be spread over most or all of the new rotation adopted; its duration is termed the conversion period.
Conversion period: See conversion
Cool-season grass: A grass that greens up and grows during the spring, sets seed in early summer, then goes dormant until fall, when it begins growing again. A second dormancy may occur during cold winter weather.
Cooperative Extension Service (CES): The educational arm of the USDA that links university research to people who can benefit from it.
Coping: The top, often sloping, course of brick or stone on top of a wall that forms a protective cap against the weather
Coppice: Natural regeneration originating from stump sprouts, stool shoots, or root suckers.
Coppice-of-two-rotations method: A coppice method in which some of the coppice shoots are reserved for the whole of the next rotation, the rest being cut.
Coppice forest: A forest originating from sprouts or root suckers. (Syn: Low forest)
Coppice method: A method of regenerating a forest stand in which the cut trees produce sprouts, suckers, or shoots.
Coppice selection method: A coppice method in which only selected shoots of merchantable size are cut at each felling, giving uneven-aged stands.
Coppice shoot: Any shoot arising from an adventitious or dormant bud near the base of a woody plant that has been cut back.
Coppice stand (forest): See coppice
Coppice system: See coppice method
Coppice with reserves: See coppice-with-standards method
Coppice with standards: See coppice-with-standards method
Coppice-with-standards method: A method of regenerating a forest stand by coppicing whereby selected trees grown from seed are left to grow to larger size than the coppice beneath them, in order to provide seeds for natural regeneration of standards in subsequent rotations.
Coppice wood: See coppice
Coppicing: Cutting trees close to ground level with a view to their producing coppice shoots.
Copse: A small woodlot or forest regularly cut over for regrowth.
Coral: Any of about 2,300 species of marine Cnidarians in the class Anthozoa that are characterized by stonelike, horny, or leathery skeletons (external or internal). The skeletons of these animals are also called coral. Corals are found in warm seas worldwide. The body is of the Polyp type. Soft, horny, and blue corals are colonial in habit (i.e., they live in large groups). Stony corals, the most familiar and widely distributed forms, are both colonial and solitary. Atolls and Coral reefs, which are composed of stony coral, grow at an average rate of 0.2–1.1 in. (0.5–2.8 cm) per year. (Pic)
Coral reef: Ridge or hummock formed in shallow ocean areas from the external skeletons of Corals. The skeleton consists of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), or limestone. A coral reef may grow into a permanent coral island, or it may take one of four principal forms. Fringing reefs consist of a flat reef area around a nonreef island. Barrier reefs may lie a mile or more offshore, separated from the landmass by a lagoon or channel. Atolls are circular reefs without a central landmass. Patch reefs have irregular table like or pinnacle features. Smaller patches occur inside atoll lagoons; larger patches occur as isolated parts of any of the other three reef categories, and they sometimes occur completely separate from other kinds of reefs.
Corbel: Supporting stone bracket: a bracket of brick or stone that juts out of a wall to support a structure above it
Cord: A volume measure of stacked wood. A standard cord is 4 x 4 x 8 ft or 128 cu ft of space. Since round wood cannot be stacked to give solid volume, actual wood volume varies between 70 and 90 cu ft per cord.
Cordate: Heart-shaped, with the point at the apex.
Cordwood: Small diameter or low quality wood suitable for firewood, pulp, or chips. Cordwood is not suitable for sawlogs.
Core: The innermost layers of the Earth. The inner core is solid and has a radius of 1,300 km (800 mi). (Compare this radius to the radius of the Earth, at 6,371 km/3,960 mi.) The outer core is fluid and is 2,300 km (1,400 mi) thick. S-waves cannot travel through the outer core. (Pic) (See also Mohorovicic discontinuity)
Cork: Cork cells are the cells that develop around the periphery of the stem to protect it from water loss and invasion by insects, bacteria, and fungi spores. Cork contains suberin, a waxy substance that is waterproof. Cork is synonymous with periderm. (Pic)
Cork cambium: The cork cambium is a synonym for phellogen. It is a cambium that forms in the cortex of the young stem and the pericycle of the young root. It then divides, as a typical cambium does, on both sides of the cambium. On the outer side about 4-5 layers of cells are formed. On the inside only one layer of cells is formed. The outer cells are called cork cells, the single inner layer is called phelloderm. All of these cells contain suberin, a waxy substance that makes the cork water proof. In the old stems, the cork cambium forms in the outer regions of the living phloem.
