ForestrypediaLexicon of Forestry (LoF)

M | Lexicon of Forestry

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Machine weeding: See mechanical weeding

Macronutrient: Element needed for plant growth: a chemical element needed in large amounts by plants for normal growth and development, these are six in number ie nitrogen, carbon, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium

Main: A channel in Irrigation Layout. Its dimensions are: upper width 5 ft, lower width 3 ft, depth 2 ft. Mains and Khals (See Khals) are always perpendicular to each other.
Main crop: In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting.

Major forest produce: The term Major Forest Produce implies to the products like Timber and Firewood (See: Minor Forest produce)

Magnitude: A measure of the strength of an earthquake or strain energy released by it, as determined by seismographic observations. This is a logarithmic value originally defined by Charles Richter in 1935. An increase of one unit of magnitude (for example, from 4.6 to 5.6) represents a 10-fold increase in wave amplitude on a seismogram or approximately a 30-fold increase in the energy released. In other words, a magnitude 6.7 earthquake releases over 900 times (30 times 30) the energy of a 4.7 earthquake. There is no beginning nor end to this scale. However, rock mechanics seems to preclude earthquakes smaller than about -1 or larger than about 9.5. Except in special circumstances, earthquakes below magnitude 2.5 are not generally felt by humans.

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Major earthquake: An earthquake having a magnitude of 7 to 7.99 on the Richter scale.
Mainline: To chop branches, tops, or small trees after felling, so that the slash lies close to the ground. To cut the limbs from a felled tree. 1. In cable logging, the line used to retrieve turns of logs. 2. The main access road to a forest tract.
Management Plan: A written plan for the organized handling and operation of a forest property. It usually includes data and prescribes measures designed to provide optimum use of forest resources according to the landowner’s objectives.
Manual weeding: See weeding

Mantle: The layer of rock that lies between the crust and the outer core of the Earth. It is approximately 2,900 km (1,800 mi) thick and is the largest of the Earth’s major layers.

t040681aMantodea (Mantis): Mantis, also known as praying mantis, common name for long, slender, winged insect common in warm temperate and tropical regions throughout the world.
Manure: Commonly the dung of farm animals. Also natural or artificial food material for plants and trees, supplying nitrogen, phosphates, and potash and other essential nutrients.
Maple: Maple is the common name for the genus Acer in the division Anthophyta. Maples are dicots, produce catkins and samaras as fruits.

Marginal land: Land that does not consistently produce a profitable crop because of infertility, drought, or other physical limitations such as shallow soils.

Marketing: The selling of timber or other forest resources. Successful sellers seek a satisfactory price through competition, skillful negotiation, knowledge of timber markets, and the aid of a competent broker or consultant.
Marking: Putting a distinctive, more or less lasting, sign on a tree for purposes of identification. Note: Marking die must be registered to make a legal mark on wood.

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Marking gun: See paint gun
Marking hammer: (syn. marking axe, marking cog) A light hammer having a die for stamping letters, figures, or other distinctive devices.
Marking rule: Means of standardizing marking practice among individuals and for various areas of the same forest type, commonly for thinning purposes.

Marking timber: Selecting and indicating, usually by an axe mark (blaze) or paint mark, trees to be cut or retained in a harvesting operation.

Mast: Fruits or nuts used as a food source by wildlife. Soft mast includes most fruits with fleshy coverings, such as persimmon, dogwood seed, or black gum seed. Hard mast refers to nuts such as acorns and beech, pecan, and hickory nuts.
Mature tree: A tree that has reached a desired size or age for its intended use. Size, age, or economic maturity varies depending on the species and intended use.

Maturity: For a given species or stand, the approximate age or condition beyond which the growth rate declines or decay begins to assume economic importance.

Maturity class: Trees or stands grouped according to their stage of development, from establishment to suitability for harvest. A maturity class may comprise one or more age classes.

MBF: Abbreviation for “1000 board ft.” MBF is a typical unit of trade for dimension lumber and sawtimber stumpage. (It takes 11 MBF of wood to build an average 1,900-square-foot house.)

