Back cut: In the process of felling a tree, the final cut, made on the opposite side of the tree from the face cut (or undercut).
Backfire: Controlled fire set ahead of a forest fire to create a firebreak by reducing fuel in the path of the main fire.
Bacteria: [Mid-19th century. < Greek baktērion “little rod” (because the first ones discovered were rod-shaped) < baktron “rod”]microscopic life form: a single-celled, often parasitic microorganism without distinct nuclei or organized cell structures. Various species are responsible for decay, fermentation, nitrogen fixation, and many plant and animal diseases. Kingdom: Eubacteria. Anatomy of a Simple Bacterium: Bacteria cells typically are surrounded by a rigid, protective cell wall. The cell membrane, also called the plasma membrane, regulates passage of materials into and out of the cytoplasm, the semi-fluid that fills the cell. The DNA, located in the nucleoid region, contains the genetic information for the cell. Ribosomes carry out protein synthesis. Many bacteria contain a pilus (plural pili), a structure that extends out of the cell to transfer DNA to another bacterium. The flagellum, found in numerous species, is used for locomotion. Some bacteria contain a plasmid, a small chromosome with extra genes. Others have a capsule, a sticky substance external to the cell wall that protects bacteria from attack by white blood cells. Mesosomes were formerly thought to be structures with unknown functions, but now are know to be artifacts created when cells are prepared for viewing with electron microscopes. (Pic)
Bagasse: The pulp or dry refuse left after the juice has been extracted from sugar cane, grapes, or sugar beets. Use: fuel, cattle feed, making paper.
Balustrades: The framework consisting of handrail and balusters is called as balustrade.
Banding: A foliar symptom characterized by a limited zone of necrotic or discolored tissue traversing the leaf, e.g., the band of tissue on a pine needle injured by SO2 or 03
Bark: 1. In woody plants, tissues outside of the vascular cambium. The term is also used more popularly to refer to all tissues outside the wood. The inner soft bark is produced by the vascular cambium; it consists of secondary phloem (food-conducting) tissue whose innermost layer transports food from the leaves to the rest of the plant. The layered outer bark contains cork and old, dead phloem. The bark is usually thinner than the woody part of the stem or root. 2. Bark is the dead tissue of the stem that sloughs off or wears off, on the outside of the tree. Bark is different in the young stem than it is in the old stem. In the young stem, it is composed of phloem, cortex, cork, cork cambium, and epidermis. In the old stem, after the cortex and epidermis is gone, it consists of phloem, cork, cork cambium, and phelloderm. (Pic at cambium)
Bark beetle: Any member of the beetle family Scolytidae, many of which severely damage trees. Bark beetles are cylindrical, brown or black, and usually less than 0.25 in. (6 mm) long. A male and females (as many as 60 females with each male) bore into a tree and form a chamber where each female deposits her eggs. The emerging larvae bore away from the chamber, forming a characteristic series of tunnels. Different species attack particular trees, damaging roots, stems, seeds, or fruits. Some species transmit disease (e.g., elm bark beetles carry spores of the fungal dutch elm disease). (Pic)
Basal area: The cross-sectional area of the bole of a tree at breast height, 41/2 ft above the ground. Basal area = diameter of tree squared, times .005454. 2.For example, the basal area of a tree that measures 14 inches in diameter at breast height is about 1 square foot. (b) The sum basal areas of the individual trees within 1 acre of forest. For example, a well-stocked pine stand might have a basal area of 80 to 120 square feet per acre. (Pic Sectional area)
Basal injection: A treatment consisting of forcing a liquid or an encapsulated herbicide into the basal portion of a tree.
Basal rosette:Ground level ring of leaves (single or multiple layers) around the plant’s central stem where it joins the roots.
Basalt: Dark igneous rock that is low in silica content and comparatively rich in iron and magnesium. Some basalts are glassy (have no visible crystals), and many are very fine-grained and compact. Basaltic lavas may be spongy or pumice-like. Olivine and augite are the most common minerals in basalts; plagioclase is also present. Basalts may be broadly classified into two main groups. Calc-alkali basalts predominate among the lavas of mountain belts; the active volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea in Hawaii erupt calc-alkali lavas. Alkali basalts predominate among the lavas of the ocean basins and are also common in mountain belts.
Base: The base is the bottom of a plant organ. It typically refers to a leaf and is the end to which the petiole attaches.
Base year: The earliest year for which treatment activities are reported. The base year for national reporting is normally 1975.
Basic forest management: Extensive forest management plus artificial regeneration where necessary. (See: extensive forest management)
Basic silviculture: All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking.
Basic rocks: See Acid and Basic rocks
Basidialstage (basidium): A spore stage of the rust fungi; a specialized structure in the Basidiomycetes bearing basidiospores.
Basket planting: Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seedbed. Closely allied is boxplanting using various types of wooden boxes.
Bathometer: An instrument for measuring the depth of a body of water.
Bats: The portion made by cutting standard bricks across their width. (See also Closers)
Bearing: 1. Calculation of direction or geographic position: the location or direction of movement of somebody or something, calculated using a map or compass 2. Support for beam: a support for a beam or girder
Bearing capacity: The maximum load which the soil can take per unit area without yielding or displacement usu expressed in tonne per squire meter (See also: Safe bearing capacity, Factor of safety, Ultimate bearing capacity)
Bearing wall/load-bearing wall: Wall that carries the load of floors and roof above in addition to its own weight. The traditional masonry bearing wall is thickened in proportion to the forces it has to resist: its own weight, the dead load of floors and roof, the live load of people, as well as the lateral forces of arches, vaults, and wind. Such walls may be much thicker toward the base, where maximum loads accumulate. Bearing walls may also be framed and sheathed or constructed of reinforced concrete.
Bedding: Land prepared before planting in the form of small mounds. The prepared land concentrates topsoil and elevates the root zone of seedlings above temporary standing water. Fertilizer is often incorporated into the bedding.
Bedrock: Underlying rock: the solid rock beneath a layer of soil, rock fragments, or gravel (Pic at Soil Horizon)
Bee: Any of some 20,000 insect species belonging to the superfamily Apoidea (order hymenoptera), including the familiar bumblebee. Adults range in size from about 0.08 to 1.6 in. (2 mm–4 cm). Bees are related to Wasps, but, unlike wasps, which can eat other insects, most bees are entirely dependent on flowers for their food. Male bees are usually short-lived and never collect pollen; female bees make and provision the nest and usually have special anatomical structures for carrying pollen. Most species are solitary. The so-called killer bee, an Africanized subspecies of Apis mellifera (see honeybee), reached the U.S. from Mexico c. 1990; killer bees react quickly and attack in number. (Pic)
Beat: It is the sum of compartments usually 4 to 5. Beat Officer or Forest Guard supervises beat.