Corm: A corm is a modified stem that has the appearance of a bulb in that it is round, but it differs from a bulb in that it has no scales and is solid. A gladolius produces a corm. (Pic)
Corn or maize: Cereal plant (Zea mays) of the family Poaceae (or Gramineae). It originated in the New World and has been introduced globally. American Indians taught colonists to grow corn, including some varieties of yellow corn that are still popular as food, as well as varieties with red, blue, pink, and black kernels, often banded, spotted, or striped, that today are regarded as ornamental and in the U.S. are called Indian corn. The tall, annual grass has a stout, erect, solid stem and large narrow leaves with wavy margins. Corn is used as livestock feed, as human food, and as raw material in industry. Though it is a major food in many parts of the world, it is inferior to other cereals in nutritional value. Inedible parts of the plant are used in industry—stalks for paper and wallboard; husks for filling material; cobs for fuel, to make charcoal, and in the preparation of industrial solvents. Corn husks also have a long history of use in the folk arts for objects such as woven amulets and cornhusk dolls. Corn is one of the most widely distributed of the world’s food plants. In the U.S. corn is the most important crop, but slightly more acres of Soybeans are planted.
Cornice: 1. A projecting horizontal molding along the top of a wall or building 2. Decorative plaster molding: a decorative plaster molding around a room where the walls and ceiling meet 3. Part of classical building: the top projecting section of the part of a classical building that is supported by the columns entablature
Cornicles: The posterior dorsal erect or semi-erect tubules of aphids which secrete a waxy defensive liquid to protect the insect against enemies; short, blunt horns or rounded projections occurring on the abdomen
Corolla: The petals of a flower, which may be separate or joined in varying degrees.
Correlation: In statistics, the degree of association between two Random variables. The correlation between the graphs of two data sets is the degree to which they resemble each other. However, correlation is not the same as causation, and even a very close correlation may be no more than a coincidence. Mathematically, a correlation is expressed by a correlation coefficient that ranges from −1 (never occur together), through 0 (absolutely independent), to 1 (always occur together).
Corridor planting: Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared. The form of line planting sometimes known as corridor planting involves setting a line of trees in narrow lanes (“corridors”) that cut through undergrowth at more or less regular intervals (sometimes at their final crop spacing); generally a form of improvement planting or enrichment.
Corridor thinning: See thinning: row
Cortex: In plants, the tissue of unspecialized cells lying between the epidermis (surface cells) and the vascular, or conducting, tissues (see Phloem and Xylem) of stems and roots. Cortical cells may contain stored food or other substances, such as resins, latex, essential oils, and tannins. Cortical cells in herbaceous stems, young woody stems, and stems of succulents contain chloroplasts and can, therefore, make food by photosynthesis. Food, usually in the form of starch, in edible roots, bulbs, and tubers is stored mostly in the cortex.
Corymb: A generally flat-topped flower cluster with pedicels varying in length, the outer flowers opening first.
Cosmic ray: High-speed particle (atomic Nucleus or Electron) that travels through the Milky Way Galaxy. Some cosmic rays originate from the Sun, but most come from outside the solar system. Primary cosmic rays that reach Earth’s atmosphere collide with nuclei in it, creating secondaries. Because lower-energy primaries are strongly influenced by the interplanetary magnetic field and Earth’s magnetic field, most of those detected near Earth have very high energy, corresponding to speeds about 87% that of light or more. Observations from spacecraft indicate that most cosmic rays come from the Galaxy’s disk, but the highest-energy ones are probably extragalactic. Details of their production and acceleration remain unclear, but apparently expanding shock waves from Supernovas can accelerate particles. From the early 1930s to the 1950s, cosmic rays were the only source of high-energy particles used in studying the atomic nucleus and its components. Short-lived Subatomic Particles were discovered through cosmic-ray collisions, leading to the rise of Particle Physics. Even powerful Particle Accelerators cannot impart energy anywhere near that of the highest-energy cosmic rays.
Cost: Monetary value of goods and services that producers and consumers purchase. In a basic economic sense, cost is the measure of the alternative opportunities forgone in the choice of one good or activity over others. For consumers, cost describes the Price paid for goods and services. For producers, cost has to do with the relationship between the value of production inputs and the level of output. Total cost refers to all the expenses incurred in reaching a particular level of output; if total cost is divided by the quantity produced, average or unit cost is obtained. A portion of the total cost known as fixed cost (e.g., the costs of building rental or of heavy machinery) does not vary with the quantity produced and, in the short run, cannot be altered by increasing or decreasing production. Variable costs, like the costs of labour or raw materials, change with the level of output. Economic decisions are based on marginal cost, the additional cost of an incremental unit of production or consumption.