Mcleod: Firefighters also use this combination hoe, rake and scraping tool and rake to remove plants and shrubs when building a fireline.

Mean age: (See: Crop age)

Mean diameter: The diameter corresponding to the mean basal are of a group of trees or a stand; sometimes used for the arithmetic mean of the summated diameters. (BCFT)
Measurement: The determination of size in relation to some observed standard, e.g. meter, kilogram, second, ampere, degree Kelvin, candela, mole or some unit derived from these seven basic units. Essentially, when you are measuring you are counting the number of standard pieces it takes to be the same size or quantity as the object of interest.
Mechanical planting: Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation.
Mechanical thinning: See thinning: mechanical
Mechanical weeding: Removal of undesirable vegetation by mechanical means.
Mechanized planting: See mechanical planting
Mechanized thinning: See thinning: mechanical
Mechanized weeding: See weeding

Mensuration, forest: The science dealing with the measurement of the volume, growth, and development of individual trees and stands, and the determination of the various products obtainable from them.

Merchantable: That part of a tree that can be manufactured into a salable product.
Merchantable height: The length of the tree stem from the top of the stump to the top of the last merchantable section. Usually expressed in ft or number of logs. The point on a tree stem to which the stem is salable. Limits are: the point at which a sawlog tree is less than 8 inches in diameter, measured inside the bark (dib); the point at which a pulpwood tree is less than 4 inches dib; or the point on any tree where a defect is found that cannot be processed out.
Merchantable snag: A snag that is of sufficient quality and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting.

Merchantable timber: A tree or stand of trees that may be converted into salable products.

Merchantable volume: The amount of wood in a single tree or forest stand that is considered salable.
Meristem: Meristem is rapidly dividing embryonic tissue that adds new cells as a brick-layer lays new bricks, one row of cells on top of the former row.
Mesophyll: The mesophyll is the chlorenchyma cells (palisade layer and spongy layer) of the leaf.  The mesophyll is bordered on the top and bottom side by the epidermis and has the leaf veins embedded in it between the palisade and spongy layer.

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Metamorphosis: From [ Greek metamorphōsis < metamorphoun “transform” and morphē “form”>]. A complete or marked change in the form of an animal as it develops into an adult is termed as metamorphosis, e.g. the change from tadpole to frog or from caterpillar to butterfly.
Microearthquake: An earthquake having a magnitude of 2 or less on the Richter scale.

Microseism: A more or less continuous motion in the Earth that is unrelated to an earthquake and that has a period of 1.0 to 9.0 seconds. It is caused by a variety of natural and artificial agents.
Microsite: The ultimate unit of the habitat, i.e., the specific spot occupied by an individual organism. By extension, the more or less specialized relationships existing between an organism and its environment.

Mid diameter: The diameter of a log or stem measured half-way along its length.

Middle lamella: The middle lamella is the material between adjacent cells of a plant.  It is essentially the “glue” that holds plant cells together. (Pic at Pit)

Middorsal: In the middle of the upper side or dorsum.

Migration: By Migration it is meant that moving as part of a bird, fish, or other animal population from one region to another, usually at the same times every year, in order to breed or avoid unsuitable weather conditions.

Mimicking symptoms: Symptoms similar to those caused by pollutants but induced by other abiotic or biotic causal agents.

Miner: The larval stage of an insect which makes galleries or burrows between the upper and lower surfaces of leaf tissue.
Mineral: Inorganic substance in nature: a substance that occurs naturally in rocks and in the ground and has its own characteristic appearance and chemical composition
Minor forest produce: The term Minor Forest Produce includes all kinds of forest produces other than ‘timber’ and ‘firewood’. Eg fibers and flosses, grasses, bamboos, cones, oilseeds, tans and dyes, gums, resins, drugs, spices, edible products, poisons, animals, minerals, etc. (See: Major Forest produce)
Mist forest: A forest of high elevation that occurs along the foggy windward shores of continents and islands.
European mistletoe attached to a silver birchMistletoe: It is the common name for a group of hemi-parasitic plants in the order Santalales that grow attached to and within the branches of a tree or shrub. The word ‘mistletoe’ is of uncertain etymology; it may be related to German Mist, for dung and Tang for branch, since mistletoe can be spread in the feces of birds moving from tree to tree. However, Old English mistel was also used for basil. (Pic)