Beekeeping or apiculture: Care and manipulation of honeybees to enable them to produce and store more honey than they need so that the excess can be collected. Beekeeping is one of the oldest forms of animal husbandry. Early efforts at collecting the honey required destroying the hive; modern beekeepers use an extractor that empties the cells of the honeycomb without damaging them. To collect honey, beekeepers need a veiled helmet for protection, a tool for cutting comb, and a smoker for tranquilizing the bees. Maintaining the hive includes protecting the colony against diseases, parasites, and predators. (See Apiculture)
Beetle: Any of at least 250,000 species of insects constituting the order Coleoptera (the largest order in the animal kingdom), characterized by special forewings, called elytra, which are modified into hardened covers over a second pair of functional wings. Beetles occur in almost all environments except Antarctica and the peaks of the highest mountains. Temperate zones have fewer beetle species than the tropics but in greater numbers. The smallest species are less than 0.04 in. (1 mm) long; the largest can exceed 8 in. (20 cm). Most beetles eat either other animals or plants; some eat decaying matter. Some species destroy crops, timber, and textiles and spread parasitic worms and diseases. Others are valuable predators of insect pests. Some beetles are known by other common names (e.g., borer, chafer, curculio, firefly, weevil). Beetles are preyed on by other insects and by bats, swifts, and frogs.
Behaviour genetics: Study of the influence of an organism’s genetic composition on its behaviour and of the interaction of heredity and environment (“nature” and “nurture”) in determining behaviour. The first scientist to explore the area was Sir Francis Galton, who sought to show that mental powers run in families. His work was followed by huge numbers of studies seeking to establish a link between IQ and genetics, none of them conclusive. Other human characteristics or behaviours studied for their possible hereditary nature include schizophrenia, alcoholism, depression, introvertandextravert behaviour, and general activity level (including sleep disorders). Many such studies are based on long-term observation of identical (monozygotic) twins raised in different environments. In animal studies, which examine topics such as learning, sexualactivity, and aggressive behaviour, selective breeding is used to produce groups of genetically similar individuals that may be compared with other, dissimilar individuals or groups.
Berry: Simple, fleshy fruit that usually has many seeds (e.g., the banana, tomato, or cranberry). The middle and inner layers of the fruit wall often are not distinct from each other. Any small, fleshy fruit is popularly called a berry, especially if it is edible. Raspberries, blackberries, and strawberries are not true berries, but rather aggregate fruits—fruits that consist of multiple smaller fruits. The ‘date’ is a one-seeded berry whose stone is hard nutritive tissue.
Bias: A systematic distortion in a measurement or estimate
Biennial: Any plant that completes its life cycle in two growing seasons. During the first growing season biennials produce roots, stems, and leaves; during the second they produce flowers, fruits, and seeds, and then die. Sugar beets and carrots are examples of biennials. (See also Annual, Perennial). (Pic)
Bifacialnecrosis: Death of plant tissues, extending from the upper to the lower leaf surface.
Big bang: Model of the origin of the universe, which holds that it emerged from a state of extremely high temperature and density in an explosive expansion 10 billion–15 billion years ago. Its two basic assumptions—that Albert Einstein’s general theory of Relativity correctly describes the gravitational interaction of all matter and that an observer’s view of the universe does not depend on direction of observation or on location—make it possible to calculate physical conditions in the universe back to a very early time called the Planck time (after Max Planck).
According to the model proposed by George Gamow in the 1940s, the universe expanded rapidly from a highly compressed early state, with a steady decrease in density and temperature. Within seconds, matter predominated over Antimatter and certain nuclei formed. It took another million years before atoms could form and electromagnetic radiation could travel through space unimpeded. The abundances of hydrogen, helium, and lithium and the discovery of cosmic background radiation support the model, which also explains the REDSHIFTs of the light from distant galaxies as resulting from the expansion of space.
Big tree or giant sequoia or Sierra redwood: Coniferous evergreen (Sequoiadendron giganteum) found in scattered groves on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada range of California, U.S. The largest of all trees in bulk, the big tree is distinguished from the coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) by having uniformly scalelike, or awl-shaped, leaves that lie close against the branches, scaleless winter buds, and cones requiring two seasons to mature. The pyramidal tree shape, reddish-brown furrowed bark, and drooping branches are common to both genera. The largest specimen (in total bulk) is the General Sherman tree in SequoiaNationalPark—101.5 ft (31 m) in circumference at its base, 272.4 ft (83 m) tall, and weighing an estimated 6,167 tons (5,593 metric tons). Because big-tree lumber is more brittle than redwood lumber and thus less desirable, the big tree has been easier to preserve; though some groves have been cut, most of the 70 remaining groves are now protected by state or national forests or parks.
Bighorn or mountain sheep: Stocky, climbing hoofed mammal (Ovis canadensis) of western North America. Both sexes have horns that in the male may curve in a spiral more than 39 in. (1 m) long. Their fur is usually brown with a whitish rump patch. The related thinhorn, or Dall’s sheep (O. dalli), of Alaska and Canada is similar to the bighorn. Both species are about 39 in. (1 m) tall at the shoulder, but the bighorn is heavier, weighing up to 300 lb (136 kg). They live in small groups among remote crags and cliffs of mountainous areas and feed mainly on grasses. Bighorn rams compete for females by launching themselves at each other from a few yards’ distance and clashing horns. (Pic)
Billet: A log having a diameter greater than 8 in. from thin end side and a length of less than 8 ft. (Compare Timber)
Biltmore stick: A stick graduated in such a way that the diameter of a standing tree may be estimated when the stick is held out at right angles to the main axis of the tree, and at a distance from the eye for which the stick is graduated (usually 25 in).
Binomial nomenclature: System of naming organisms in which each organism is indicated by two words, the genus (capitalized) and species (lowercase) names, both written in italics. For example, the tea rose is Rosa indica; the common horse is Equus caballus. The system was developed by CarolusLinnaeus in the mid 18th century. The number of binomial names proliferated as new species were established and more categories were formed, and by the late 19th century the nomenclature of many groups of organisms was confused. International committees in the fields of zoology, botany, bacteriology, and virology have since established rules to clarify the situation. (See also Taxonomy).