Cost-benefit analysis: In governmental planning and budgeting, the attempt to measure the social benefits of a proposed project in monetary terms and compare them with its costs. The procedure was first proposed in 1844 by Arsene-Jules-Etienne-Juvenal Dupuit (1804–66). It was not seriously applied until the 1936 U.S. Flood Control Act, which required that the benefits of flood-control projects exceed their costs. A cost-benefit ratio is determined by dividing the projected benefits of a program by the projected costs. A wide range of variables, including nonquantitative ones such as quality of life, are often considered because the value of the benefits may be indirect or projected far into the future.
Cost of living: Monetary cost of maintaining a particular standard of living, usually measured by calculating the average cost of a number of goods and services. Measurement of the cost of a minimum standard of living is essential in determining relief payments, social-insurance benefits, and minimum wages. The cost of living is customarily measured by a Price Index such as the Consumer Price Index (See CPI). Measurements of change in the cost of living are important in wage negotiations. Cost-of-living measurements are also used to compare the cost of maintaining similar living standards in different areas.
Cost-Share Assistance: An assistance program offered by various state and federal agencies that pays a fixed rate or percentage of the total cost necessary to implement some forestry or agricultural practice.
Cotton: Seed-hair fibre of various plants of the genus Gossypium, in the Mallow Family, native to most subtropical countries. The shrubby plants produce creamy white flowers, followed by small green seedpods (cotton bolls), which contain the seeds. Fibres growing from the outer skin of the seeds become tightly packed within the boll, which bursts open at maturity to reveal soft masses of the white to yellowish white fibres. Cotton is harvested when the bolls open. One of the world’s leading agricultural crops, cotton is plentiful and economically produced, making cotton products relatively inexpensive. The fibres can be made into a diverse array of fabrics suitable for a great variety of apparel, home furnishings, and industrial uses. Cotton fabrics can be extremely durable and are comfortable to wear. Nonwoven cotton, made by fusing or bonding the fibres, is useful for making disposable products including towels, polishing cloths, tea bags, tablecloths, bandages, and disposable uniforms and sheets for hospital and other medical uses.
Cottonwood: Any of several fast-growing North American trees of the genus Populus. Members of the Willow family, cottonwoods have heartshaped, toothed leaves and cottony seeds. The dangling leaves clatter in the wind. The eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides) has thick glossy leaves. Carolina poplar (P. angulata) and P. eugenei may be natural hybrids between P. deltoides and the Eurasian black poplar (P. nigra). The Alamo, or Fremont cottonwood (P. fremontii), is the tallest of the group. (Pic) (See also Poplar)
Cotyledons: Seed leaf within the embryo of a seed that provides energy and nutrients for the developing seedling. After the first true leaves have formed, they wither and fall off. Flowering plants whose embryos have a single cotyledon are grouped as monocots, or monocotyledonous plants; embryos with two cotyledons are grouped as dicots, or dicotyledonous plants. Unlike flowering plants, Gymnosperms usually have several cotyledons rather than one or two. See illustration on opposite page. (Pic) (Pic at Acorn)
Counterfeiting: Crime of making an unauthorized imitation of a genuine article, typically money, with the intent to deceive or defraud. Because of the value conferred on money and the high level of technical skill required to imitate it, counterfeiting is singled out from other acts of Forgery. It is generally punished as a felony. The international police organization INTERPOL was established primarily to organize law-enforcement efforts against counterfeiting. Software, credit cards, designer clothing, and watches are among nonmoney items commonly counterfeited.
Coupe/ Felling area: 1. The area to be felled in any particular year is termed the annual ‘coupe’. These are numbered with Roman numerals. Eg i, ii, iii, iv, etc. 2. An area on which the trees have been, are being, or, are to be cut, commonly forming one of an annual succession is called coupe or felling area. (Dr. G.M. Khattack)
Course: Layer of bricks: one of the layers of bricks that make up a wall (Pic at header)
Cover: (a) Any plant that intercepts rain drops before they reach the soil or that holds soil in place. (b) A hiding place or vegetative shelter for wildlife from predators or inclement weather.
Cover crop: (Syn. green manure crop) A suitable herbaceous crop, particularly Fabaceae but also Cruciferae and Gramineae, grown to reduce erosion, increase soil fertility, reduce invasion of more competitive vegetation, provide wildlife habitat, or protect site; it can be dug or ploughed in while succulent, with or without supplementary fertilizers.