Mist propagation: An irrigation technique for rooting cuttings where water, with or without fertilizers, is sprayed in minute drops on the plants.
Mite(s): Small, often minute, arthropods in the order Acarina of the class Arachnida, which includes spiders, scorpions, and related forms. Mites have four pairs of legs vs. three pairs in insects.
Mitochondria: Mitochondria, minute sausage-shaped structures found in the clear cytoplasm of the cell, are responsible for energy production. Mitochondria contain enzymes that help convert food material into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which can be used directly by the cell as an energy source. Mitochondria tend to be concentrated near cellular structures that require large inputs of energy, such as the flagellum, which is responsible for movement in sperm cells and single-celled plants and animals. (Pic)

Mixed forest: 1. A forest composed of trees of two or more species intermingled in the same canopy; in practice, and by convention, a forest is not “mixed” unless 20% of the canopy consists of species other than the principal one. (BCFT) 2. Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae and which are substantially intermingled in stands. Also, the wood of such trees mixed together in substantial quantities. 3. A forest type in which 26-75% of the canopy is softwood.
Mixed stand: A timber stand in which less than 80 percent of the trees in the main canopy are of a single species.

Mixing: Site preparation technique involving rotating tillers or other devices that mix soil and surface organic material with fine debris.

Model forest: A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis. leaves: Modified leaves are structures that have their origin from a leaf bud.  Modified leaves typically do not look like leaves.  Good examples of modified leaves are tendrils, bud scales, onion scales, etc. (Pic)
Modified mercalli scale: Mercalli intensity scale modified for North American conditions. A scale, composed of 12 increasing levels of intensity that range from imperceptible shaking to catastrophic destruction, that is designated by Roman numerals. It does not have a mathematical basis; instead it is an arbitrary ranking based on observed effects.
Modified stems: Modified stems are plant organs that contain nodes and internodes just like stems except they don’t look like stems.  A number of modified stems exist:  rhizomes, tubers, thorns, bulbs, corms, stolon, cladophylls, etc. (Pic)

Mohorovicic discontinuity (the Moho): The boundary surface or sharp seismic-velocity discontinuity (pronounced Mo-ho-ro-vi-chich) that separates the Earth’s crust from the underlying mantle. Named for Andrija Mohorovicic, the Croatian seismologist who first suggested its existence.

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Molt: To cast off the outgrown skin or cuticle in the process of insect development; changing from one instar to the next.
Monocots: Monocots are plants that are characterized by a single cotyledon (seed leaf) in the seed, parallel-veined leaves, vascular bundles scattered, flower parts in threes or multiples of threes, and no secondary growth.

Monoculture: 1. Practice of growing just one crop: the practice of growing a single crop in a field or larger area. 2. Extensive areas of land occupied or dominated by plant species that are closely related genetically.

Monoecious: [Mid-18th century. < modern Latin Monoecia] with both male and female flowers: describes a plant that has separate male and female flowers
Monogamy: The practice of having only one mate at a time or during a lifetime.

Monohybrid: Hybrid with single gene pair difference: a hybrid from parents those are different only with respect to a single gene pair

Monolith: 1. large block of building material: a large uniform block of a single building material such as concrete pieced together with others to form a building or other structure. 2. Pillar of rock: a tall block of solid stone standing by itself, whether a natural rock feature or a stone column shaped and erected by somebody, e.g. as a monument
Monopodial: Monopodial branching is where there is a main trunk with whorls of branches at each node. Pine and firs trees are good examples of this type of branching.