Binomial theorem: In algebra, a formula for expansion of the binomial (x + y) raised to any positive integer power. A simple case is the expansion of (x + y)2, which is x2 + 2xy + y2. In general, the expression (x + y)n expands to the sum of (n + 1)terms in which the power of x decreases from n to 0 while the power of y increases from 0 to n in successive terms. The terms can be represented in factorial notation by the expression [n!/((n − r)!r!)]xn − ryr in which r takes on integer values from 0 to n.
Biochemistry: Field of science concerned with chemical substances and processes that occur in plants, animals, and microorganisms. It involves the quantitative determination and structural analysis of the organic compounds that make up cells (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) and of those that play key roles in chemical reactions vital to life (e.g., nucleic acids, vitamins, and hormones). Biochemists study cells’ many complex and interrelated chemical changes. Examples include the chemical reactions by which proteins and all their precursors are synthesized, food is converted to energy (see metabolism), hereditary characteristics are transmitted (see heredity), and energy is stored and released, and all biological chemical reactions are catalyzed. Biochemistry straddles the biological and physical sciences and uses many techniques common in medicine and physiology as well as those of Organic, Analytical, and Physical Chemistry.
Biodegradability: Capacity of a material to decompose by biological action. The term usually refers to the environmental breakdown of waste by microorganisms. Generally, plant and animal products are biodegradable, whereas mineral substances (e.g., metals, glass, plastics) are not. Local conditions, especially the presence or absence of oxygen, affect biodegradability. Disposal of nonbiodegradable waste is a primary source of pollution. Surgical materials made to be absorbed by the body are also called biodegradable.
Biodiversity: Quantity of plant and animal species found in a given environment. Sometimes habitat diversity (the variety of places where organisms live) and genetic diversity (the variety of traits expressed within a species) are also considered types of biodiversity. The estimated 3–30 million species on Earth are divided unequally among the world’s habitats, with 50–90% of the world’s species living in tropical regions. The more diverse a habitat, the better chance it has of surviving a change or threat to it, because it is more likely to be able to make a balancing adjustment. Habitats with little biodiversity (e.g., Arctic tundra) are more vulnerable to change. The 1992 EarthSummit resulted in a treaty for the preservation of biodiversity.
Bioengineering: Application of engineering principles and equipment to biology and medicine. It includes the development and fabrication of life-support systems for underwater and space exploration, devices for medical treatment, and instruments for monitoring biological processes. Development has been particularly rapid in the area of artificial organs, which culminated in the implantation of an artificialheart into a human being in 1982. Bioengineers also develop equipment that enables humans to maintain body functions in hostile environments, such as the space suits worn by astronauts during extravehicular maneuvers.
Bioindicatorspecies – Species, varieties, or cultivars sufficiently sensitive to a specific pollutant to be useful as indicators for the presence of that pollutant.
Biological control: Control of plants, diseases, and animal pests by the use of natural enemies.
Biological diversity: The variety of life forms in a given area. Diversity can be categorized in terms of the number of species, the variety in the area’s plant and animal communities, the genetic variability of the animals, or a combination of these elements.
Biological warfare or germ warfare: Military use of disease-producing or poisonous agents, and the means for defending against such agents. Biological warfare agents include many bacteria, such as those which cause anthrax, brucellosis, and typhus; viruses that cause diseases such as equine encephalitis; fungi such as rice blast, cereal rust, wheat smut, and potato blight; and toxins such as botulinum and ricin that are extracted from living organisms. Biological warfare dates from ancient times when warring groups would try to poison enemy soldiers with rotting or diseased corpses, infect cattle and horses, or spread contagion through civilian populations. Following the horrors of World War I, a 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibited the use of biological agents in warfare; however, this did not prevent Japan from using them in China during World War II. During the Cold War the Soviet Union, as well as the U.S. and its allies, built huge stockpiles of biological agents. Both sides signed the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, which prohibits the production, stockpiling, or development of biological weapons and requires the destruction of existing stockpiles, but the Soviets conducted a clandestine program until the 1990s. Biological weapons programs can be concealed easily, and the 1972 convention contains no provisions for inspection and reporting. As a result, many states have been suspected of developing biological warfare agents, and some modern armed forces have prepared defensive measures. These include battlefield sensors, protective garments and masks, sterilizing agents, and vaccines.
Biology: Study of living things and their vital processes. An extremely broad subject, biology is divided into branches. The current approach is based on the levels of biological organization involved (e.g., molecules, cells, individuals, populations) and on the specific topic under investigation (e.g., structure and function, growth and development). According to this scheme, biology’s main subdivisions include morphology, physiology, taxonomy, embryology, genetics, and ecology, each of which can be further subdivided. Alternatively, biology can be divided into fields especially concerned with one type of living thing; for example, botany (plants), zoology (animals), ornithology (birds), entomology (insects), mycology (fungi), microbiology (microorganisms), and bacteriology (bacteria).
Biomass: 1. The sum total of biological material that exists on a given land area. For trees and plants, this can include leaves, branches, stems, and roots. 2. Weight or total quantity of living organisms of one animal or plant species (species biomass) or of all the species in the community (community biomass), commonly referred to as a unit area or volume of the habitat. The biomass in an area at a given moment is the standing crop.
Biome: 1. A division of the world’s vegetation that corresponds to a defined climate and is characterized by specific types of plants and animals, e.g. tropical rainforest or desert.
Biome, also known as life zones, all plants, animals, and other organisms, as well as the physical environment in a particular area form a biome. 2. Largest geographic biotic unit, a major community of plants and animals with similar requirements of environmental conditions. It includes various communities and developmental stages of communities and is named for the dominant type of vegetation, such as grassland or coniferous forest. Several similar biomes constitute a biome type; for example, the temperate deciduous forest biome type includes the deciduous forest biomes of Asia, Europe, and North America. The standard European term for biome is “major life zone.” (Pic)
Biosolids: Sewage sludge, the residues remaining from the treatment of sewage. For use as a fertilizer in agricultural applications, biosolids must first be stabilized through processing, such as digestion or the addition of lime, to reduce concentrations of heavy metals and harmful organisms (certain bacteria, Viruses, and other pathogens). This processing also reduces the volume of material and stabilizes the organic matter in it, thus reducing the potential for odours. Use of biosolids in agriculture has become controversial, critics claiming that even treated sewage may harbour harmful bacteria, viruses, and heavy metals.