Cover density: See canopy density
Crab: Any of 4,500 species of short-tailed Decapod, found in all oceans, in freshwater, and on land. Its carapace (upper body shield) is usually broad, and its first pair of legs is modified into pincers. Most crabs live in the sea and breathe through gills, which in land crabs are modified to serve as lungs. They walk or crawl, generally with a sideways gait; some are good swimmers. Crabs are omnivorous scavengers, but many are predatory and some are herbivorous. Two of the largest known Crustaceans are the giant crab of Japan (13 ft, or 4 m, from claw tip to claw tip), a Spider Crab; and the Tasmanian crab (up to 18 in., or 46 cm, long, and weighing more than 20 lbs, or 9 kg). Other species are less than an inch long. Well-known crabs include the Hermit Crab, edible crab (Britain and Europe), Blue Crab, Dungeness Crab, Fiddler Crab, and King Crab.
Crane: Any of 15 species (family Gruidae) of tall wading birds that resemble Herons but are usually larger and have a partly naked head, a heavier bill, more-compact plumage, and an elevated hind toe. In flight, the long neck stretches out in front and the stiltlike legs trail behind. Cranes are found worldwide, living in marshes and on plains, except in South America. Many populations are endangered by hunting and habitat destruction. Cranes eat small animals, grain, and grass shoots. Two well known species are the Whooping Crane and the Sandhill Crane.
Crawler: The first instar motile nymphal stage of scale insects and mealybugs, which moves to a new feeding site before settling down to a sessile existence for the rest of its developmental life.
Creeper: A shoot that grows along the ground, rooting all along its length.
Crenate: Having rounded teeth along the margin.
Creosote: Either of two entirely different substances, distilled from coal tar or wood tar. Coal-tar creosote is a complex mixture of organic compounds, largely Hydrocarbons. It is a cheap water-insoluble wood preservative used for railroad ties, telephone poles, and marine pier pilings and as a disinfectant, fungicide, and biocide. Wood-tar creosote consists mainly of Phenols and related compounds and was once widely used for pharmaceutical purposes.
Crinkling: Bending or twisting of foliage without breaking; wrinkling.
Criterion Laser: A heavy height, diameter, and range measuring instrument. The Criterion uses laser light to determine distance from a tree. A built-in angle reader and a simple computer chip calculate tree height. (Pic)
Critical area: Land in Maryland that lies within 1,000 feet of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries and is subject to forestry and other land use regulations.
Crocodile: Any of about a dozen tropical reptile species (family Crocodilidae) found in Asia, the Australian region, Africa, Madagascar, and the Americas. Crocodiles are long-snouted, lizard like carnivores. Most feed on fishes, turtles, birds, and small mammals; large individuals may attack domestic livestock or humans. Crocodiles swim and feed in the water, floating at the surface to wait for prey, but bask in the sun and breed on land. They are reputed to be livelier than alligators and more likely to attack humans. They have a narrower snout than alligators and a tooth on each side of the jaw that is visible when the jaw is closed.
Crook: A defect in logs and poles or piling, consisting of an abrupt bend. Also refers to edgewise warp in a piece of lumber
Crop: 1. In agriculture, a plant or plant product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence. By use, crops fall into six categories: food crops, for human consumption (e.g., wheat, potatoes); feed crops, for livestock consumption (e.g., oats, alfalfa); fibre crops, for cordage and textiles (e.g., cotton, hemp); oil crops, for consumption or industrial uses (e.g., cottonseed, corn); ornamental crops, for landscape gardening (e.g., dogwood, azalea); and industrial and secondary crops, for various personal and industrial uses (e.g., rubber, tobacco). 2. The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop.
Crop age/ Stand age: The average age of the dominant and co-dominant trees in a crop or stand. (Syn: Mean age)
Crop duster: Usually, an aircraft used for dusting or spraying large acreages with pesticides, though other types of dusters are also employed. Aerial spraying and dusting permit prompt coverage of large areas at the moment when application of pesticide is most effective and avoid the need for wheeled vehicles that might damage crops. The technique was greatly improved in the 1960s with the development of ultra-low-volume applicators, in which concentrated pesticides are distributed in extremely small amounts. (See also Spraying and Dusting).
Crop planning: The process of custom designing the density of regeneration and the timing and intensity of stand-tending treatments to achieve site- and species-specific stand-management objectives as well as to attain forest-level management objectives.
Crop rotation: Successive cultivation of different Crops in a specified order on the same fields. Some rotations are designed for high immediate returns, with little regard for basic resources. Others are planned for high continuing returns while protecting resources. A typical scheme selects rotation crops from three classifications: cultivated row crops (e.g., corn, potatoes), close-growing grains (e.g., oats, wheat), and sod-forming, or rest, crops (e.g., clover, clover-timothy). In general, cropping systems should include deep-rooting Legumes. In addition to the many beneficial effects on soils and crops, well-planned crop rotations make the farm a more effective year-round enterprise by providing more efficient handling of labour, power, and equipment, reduction in weather and market risks, and improved ability to meet livestock requirements.