Monsoon forest: A forest type found in areas having a well-marked rainy season and characterized in some region by tree species that lose their leaves for at least part of the dry season.

Morphology: The morphology of a biological entity is its outside structure and form.  It is what shows on the outside of a plant or animal body.  Morphology in animals refers to arms, legs, head, neck, nose, etc.  Morphology in plants refers to the form of the buds, lenticels, length of the internodes, etc.

Mortality: Death of forest trees as a result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, and other factors.

Mortar: Mixture of lime or cement with sand and water, used as a binding material for bricks and stone and as a plaster. Lime mortar consists of sand, water, and slaked lime (Ca(OH)2), a white solid produced when lime reacts with water. Usually one part by volume of slaked lime is used for every three or four parts by volume of sand; enough water is added to make a paste. When exposed to the atmosphere the paste hardens as the result of absorption of carbon dioxide. It does not harden under water and is not as strong as cement mortar. The best type of cement mortar is a mixture of portland cement, sand, water, and a small amount of lime.
Mosaic: A diseased condition where different portions of a leaf vary in amounts of chlorophyll, thus giving the leaf a mottled appearance; usually caused by viruses.
Mottle: Irregular, diffuse patterns of chlorotic areas interspersed with normal green leaf tissue,
Mounding: Forming raised planting spots or mounds by the scooping up and inversion of a quantity of organic and mineral soil. 
Mound planting: Setting out young trees on raised microsites.

Mountain beaver: A small nocturnal rodent, found throughout the Coast Range in Oregon and Washington. This burrowing animal has a voracious appetite for Douglas-fir seedlings. (Syn. Boomer).

Mowing strip: Edging placed between a lawn and a planting bed or patio, set just below ground level to provide a flat surface for one wheel so the lawnmower blades can cut to the edge of the lawn, saving the later step of snipping the edge grass with scissors or a weed-whacker. Mowing strips are commonly made of bricks, pavers, or poured cement.

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Muck soil: A soil containing between 20-50 % of organic matter. In such soils organic matter is well decomposed.
Mulch: Any loose covering on the surface of the soil, whether natural, like litter, or deliberately applied, like organic residues, crushed gravel, or artificial material like plastic, glass-wool, metal foil, and paper, used to reduce competing vegetation, retain humidity, or protect against frost and mechanical action of rain.
Multicellular: Organisms that are multicellular are composed of many cells, with each cell within a tissue having a special physiological function, each tissue within an organ having a special physiological function, and each organ within the organism with its own special function.  Thus, multicellular organisms show division of labor.

Multiple uses: The management of land or forest for more than one purpose, such as wood production, water quality, wildlife, recreation, aesthetics, or clean air. (See Stewardship.)
Multiple-use management: Management and use of forest land for more than one purpose (timber, wildlife, watershed, etc.). Uses may be shared on the same acreage or allocated to different portions of a forest tract.

Mycelial cords or Rhizomorph: Mycelial cords are linear aggregations of parallel-oriented hyphae. The mature cords are composed of wide, empty vessel hyphae surrounded by narrower sheathing hyphae. Cords may look similar to plant roots, and also frequently have similar functions; hence they are also called rhizomorphs (literally, “root-forms”). These are linear aggregations of parallel-oriented hyphae.
Mycelium: A mass or aggregate of hyphae; vegetative stage of fungi.
Mycorrhiza: (Greek for fungus roots coined by Frank, 1885) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a plant. Mycorrhizae form a mutualistic relationship with the roots of most plant species (and while only a small proportion of all species has been examined, 95% of these plant families are predominantly mycorrhizal). Mycorrhizae are present in 92% of plant families (80% of species) and indeed the most prevalent symbiotic association found in all the plant kingdom.

Corrections and Suggestions are most welcome. Please use the comment section for feedback. If you see any missing terminology or any updated one or any latest term please use the comment section for the purpose. Also, if you have any image or data related to any above terminologies, don’t forget to mail me at
Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani

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Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani is working as Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu ( Forestrypedia (, All Pak Notifications (, Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.

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