Biosphere: 1. Earth’s zone of air, soil, and water that is capable of supporting life traditionally thought of as a zone reaching about 10 km (about 6 mi) into the atmosphere and down to the deepest ocean floor is known to be as Biosphere. (See Ecosphere) 2. A relatively thin life-supporting stratum of the earth’s surface, extending from a few miles into the atmosphere to the deep-sea vents of the oceans. The biosphere is a global ecosystem that can be broken down into regional or local ecosystems, or biomes. Organisms in the biosphere are classified into trophic levels (see Food chain) and communities.
Biotechnology: Application to industry of advances made in the biological sciences. The growth of the field is linked to the development in the 1970s of Genetic Engineering and to the 1980 U.S. Supreme Court decision that “a live human-made microorganism is a patentable matter,” which resulted in the establishment of numerous commercial biotechnology firms that manufacture genetically engineered substances for a variety of mostly medical, agricultural, and ecological uses. Biotic factors: [Early 17th century. Via late Latin < Greek biōtikos “of life, lively” < bios “life”] factors that are relating to life and living organisms, or caused by living organisms. The influence of man alone is termed as anthropogenic factor.
Bioticpathogen: A living organism capable of inciting disease, e.g., fungi, bacteria, viruses, etc
Bipinnate: Pinnate, with pinnate leaflets.
Birch: Any of about 40 species of short-lived ornamental and timber trees and shrubs of the genus Betula, the largest genus of the family Betulaceae, which also contains Alders, Filberts, Carpinus (hornbeam), and the genera Ostrya and Ostryopsis. Birches are found throughout cool regions of the Northern Hemisphere; other members of the family Betulaceae are found in temperate and subarctic areas of the Northern Hemisphere, in tropical mountains, and in South America through the Andes as far south as Argentina. Leaves are simple, serrate, and alternate; male and female flowers (Catkins) are borne on the same plant. The fruit is a small NUT or short-winged samara (dry, winged fruit). Birches produce economically important timber. Oil obtained from birch twigs smells and tastes like wintergreen and is used in tanning Russian leather.
Bison: Either species (genus Bison) of oxlike bovid with a convex forehead and a pronounced shoulder hump. Its dark brown, coarse hair is especially long on the head, which is held low, and on the neck and shoulders. Both sexes bear heavy, curved horns. A mature bull stands about 6.5 ft (2 m) at the shoulder and weighs more than 1,980 lb (900 kg). Bison live in herds. The American bison (B. bison), commonly called BUFFALO, was abundant over most of North America when Europeans arrived. Uncontrolled hunting drove it nearly to extinction by 1900, but it has since recovered. The European bison (B. bonasus) is similar and survives only in a few managed herds. (Pic)
Bird: Any of the warm-blooded, beaked vertebrates of the class Aves, including more than 9,600 living species. A covering of feathers distinguishes birds from all other animals. Birds have a four-chambered heart (like Mammals), forelimbs modified into Wings, and keen vision, and their eggs have calcium-rich eggshells. Their sense of smell is not highly developed. Birds are found almost worldwide in diverse habitats on both land and water. Dietary preferences and nest structure vary widely. Almost all species incubate their eggs. Flying birds have evolved skeletons in which part of the bone is replaced by air spaces, an adaptation for reducing weight. The crop, an enlarged part of the esophagus used for temporary food storage, enables birds to feed while in flight. Humans use wild and domesticated birds and their eggs for food, hunt wild birds for sport and use feathers for decoration and insulation. More than 1,000 extinct species of bird have been identified from fossil remains; the earliest fossil bird known is Archaeopteryx. (Pic)
Bitumen: Mixture of tarlike hydrocarbons derived from petroleum. Black or brown, it varies from viscous to solid; the solid form is usually called asphalt. Bitumen occurs in nearly every part of the world and in nearly the whole range of geologic strata. The term may also refer to synthetic hydrocarbon compounds.
Black bear: Forest-dwelling BEAR (Ursus americanus) that, despite reductions in population and range, is still the most common North American bear. The adult ranges from 5 to 6 ft (150–180 cm) in length and weighs 200–600 lbs (90–270 kg). It has various colour morphs but always a brown face and usually a white chest mark. It eats animals and vegetation, including pinecones, berries, and roots. It frequently raids campsites and seizes anything edible. Though it may be tamed and taught tricks, it often becomes dangerous when mature. (Pic) Blackberry: Usually prickly, fruit-bearing bush of the genus Rubus, in the rose family, native chiefly to northern temperate regions. The blackberry is abundant in eastern North America and on the Pacific coast; in Europe, it is common in thickets and hedges. It’s usually biennial, prickly, and erect, semierect, or trailing stems bear leaves with usually three or five oval, coarsely toothed, stalked leaflets; white, pink, or red flowers in terminal clusters; and black or red-purple aggregate fruits. The several trailing species are commonly called Dewberries. Blackberries are a fairly good source of iron and vitamin C. (Pic)
Black cotton soil: A type of soil which of inorganic in nature, occurring mostly in Central or Western India. Syn: Peat or Bungum
Black Forest German Schwarzwald: Mountain region, Baden-Wurttemberg, southwestern Germany. It extends in a fairly narrow strip about 100 mi (160 km) along the eastern bank of the upper Rhine River, from the Neckar River to the Swiss border. Its highest peak is Feldberg, at 4,897 ft (1,493 m). Its name comes from its dark interior, the higher parts being thickly forested with fir and pine. It is the source of the Neckar and Danube rivers. The setting of many of the Grimm brothers’ fairy tales, it is famed for the beauty and charm of its villages and rolling hills. Winter sports are prominent in the area, which also has many mineral springs and watering places, including the spa town of Baden-Baden.
Black Hills: Group of mountains in western South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming, U.S. Occupying about 6,000 sq mi (15,540 sq km), they lie between the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche rivers and rise to a maximum elevation of 7,242 ft (2,207 m) at Harney Peak. Their name refers to the dark appearance that their rounded hilltops and well-forested slopes present at a distance. The Sioux Indians were guaranteed treaty rights to the region in 1868; however, the discovery of gold in 1874 led to an influx of white miners and to the Black Hills War (1876), including the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Tourist attractions include the mining town of Deadwood, Mount Rushmore and Jewel Cave National Monuments, Wind Cave National Park, and Custer State Park, all in South Dakota, and Devils Tower National Monument in Wyoming.