Crop tree: A tree selected in a young stand, to be retained until final harvest.
Cross-drain: A pipe placed under the road surface between major drainages, to collect water from the ditch line and deposit it on the lower side of the road.
Cross-fertilization: Fusion of male and female sex cells from different individuals of the same species. Cross-fertilization is necessary in animal and plant species that have male and female organs on separate individuals. Methods of cross-fertilization are diverse in animals. Among most species that breed in water, the males and females shed their sex cells into the water, where fertilization takes place outside the body. Among land breeders, fertilization is internal, with the sperm being introduced into the body of the female. By recombining genetic material from two parents, cross-fertilization maintains a greater range of variability for Natural Selection to act on, thereby increasing the capacity of a species to adapt to environmental change. (See also Self-fertilization).
Cross section: A section of a stem or leaf taken at right angles to its longitudinal axis
Crosstie: A square timber used for supporting railroad rails
Crotch: The fork of a tree or branch
Crow: Any of more than 20 species of black perching birds of the genus Corvus (family Corvidae) that are smaller than most Ravens and have a thinner bill. They are named for the sound of their call. Common crows are found in North America and Eurasia. They eat grain, berries, insects, carrion, and the eggs of other birds. Crows may damage grain crops, but they also eat many economically harmful insects. At times tens of thousands roost together, but most species do not nest in colonies. Crows are considered the most intelligent of all birds (tool use is documented), and pet crows can be taught to imitate speech. (Pic) Crown: The branches and foliage of a tree.
Crown class: A designation of trees in a forest with crowns of similar development and occupying similar positions in the crown cover. Differentiation into crown classes applies to even-aged stands and within small even aged groups in which trees in an uneven-aged stand are often arranged. A tree classification system based on the tree’s relative height, foliage density, and ability to intercept light. Crown-class measures past growth performance and calls attention to crop trees that could benefit from future thinning and harvest operations. There are four classifications: Dominant Trees – Larger-than-average trees with broad, well-developed crowns. These trees receive direct sunlight from all sides and above. Codominant Trees – Average-to-fairly large trees with medium-sized crowns that form the forest canopy. These trees receive full light from above but are crowded on the sides. Intermediate Trees – Medium-sized trees with small crowns below the general level of the canopy. Intermediate trees receive little direct light, are poor crop trees, and should be removed during thinning operations. Open grown – Trees with crowns receiving full light from all sides due to the openness of the canopy. Predominant: Trees whose crowns have grown above the general level of the upper canopy. Suppressed or Overtopped Trees – Small trees that grow below the tree canopy and receive no direct sunlight from any direction.
Crow-fly distance: The aerial distance of a map from one end to the other end. A crow-fly distance is used to find the altitudinal variations and topographic disturbances in an area. For instance the crow-fly distance of Pakistan is 1500 miles; there is a variation of about ± 10,000 m.
Crown cover/ Crown Closure: 1. The canopy of green leaves and branches formed by the crowns of all trees in a forest. Generally expressed as a percent of total area. 2. The percentage of a given area covered by tree crowns.
Crown closure class: Any interval into which the range of proportions of ground area covered by the vertically projected tree crown areas of a stand is divided for classification and use.
Crown cover: The ground area covered by the crowns of trees or woody vegetation as delimited by the vertical projection of crown perimeters and commonly expressed as a percentage of total ground area.
Crown density: The compactness of the crown cover of the forest; depends on the distance apart and the compactness of the individual crowns. A loose term combining the meanings of “crown closure” and “shade density.”
Crown fire: A fire that runs through the tops of living trees, brush, or chaparral
Crown forest: An area constituted by law as State property to be administered as a forest. A legal term in use in some countries. (Syn: State forest)
Crown pruning: 1. Natural: Removal or decadence of lateral live crown by wind, abrasion, reduced light, etc. 2. Cultural: Mechanical removal of branch ends to shape crowns for aesthetic appeal, e.g., for Christmas trees, bonsai, etc. In seed orchards, promoting cone or fruit production nearer the ground to facilitate collection or other operations.
Crown ratio or live-crown ratio: The ratio of the leaved portion of a tree’s height to its total height.
Crown thinning: See thinning: crown
Cruise: A forest survey used to obtain inventory information and develop a management plan; A survey of forestland to locate timber and estimate its quantity by species, products, size, quality, or other characteristics.
Cruising: Measuring standing trees to determine the volume of wood on a given tract of land. Used for harvesting, purchasing, and general management
Crummy: Crew bus that transports loggers or other woodworkers to and from the woods.
Crushing: The compaction of slash and brush by machinery. In Manitoba, the chopping of slash and provision of microsites are considered important features of this treatment.
Crust: 1. Outermost solid part of the Earth, essentially composed of a range of igneous and metamorphic rock types. In continental regions, the crust is made up chiefly of granitic rock, whereas the composition of the ocean floor corresponds mainly to that of basalt and gabbro. On average, the crust extends 22 mi (35 km) downward from the surface to the underlying mantle, from which it is separated by the Mohoroviric discontinuity (the Moho). The crust and top layer of the mantle together form the lithosphere. 2. The thin outer layer of the Earth’s surface, averaging 10 km (6 mi) thick under the oceans and up to 50 km (30 mi) thick on the continents. This is the only layer of the Earth that humans have actually seen.
Crustacean: Any member of the 45,000 arthropod species in the subphylum Crustacea. Distributed worldwide, crustaceans are distinguished by having two pairs of antenna-like appendages in front of the mouth and other paired appendages near the mouth that act like jaws. Most species are marine, including Shrimps and Barnacles. Some, including Crayfishes, live in freshwater habitats; others (e.g., Sand Fleas, land Crabs, and Sow Bugs) live in moist terrestrial environments. The typical adult body is composed of a series of segments (somites) either fused or linked to each other by flexible areas that form movable joints. The carapace (shell) varies in thickness among species and must be periodically molted to allow growth. Many species of marine crustaceans are scavengers, and many (including copepods and Krill) are significant components of the diets of larger organisms.
Cryptic: Hidden or concealed.
Crystal: Any solid material whose Atoms are arranged in a definite pattern and whose surface regularity reflects its internal symmetry. Each of a crystal’s millions of individual structural units (unit cells) contains all the substance’s atoms, molecules, or ions in the same proportions as in its chemical formula. The cells are repeated in all directions to form a geometric pattern, manifested by the number and orientation of external planes (crystal faces). Crystals are classified into seven crystallographic systems based on their symmetry: isometric, trigonal, hexagonal, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic. Crystals are generally formed when a liquid solidifies, a vapour becomes supersaturated (see Saturation), or a liquid solution can no longer retain dissolved material, which is then precipitated. Metals, Alloys, Minerals, and Semiconductors are all crystalline, at least microscopically. (A noncrystalline solid is called amorphous.) Under special conditions, a single crystal can grow to a substantial size; examples include gemstones and some artificial crystals. Few crystals are perfect; defects affect the material’s electrical behaviour and may weaken or strengthen it.
Crystal lattice: Three-dimensional configuration of points connected by lines used to describe the orderly arrangement of atoms in a crystal. Each point represents one or more atoms in the actual crystal. The lattice is divided into a number of identical blocks or cells that are repeated in all directions to form a geometric pattern. Lattices are classified according to their dominant symmetries: isometric, trigonal, hexagonal, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic. Compounds that exhibit a crystallattice structure include sodium chloride (table salt), cesium chloride, and boron nitride.
Crystallography: Branch of science that deals with discerning the arrangement and bonding of atoms in crystalline solids and with the geometric structure of Crystal Lattices. Classically, the optical properties of crystals were of value in mineralogy and chemistry for the identification of substances. Modern crystallography is largely based on the analysis of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals acting as optical gratings. Using X-ray crystallography, chemists are able to determine the internal structures and bonding arrangements of minerals and molecules, including the structures of large complex molecules such as proteins and DNA.
Cubic foot: A cube 12 in on a side. One cu ft of wood in a log usually produces from 3 to 10 board ft of lumber because of the cylindrical log shape and sawing losses
Cuckoo: Any of some 138 species of tree-dwelling and terrestrial birds of the family Cuculidae. They are found worldwide in temperate and tropical regions but are most diverse in the Old World tropics. New World species are sometimes classified as a separate family (Coccyzidae) and include the Roadrunner. Cuckoos range from 6.5 to 36 in. (16 to 90 cm) long. Most are drab gray, but a few are partially or completely brightly coloured or iridescent. Aside from the European cuckoo’s familiar two note call, cuckoos are best known for their habit of brood Parasitism; their eggs resemble those of the host species (egg mimicry), and the adult cuckoo removes one or more host eggs to ensure that the substitution is not detected. The newly hatched cuckoo may also eject eggs or nestlings. (Pic)
Cull: A tree or log of merchantable size rendered unmerchantable because of poor form, large limbs, rot, or other defects. In nursery practice, a seedling that does not match the grade or specifications.
Cull tree: A live tree of merchantable size but unmerchantable because of defects or decay.
Culm: The hollow stem of grasses and bamboos.
Cultivar: Any variety of a plant, originating through cloning or hybridization (see CLONE, HYBRID), known only in cultivation. In asexually propagated plants, a cultivar is a clone considered valuable enough to have its own name; in sexually propagated plants, a cultivar is a pure line (for self-pollinated plants) or, for cross-pollinated plants, a population that is genetically distinguishable.
Cultivation: Loosening and breaking up (tilling) of the soil. The soil around existing plants is cultivated (by hand using a hoe, or by machine using a cultivator) to destroy weeds and promote growth by increasing soil aeration and water infiltration. Soil being prepared for the planting of a crop is cultivated by a harrow or plow.
Cultural operations: A general term for operations, as a rule not directly remunerative, undertaken to assist or complete existing tree regeneration, to promote the development of a forest crop, and to minimize damage caused by felling and extraction.
Cultural practices: See cultural operations
Culture: Integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behaviour that is both a result of and integral to the human capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations. Culture thus consists of language, ideas, beliefs, customs, taboos, codes, institutions, tools, techniques, and works of art, rituals, ceremonies, and symbols. It has played a crucial role in Human Evolution, allowing human beings to adapt the environment to their own purposes rather than depend solely on Natural selection to achieve adaptive success. Every human society has its own particular culture, or sociocultural system. Variation among cultures is attributable to such factors as differing physical habitats and resources; the range of possibilities inherent in areas such as language, ritual, and social organization; and historical phenomena such as the development of links with other cultures. An individual’s attitudes, values, ideals, and beliefs are greatly influenced by the culture (or cultures) in which he or she lives. Culture change takes place as a result of ecological, socioeconomic, political, religious, or other fundamental factors affecting a society.
Culture contact: Contact between peoples with different cultures, usually leading to change in one or both systems. Forms of culture contact traditionally include acculturation, assimilation, and amalgamation. Acculturation is the process of change in material culture, traditional practices, and beliefs that occurs when one group interferes in the cultural system of another, directly or indirectly challenging the latter to adapt to the ways of the former. Such change has characterized most political conquests and expansions over the centuries. Assimilation is the process whereby individuals or groups of differing ethnicity are absorbed into the dominant culture of a society—though not always completely. In the U.S. millions of European immigrants became assimilated within two or three generations; factors included the upheaval of overseas relocation, the influences of the public school system, and other forces in American life. Amalgamation (or hybridization) occurs when a society becomes ethnically mixed in a way that represents a synthesis rather than the elimination or absorption of one group by another. In Mexico, for example, Spanish and Indian cultures became increasingly amalgamated over centuries of contact.
Cunit: A measurement equal to 100 cu ft of solid wood; often used for pulpwood measurement.
Currency: In industrialized nations, the portion of the national Money Supply (consisting of banknotes and government-issued paper money and coins) that does not require endorsement to serve as a medium of exchange. Since the abandonment of the Gold Standard, governments have not been obligated to repay the holders of currency in any form of precious metal. Consequently, the volume of currency has been determined by the actions of the government or Central Bank and not by the supply of precious metals. In less-developed societies, or in times of economic scarcity, items such as livestock or tobacco (cigarettes) may serve as currency.
Curvature: Measure of the rate of change of direction of a curved line or surface at any point. In general, it is the reciprocal of the radius of the circle or sphere of best fit to the curve or surface at that point. This notion of best fit derives from the principle that only one circle can be drawn through any three points, not on the same line. The radius of curvature at the middle point is approximately equal to the radius of that one circle. This calculation becomes more exact the closer the points are. The precise value is found using a Limit. Because a straight line can be thought of as an arc of a circle of infinite radius, its curvature is zero.
Custom: In law, a long-established practice common to many or to a particular place or institution and generally recognized as having the force of law. In England during the Anglo-Saxon period, local customs formed most laws affecting family rights, ownership and Inheritance, Contracts, and violence between individuals. The Norman conquerors granted the validity of customary law, adapting it to their feudal system. In the 13th and 14th centuries, English law was given statutory authority under the crown, making the “customs of the realm” England’s common law.
Cut-bark application: See basal bark treatment
Cuticle: The cuticle is a thin layer of waxy material composed of cutin that is secreted by the epidermal cells. All cells in the epidermis contain this, even the guard cells. It makes the cells water proof and protects the stem from a loss of water and invasion by fungal spores, insects, and bacteria. (Pic) (Pic at Bundle sheath)
Cutin: Cutin is the waxy material secreted by the epidermis that makes up the cuticle on the surface of the epidermis.
Cutover: An area of forest land from which some or all timber has recently been cut.
Cut-stump treatment: See stump treatment
Cutting: 1. In botany, a plant section originating from the Stem, Leaf, or Root and capable of developing into a new plant. The cutting is usually placed in warm, moist sand. Many plants, especially horticultural and garden varieties, are propagated through cuttings; by the use of new techniques, many other plants formerly not susceptible to propagation through cuttings have more successfully reproduced. The plants that develop from cuttings are Clones. (See also Graft, Layering). 2. The act of cutting down a standing tree. (syn. felling, falling)
Cutting age: (See: Exploitable age)
Cutting area: A portion of woodland on which timber is being cut or will be cut
Cutting Contract: A written, legally binding document used in the sale of standing timber. The contract specifies the provisions covering the expectations and desires of both buyer and seller.
Cutting cycle: The planned interval between major harvesting operations in the same stand. A-10 year cutting cycle indicates thinnings done once every 10 years.
Cutting regime: System of cutting treatments applied to a stand at a defined period.
Cutting section: Sub-division of a felling series formed with the object of regulating felling in some special manner. (BCFT)
Cutting series: (See: Felling series)
Cylinder: A cylinder can be described as a hollow rod-shaped structure. As we apply it to botanical structures, such as the vascular cambium, it is a thin band of meristem tissue that circles the entire stem and extends up and down the stem like a cylinder. In Anthoceros, a cylinder of sporogenous tissue is formed lengthwise in the sporophyte.
Cyme: A branding, relatively flat-topped flower cluster whose central or terminal flower opens first, forcing development of further flowers from lateral buds.
Cypress: Any of about 20 species of ornamental and timber evergreen Conifers constituting the genus Cupressus of the family Cupressaceae, which includes more than 130 species found throughout the world. The leaves are usually paired or in threes and are small and scalelike. A few of the many economically important genera in the cypress family are Cupressus, Thuja (Arborvitae), Calocedrus (incense cedar), and Juniperus (Juniper). Arborvitae, cypress, and juniper are especially important as timber sources or ornamentals. They also contain useful oils, resins, and tannins. (Pic)
Cytochrome: Any of a group of cell Proteins (hemoproteins) that serve a vital function in the transfer of energy within cells. Hemoproteins are linked to a nonprotein, iron-bearing component (a heme group), which can undergo the reversible Oxidation-Reduction Reactions that yield energy for the cell. Cytochromes are subdivided into three classes depending on what wavelengths of light they absorb. At least 30 different cytochromes have been identified.
Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm is the portion of the living cell that is contained within the lumen of the cell excluding the nucleus. The cytoplasm may also be described as the liquid portion of the cell with all of the various organelles embedded within this liquid matrix, excluding the matrix. Finally, the cytoplasm may be described as all the material inside the plasmalemma or cell membrane excluding the nucleus. (Pic) (Pic at cell wall)
Cytology: Study of Cells. Its earliest phase began with Robert Hooke’s microscopic investigations of cork in 1665, during which he introduced the term cell to describe dead cork cells. Mathias Jacob Schleiden (in 1838) and Theodor Schwann (1839) were among the first to state clearly that cells are the fundamental units of both plants and animals. This pronouncement (the cell theory) was confirmed and elaborated by a series of discoveries and interpretations. In 1892 Oscar Hertwig (1849–1922) suggested that processes at the organism’s level are reflections of cellular processes, thus establishing cytology as a separate branch of biology.
Cytosine: Organic compound of the Pyrimidine family, often called a base, consisting of a single ring, containing both nitrogen and carbon atoms, and an amino group. It occurs in combined form in nucleic acids and several Coenzymes. In DNA its complementary base is Guanine. It or its corresponding Nucleoside or Nucleotide may be prepared from DNA by selective techniques of hydrolysis
Cytoskeleton: System of microscopic filaments or fibres, present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells (see Eukaryote), that organizes other cell components, maintains cell shape, and is responsible for cell locomotion and for movement of the organelles within it. Three major types of filaments make up the cytoskeleton: actin filaments, Microtubules, and intermediate filaments. Actin filaments occur as constantly
changing bundles of parallel fibres; they help determine cell shape, help the cell adhere to surfaces, help the cell move, and assist in cell division during Mitosis. Intermediate filaments are very stable structures that form the cell’s true skeleton; they anchor the Nucleus within the cell and give the cell its elastic properties.
———- Corrections and Suggestions are most welcome. Please use the comment section for feedback. If you see any missing terminology or any updated one or any latest term please use the comment section for the purpose. Also, if you have any image or data related to any above terminologies, don’t forget to mail me at email@example.com. Regards Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani