Variable: A characteristic which may vary from one individual in a population to another. It relates to some feature or property of an individual in the population. Variables may be classified as: a. Continuous variables b. Discrete variables. The height, diameter, volume or leaf biomass of a tree is a tree variable.
Variate: An observed value of a specified variable for an individual in a population.
Variety: 1. A taxonomic subdivision of a species based on minor characteristics and often on exclusive geographic range. 2. An assemblage of cultivated individuals distinguished by any useful, reproducible (sexual or asexual) characters.
Vault: A vault, in architecture, is an arch-shaped structure, usually of masonry, used as the ceiling of a room or other enclosed space, as the roof of a building, or as the support for a ceiling or roof.
Vegetative propagation: Reproduction by other than sexually produced seed. Includes grafting, budding, rooting of cuttings, and tissue and cell culture, including embryogenesis.
Veneer: A thin sheet of wood cut on a lathe or slicing machine. There are three kinds: sawed, sliced, and rotary cut.
Veneer log: A high-quality log of a desirable species suitable for conversion to veneer. Veneer logs must be large, straight, of minimum taper, and free from defects.
Veranda: [Early 18th century. Via Hindi varaṇḍā < Portuguese varanda “railing, balcony”] a porch, usually roofed and sometimes partly enclosed, that extends along an outside wall of a building
Vertebrates: [Early 19th century. < Latin vertebratus “having joints”] Vertebrates are the animals with backbone or an animal with a segmented spinal column and a well-developed brain, e.g. a mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, or fish. Vertebrates total about 40,000 species. Yet vertebrates account for only about 2 percent of animal species. The remaining 98 percent, collectively called invertebrates,
Vertex: A height and range measuring instrument of medium size and weight. It is robust and only moderately expensive. A transponder (temporarily attached to the tree at breast height) and the hand unit use sonic pulses to determine range from the tree. The hand unit contains an angle reading device and a simple computer chip to calculate height above the transponder.
Care is needed on leaning trees. A transponder attached to a tree bole on a leaning tree will result and a biased estimate of tree height unless the lean is exactly at 90o to the observer. Some problems have also been reported with environmental sounds (e.g. crickets in Tasmania) interfering with the sonic pulses.
Veteran: A tree that has escaped logging, windthrow, or fire, and occupies a dominant position in the stand
Vexar tube: A rigid, plastic-net tube made from Vexar (a trademark of the DuPont Corporation). Used to protect tree seedlings from animal damage
Viability: Of a seed, spore, or pollen grain, its capacity to germinate and develop, under given conditions.
Vigor class: Assumption of the health of a tree based on observation of the foliage.
Virgin forest: A mature or over mature forest essentially uninfluenced by human activity
Virus: Infectious agent found in virtually all life forms, including humans, animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria. The word Virus is from Latin which means poison. The study of virus is called Virology – a branch of microbiology.
Vitamin: [Early 20th century. < German Vitamine < Latin vita “life” + amine] organic substance essential to nutrition: an organic substance essential in small quantities to the metabolism in most animals. Vitamins are found in minute quantities in food, in some cases are produced by the body, and are also produced synthetically.
Viviparous: [Mid-17th century. < Latin viviparus “bringing forth alive”] zoology bearing live young: bearing live young, not eggs ; botany producing plantlets: describes a plant that produces plantlets or bulbils from the flower stem, e.g. the spider plant; botany producing seedlings on plant: describes a plant with seeds that germinate and develop into seedlings before being shed from the parent plant, e.g. a mangrove
Volume table: A table showing gross volume of trees, based on given tree measurements (usually d.b.h. and height).
Volunteer growth: Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area.
Vulnerable species: Species which may move to endangered category b/c the population size is declining due to habitat destruction.
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Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani
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