Black hole: Cosmic body with gravity so intense that nothing, not even light, can escape. It is suspected to form in the death and collapse of a star that has retained at least three times the Sun’s mass. Stars with less mass evolve into White dwarf Stars or Neutron Stars. Details of a black hole’s structure are calculated from Albert Einstein’s general theory of Relativity: a “singularity” of zero volume and infinite density pulls in all matter and energy that comes within an Event Horizon, defined by the Schwarzschild radius, around it. Black holes cannot be observed directly because they are small and emit no light. However, their enormous gravitational fields affect nearby matter, which is drawn in and emits X rays as it collides at high speed outside the event horizon. Some black holes may have non-stellar origins. Astronomers speculate that super-massive black holes at the centers of Quasars and many galaxies are the source of energetic activity that is observed. Stephen W. Hawking theorized the creation of numerous tiny black holes, possibly no more massive than an asteroid, during the Big Bang (See Big band). These primordial “mini black holes” lose mass over time and disappear as a result of Hawking Radiation. Although black holes remain theoretical, the case for their existence is supported by many observations of phenomena that match their predicted effects.
Black sand: Accumulation of fragments of durable, usually dark, heavy minerals (those with a density greater than that of quartz). These accumulations are found in streambeds or on beaches where stream flow and wave energy are sufficient to carry away low-density material but not the heavy minerals. Thus, heavy minerals resistant to weathering and abrasion concentrate in these areas, though they may be only minor constituents of inland rocks. Placer mining of such deposits yields magnetite, cassiterite, and zircon, as well as gold, platinum, and other rare metals.
Black Sea: Sea between Europe and Asia. Bordered by Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria, and Romania, it has a maximum depth of 7,250 ft (2,210 m). The Black Sea proper has an area of 163,000 sq mi (422,000 sq km). It is connected with the Aegean Sea through the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, and with the Sea of Azov by Kerch Strait. It receives many rivers, including the Danube, Dniester, Bug, Dnieper, Kuban, Kizil, and Sakarya. The Crimean Peninsula extends into it from the north. Created when structural upheavals in Asia Minor split off the Caspian basin from the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea gradually became isolated; salinity is now less than half that of the world’s oceans. Though long popular for its resorts, it has suffered severe pollution in recent decades.
Blade: The blade is one of the structures that make up a leaf. It is the flat expanded portion of the leaf. Leaf blade is synonymous with leaflamina. (Pic)
Blading: Using the straight blade of a crawler tractor or similar equipment to remove coarse woody debris and thick duff off the site to create planting lines or spots.
Blank: Any forest area in a crop or stand that has remained virtually unstocked, more particularly in plantations. A planting point where the tree has failed or is missing.
Block: It is the combinations of beats. Block Officer or Forester supervises it. (See Beat)
Blaze: A mark placed on a standing tree to call special attention to the tree.
Bleaching: Loss of normal color, tending toward white, cream, or tan coloration.
Blight: Any of various plant diseases whose symptoms include sudden and severe yellowing, browning, spotting, withering, or dying of leaves, flowers, fruit, stems, or the entire plant. Usually, the shoots and other young, rapidly growing tissues of a plant are attacked. Most blights are caused by bacteria or fungi (see Fungus); some result from drought. Fungal and bacterial blights are most likely under cool, moist conditions. Most economically important plants are susceptible to one or more blights. Measures taken to fight blight include destroying the infected plant parts; using disease-free seed or stock and resistant varieties; rotating crops (see crop rotation); pruning and spacing plants for better air circulation; controlling pests that carry the fungus from plant to plant; avoiding overhead watering and working among wet plants; and, where needed, applying fungicides or antibiotics. Maintaining sanitary conditions is the most important measure for stopping the spread of the infestation.
Blister rust: Any of several diseases of Pines, caused by rust fungi (see Fungus) of the genus Cronartium. Blister rust affects sapwood (see Wood) and inner bark and produces external blisters from which additional spores of the fungus are released and Resin oozes, forming characteristic hardened masses on the trunk. It affects pines of all ages and sizes, retarding growth and weakening stems as it spreads along the trunk, sometimes killing the tree; young trees are killed more quickly than older ones. Measures taken to fight blister rust include growing resistant varieties, destroying nearby alternative host plants, observing strict sanitation measures, and spraying with Fungicides.
Block: An area of land or timber that has been defined for management purposes. One block may be composed of stands of different species or ages.
Block cutting: Removal of the crop in blocks in one or more operations, generally for wildlife management purposes, encouraging regeneration, or protecting fragile sites.
Bloom: A powdery, whitish coating on leaves, stems, or fruit. Blow down: Trees that have been knocked over by the wind.
Bluebell: Any plant of the genus Endymion, in the Lily family, native to Eurasia. Bluebell, or wild hyacinth (E. nonscriptus), and Spanish bluebell (E. hispanicus), bearing clusters of bell-shaped blue flowers, are cultivated as garden ornamentals; some authorities place them in the related genus Scilla of the same family. Many other plants are commonly known as bluebells, including species of the genera Campanula, Eustoma, Polemonium, and Clematis. In the U.S. the name bluebell is usually reserved for Mertensia virginica. (Pic) Blue stain: A fungus discoloration, predominantly bluish, but sometimes grayish, blackish, or brownish in appearance; confined almost exclusively to sapwood; common in pines. Blue whale: Mottled, blue-gray baleen whale (Balaenoptera musculus), also called sulfur-bottom whale because of the yellowish diatoms on some individuals. The largest of all animals, the blue whale reaches a maximum length of about 100 ft (30 m) and a maximum weight of 150 tons (136,000 kg). It is found alone or in small groups in all oceans. In summer it feeds on krill in polar waters, and in winter it moves toward the equator to breed. It was once the most important of the commercially hunted baleen whales, and its populations were greatly reduced. Listed as an endangered species, it is now protected.
Blume Leiss: A height measuring instrument of medium size and weight. It is robust and only moderately expensive. Heights above and below the observer’s eye can be read directly from the scale if the observer is 15, 20, 30 or 40 m from the tree. (Pic)
B.M. Bench mark, a point of known elevation usually referenced to sea level.
Board foot. A volume measure of lumber, being I ft wide, I ft long, and I inch thick (12 in x 12 in x I in = 144 cu in).
Bodhi tree or bo tree: In Buddhism, the fig tree under which the Buddha sat when he attained enlightenment (Bodhi) at Bodh Gaya (near Gaya India). The tree growing on the site now is believed to be a descendant of the original, planted from a cutting of a tree in Sri Lanka that had been propagated from the original; both trees are sites of pilgrimage for Buddhists. The bo tree or a representation of its leaf has often been used as a symbol of the Buddha.
Body waves: A seismic wave that can travel through the interior of the earth. P-waves and S-waves are body waves.
Bohemian Forest German Bohmer Wald: Mountain range, central Europe. It lies along the boundary between Bavaria (Germany) and Bohemia (Czech Republic), extending northwestsoutheast from the Ohre River to the Danube River valley in Austria. Its highest point, the Arber, rises 4,780 ft (1,457 m). It is the source of the Vltava (Moldau) River.
Bole: The main trunk of a tree.
Bolts (bolt wood): Short material to go into turned wood products: furniture parts, shingles, shakes, arrows, etc.
Bond: The arrangement of bricks or stones in each layer so as to avoid continuity of vertical joints in any two adjacent courses both on the face and inside of a masonry structure.
Bonsai: (Japanese: “tray planting”) Living dwarf tree or trees; also, the art of training and growing them in containers. Bonsai specimens are ordinary trees and shrubs, not hereditary dwarfs; they are dwarfed by a system of pruning roots and branches and training branches by tying them with wire. The art originated in China but has been pursued and developed primarily by the Japanese. The direct inspiration for bonsai is found in nature, in trees that grow in harsh, rocky places and are dwarfed and gnarled throughout their existence. Prized characteristics are an aged-looking trunk and branches and weathered-looking exposed upper roots. Bonsai may live for a century or more and are handed down from one generation to another as valued family possessions. Bonsai pots, usually earthenware and of variable shape, are carefully chosen to harmonize in colour and proportion with the tree. A sizable bonsai industry exists as part of the nursery industry in Japan; California is home to a small-scale bonsai industry. (Pic)
Boomer: (See: Mountain beaver)
Boots: Firefighters wear all leather boots to protect their feet on the fireline and rugged terrain.
Border Parenchyma: The border parenchyma are transfer cells that cover the free open ends of the veinlets in the leaf. They look like parenchyma but function as transfer cells, picking up glucose from the leaf mesophyll, putting two glucose molecules together to form a sucrose molecule and then dumping the sucrose molecule into the sieve-tube member.
Bordered Pits: Bordered pits are pits that have the secondary cell wall extending over the pit with a small hole in the secondary cell wall to let the water pass through. When looking at a bordered pit under the microscope, it has the appearance of a donut. The hole of the donut is the pore and the outer ring of the donut is the margin of the bordered pit. (Pic) Borrow pit: In road building, an area where fill material is “borrowed,” and used in road sections where the normal excavation process does not generate adequate fill material. Botanical garden or botanic garden: Originally, a collection of living plants designed to illustrate relationships within plant groups. Most modern botanical gardens are concerned primarily with exhibiting ornamental plants in a scheme that emphasizes natural relationships.Adisplay garden of mostly woody plants (shrubs and trees) is often called an arboretum. The botanical garden as an institution can be traced to ancient China and many Mediterranean countries, where such gardens were often centers for raising plants used for food and medicines. Botanical gardens are also reservoirs of valuable heritable characteristics, potentially important in the breeding of new varieties of plants. Still another function is the training of gardeners. The world’s most famous botanical garden is KewGardens.
Botany: Branch of biology that deals with plants, including the study of the structure, properties, and biochemical processes of all forms of plant life, as well as plant classification, plant diseases, and the interactions of plants with their physical environment. The science of botany traces back to the ancient Greco-Roman world but received its modern impetus in Europe in the 16th century, mainly through the work of physicians and herbalists, who began to observe plants seriously to identify those useful in medicine. Today the principal branches of botanical study are morphology, physiology, ecology, and systematics (the identification and ranking of all plants). Subdisciplines include bryology (the study of mosses and liverworts), pteridology (the study of ferns and their relatives), paleobotany (the study of fossil plants), and palynology (the study of modern and fossil pollen and spores). (See also Forestry, Horticulture).
Box pruning: Lateral root pruning on four sides of nursery stock in situ. Previous undercutting is usually implicit.
Bract: Modified, usually small, leaflike structure often positioned beneath a flower or inflorescence. What are often taken to be the petals of flowers are sometimes bracts—for example, the large, colourful bracts of Poinsettias or the showy white or pink bracts of Dogwood blossoms.
Branched: Many different plant entities branch in one way or another. However, when we talk of branching, we typically think of stems, rhizomes or trichomes that branch. There are several types of branching that refers to stems and rhizomes: dichotomous, monopodial, or sympodial. Branched hairs or trichomes are hairs that are not simple but branch in some way. For branching hairs we have no fancy terms that describe their branching that we feel is important to beginning botany students.
Breast height: 4.5 ft (1.37 m) above ground level. d.b.h. (or dbh). The diameter of a tree outside of the bark at roughly breast height. Normally measured 4.5 ft off the ground on the uphill side of the tree. It is easier to measure at this height, and many trees have large swells in the stem below this point that could increase errors in computing tree volumes.
Breeding: Application of genetic principles in animal husbandry, agriculture, and horticulture to improve desirable qualities. Ancient agriculturists improved many plants through selective cultivation. Modern plant breeding centers on pollination; pollen from the chosen male plant, and no other pollen, must be transferred to the female plant. Animal breeding consists of choosing the ideal trait (e.g., fine wool, high milk production), selecting the breeding stock, and determining the mating system (e.g., whether mating animals are unrelated, mildly related, or highly inbred).
Brick: A rectangular block of clay or a similar material that is baked until it is hard and is used for building houses, walls, and other large permanent structures. The standard size of a brick is 19 × 9 × 9 cm. The number of bricks required for one cubic meter of brick masonry is taken as 500. (Pic) Bridge: Structure that spans horizontally to allow pedestrians and vehicles to cross a void. Bridge construction has always presented civil engineering with its greatest challenges. The simplest bridge is the beam (or girder) bridge, consisting of straight, rigid beams of steel or concrete placed across a span. Ancient Roman bridges are famous for their rounded arch form, which permitted spans much longer than those of stone beams and were more durable than wood. A modern version of the arch bridge might have a trussed arch anchored to the abutments and a deck hanging from the arch by vertical cables. Suspension bridges (e.g., Brooklyn Bridge, Golden Gate Bridge) are capable of spanning great distances; their main support members are cables composed of thousands of strands of wire supported by two towers and anchored at each end, and the deck is suspended by vertical cables hung from the main cables. In cable-stayed bridges, cables fan out and down from a central tower to various points on the deck; variations of this design have resulted in bridges of striking design and very long span. Other bridges include the truss bridge, popular (e.g., for railroad bridges) because it uses a relatively small amount of material to carry large loads, and the cantilever bridge, typically made with three spans, with the outer spans anchored down at the shore and the central span resting on the cantilevered arms. (Pic)
British thermal unit (Btu): The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit, equal to approximately 1055 joules. (1 Btu = 252 calories).
Broadcast application: Applying pesticides and/or fertilizers with relative uniformity over the entire ground area.
Broadcast burn: A controlled burn, where the fire is allowed to proceed over an entire area. Sometimes called a slash burn
Broadcast fertilizing: The scattering of fertilizer or other mixture more or less evenly over an area.
Broadcast seeding: An implement with blades mounted on a horizontal power-driven shaft, for reducing the bulk of slash after felling and so facilitating planting.
Broadleaf: A tree belonging to the botanical group Dicotyledons, and producing timber that is usu known commercially as “hardwood”. (BCFT)
Bronzing: A golden brown discoloration that usually appears on the lower surface of leaves and is often an advanced stage of the silvering or glazing typical of injury by PAN and other oxidants; brown coloration on needles due to spider mite infestation.
Brown bear: Shaggy-haired, characteristically brown species (Ursus arctos) of bear with numerous races native to Eurasia and to northwestern North America. North American brown bears are usually called Grizzly bears. Eurasian brown bears are generally solitary animals, able to run and swim well and usually 48–84 in. (120–210 cm) long and 300–550 lbs (135–250 kg). They feed on mammals, fish, vegetable materials, and honey. The exceptionally large Siberian brown bear is similar in size to the grizzly.
Brown trout: Prized and wary European game fish (Salmo trutta, family Salmonidae) that is favoured for food. The species includes several varieties (e.g., the Loch Leven trout of Britain). The brown trout is recognized by the light-ringed black spots on its brown body. It has been transplanted to many areas of the world because it can thrive in warmer waters than most other Trout. It grows to about 8 lbs (3.6 kg). Oceangoing individuals, called sea trout, are larger than freshwater forms and provide good sport, as do those that enter large lakes. (Pic)
Browse: Small bushes, sprouts, herbaceous plants, small trees, etc., above ground level that wildlife feed on.
Brush: [14th century. < Anglo-Norman brousse, variant of Old French broce “broken branches”] commonly refers to undesirable shrubs and other low-lying vegetation. Brush disposal: See slash disposal
Brushing: The removal of undesirable herbaceous and woody vegetation by manual or mechanical means.
Brush rake: See raking
Bryophyte: Any of the green, seedless land plants that make up the division Bryophyta, numbering at least 18,000 species and divided into three classes: Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts. They are distinguished from vascular Plants and seed Plants by the production of only one spore-containing organ in their spore-producing stage. Most bryophytes are 0.8–2 in. (2–5 cm) tall or, if reclining, generally less than 12 in. (30 cm) long. Found throughout the world, from Polar Regions to the tropics, they are most abundant in humid environments, though none is marine. Bryophytes are extremely tolerant of dry and freezing conditions. Peat moss is economically important to humans in horticulture and as an energy source. Some bryophytes are used ornamentally, as in moss gardens. In nature, bryophytes initiate soil formation on barren terrain and maintain soil moisture, and they recycle nutrients in forest ecosystems. They are found on rocks, logs, and forest litter.
Bucking: Cutting a felled tree into specified log lengths.
Bud: Buds are small swellings or bumps on the stem around the node. They contain meristem tissue that when differentiated will become a particular plant organ such as a stem, leaf, or flower. Three types of buds exist, those that produce stems, others that produce leaves, and still others that produce flowers. They are therefore called leaf buds, flower buds, and stem buds. The stem buds are named for where they exist on the stem, apical or terminal if they exist at the top or end of the stem and lateral if they exist at the nodes below the terminal or apical bud. One other type of bud exists, known as adventitious buds. These buds arise at any place along the stem, generally in response to injury of the stem. It is a survival mechanism for the plant. (Pic)
Budburst: In woody plants, the time in the spring when flower or leaf buds begin their annual growth. Syn. budbreak.
Budcap: A piece of paper or other suitable material attached to a young seedling, covering the terminal bud, to prevent animal browse.
Budding: Grafting by inserting a bud, with a small amount of tissue, into a slit or hole made in the bark of a stock plant. After union has formed, the portion of the stock plant above the bud is removed
Bud pruning: Removal of lateral buds from a stem to prevent them from developing into branches.
Bud scales: Bud scales are small scale-like structures that are modified leaves that cover the terminal bud during its winter dormancy. When the terminal bud breaks dormancy in the spring, these bud scales are shed, leaving the scars of where they were attached behind.
Bud scale scars: The scars left behind on the stem as the bud scales are shed in the spring when the terminal bud breaks dormancy. Because this happens only once during the year for each stem, it is possible to determine the age of a stem by noting the number of different clusters of bud scale scars on the stem. (Pic above)
Budworm: 1. the larva of some spp of Lepidoptera that feed in buds and young shoots. 2. larva of moth:a moth larva that feeds on conifer buds and is one of the most destructive pests in North America. Latin name: Harmolga fumiferana
Buffer: 1. A zone or strip of land that shields one area from another. Commonly used along streams or as visual barriers. 2. Solution usually containing a weak acid and its conjugate weak base, or a salt, of such a composition that the pH is held constant within a certain range. An example is a solution containing acetic acid (CH3COOH) and the acetate ion (CH3COO−). The pH depends on their relative concentration and can be found with a simple formula involving their ratio. Relatively small additions of acid or base will change the concentration of the two species, but their ratio, and hence the pH, will not change much. Different buffers are useful in different pH ranges; they include phosphoric acid, citric acid, and boric acid, each with their salts. Biological fluids such as blood, tears, and semen have natural buffers to maintain them at the pH required for their proper function.
Buffer action: The ability of the soil to resist manor alterations is its pH value under the influence of added dilute solutions of ionizable substances. A cushioning effect produced by the colloidal material.
Buffer strip: A narrow zone or strip of land, trees, or vegetation bordering an area. Common examples include visual buffers, which screen the view along roads, and streamside buffers, which are used to protect water quality. Buffers may also be used to prevent the spread of forest pests.
Building: A structure with walls and a roof, eg a house or factory; any structure constructed of whatsoever material and used for residential, business, or other purposes.
Building construction: Techniques and industry involved in the assembly and erection of structures. Early humans built primarily for shelter, using simple methods. Building materials came from the land, and fabrication was dictated by the limits of the materials and the builder’s hands. The erection sequence involved, as now, first placing a foundation (or using the ground). The builder erected the structural system; the structural material (masonry, mud, or logs) served as both skeleton and enclosure. Traditional bearing-wall and post-and-beam systems eventually gave way to framed structures, and builders became adept at sealing and fireproofing with a variety of claddings (exterior coverings) and finishes. Steel-framed buildings are usually enclosed by curtain walls. In modernday construction, sheathing the skeleton of the building is only the beginning; specialists then begin the bulk of the work inside, installing plumbing, electrical wiring, HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning), windows, floor coverings, plasterwork, moldings, ceramic tile, cabinets, and other features.
Bulb: In botany, the resting stage of certain seed Plants, particularly perennial monocotyledons (see cotyledon), consisting of a relatively large, usually globe-shaped, underground bud with membranous or fleshy overlapping leaves arising from a short stem. The fleshy leaves function as food reserves that enable a plant to lie dormant when water is unavailable (during winter or drought) and to resume active growth when favourable conditions again prevail. There are two main types of bulbs. One, typified by the onion, has a thin papery covering protecting its fleshy leaves. The other, the scaly bulb, as seen in true lilies, has naked storage leaves, with no papery covering, making the bulb appear to consist of angular scales. Bulbs enable many common ornamentals, such as the narcissus, tulip, and hyacinth, to flower rapidly in early spring when growing conditions are favourable. Other bulb-producing plants bloom in the summer (e.g., lilies) or fall (e.g., the Autumn crocus). The solid Corms of the crocus and gladiolus and the elongated Rhizomes of some irises are not bulbs. (Pic)
Bullet planting: Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes.
Bunchgrass: Grass that grows as distinct plants that get larger over time. Also called clump–forminggrass. Contrast with spreading grass(also called sod-forming grass), which expands using running roots that create new plants from existing ones.
Bundle scars: Within the outline of the leaf scar there will be bundle scars, the scars of the vascular bundles that attached the leaf’s vascular system to the vascular system of the plant. (Pic at Bud scale scar).
Bundle sheath: A bundle sheath can be two different structures depending upon the kind of cells that make up the bundle sheath. If the bundle sheath is the makeup of fibers, then it surrounds the entire vascular bundle (usually a monocot vascular bundle), adding strength to the vascular bundle and the stem. If the bundle sheath is made up of cells that look like parenchyma cells, then the bundle sheath surrounds the veinlets in the mesophyll of the leaf and function as transfer cells. They take glucose from the surrounding mesophyll, hook two molecules of glucose together to make sucrose, and dump that sucrose into the sieve-tube member. (Pic)
Bunk: 1.Supports on a railroad car or logging truck on which the logs rest. 2. A bed in a logging camp.
Burl: (Syn: Burr) an abnormal growth on a tree stem, with wood tissue growing in an irregular pattern. Usually circular in shape, these growths are widely sought for their interesting grain pattern.
Burn: An area over which fire has run. See also Broadcast burning, Controlled burning, Early burning, Forced burning, Late burning, Light burning, Patch burning, Prescribed burning, Strip burning.
Burning torch: A flame torch used for many purposes such as scorching seed beds to reduce weed growth; starting slash-disposal fires or counter fires
Bush nursery: See field nursery
Business law or commercial law or mercantile law: Legal rules and principles bearing on business organizations and commercial matters. It regulates various forms of legal business entities, including sole proprietors, partnerships, and registered companies with limited liability, agents, and multinational corporations. Nearly all statutory rules governing business organizations are intended to protect creditors or investors. In addition, specific bodies of law regulate commercial transactions, including the sale and carriage of goods (terms and conditions, specific performance, breach of contract, insurance, bills of lading), consumer credit agreements (letters of credit, loans, security, bankruptcy), and relations between employers and employees (wages, conditions of work, health and safety, fringe benefits, and trade unions). It is a broad and continually evolving field.
Butt: The base of a tree or log.
Buttercup: Any of about 250 species of herbaceous flowering plants constituting the genus Ranunculus of the family Ranunculaceae. Buttercups are especially common in the woods and fields of the northern temperate zone. The turban, or Persian buttercup (R. asiaticus), is the florist’s ranunculus. Among the many wild species are the tall meadow buttercup (R. acris) and common water crowfoot (R. aquatilis). Other members of the family Ranunculaceae are widely distributed in all temperate and subtropical regions. In the tropics they occur mostly at high elevations. Their leaves are usually alternate and stalkless and may be simple or much divided. The flowers may be radially symmetrical or irregular. The family includes such flowers as anemone, larkspur, marsh marigold, clematis, and hepatica (genus Hepatica). (Pic) Butterfly: Any of more than 17,000 Lepidopteran species found worldwide. Unlike Moths, butterflies are active during the day and are usually brightly coloured or strikingly patterned. Distinctive features are clubtipped antennae and a habit of holding the wings vertically over the back when at rest. With few exceptions the larvae and adults eat plants. Butterflies are classified into five or six families. The metalmarks of the family Lycaenidae are found chiefly in the New World tropics; some members of the family Nymphalidae are called snout butterflies. Other species (with their families) include the white and sulphur butterflies (Pieridae), the Swallowtail butterfly (Papilionidae), the blue, copper, and hairstreak butterflies (Lycaenidae), and the admiral, monarch, and Painted lady (Nymphalidae).
Butt log: A log cut from the bole immediately above the stump.
Butt cut: The first log above the stump. Syn. butt log
Buttress: Exterior support, usually of masonry, projecting from the face of a wall and serving to strengthen it or resist outward thrust from an arch or roof. Buttresses also have a decorative function. Though used since ancient times (Mesopotamian temples featured decorative buttresses, as did Roman and Byzantine structures), they are especially associated with Gothic Architecture.
Buttressing: An outgrowth from the butt connecting it with the roots, especially common in tropical rain-forest spp; an exaggerated form of root swelling.
———- Corrections and Suggestions are most welcome. Please use the comment section for feedback. If you see any missing terminology or any updated one or any latest term please use the comment section for the purpose. Also, if you have any image or data related to any above terminologies, don’t forget to mail me at email@example.com. Regards Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani