Ultimate Bearing capacity: (Syn: Bearing capacity)
Unconsolidated: Loosely arranged, not cemented together, so particles separate easily. (Pic at Soil Formation)
Underbrush: The brush growing in a forest.
Undercut: In felling a tree, the initial cut that removes a wedge-shaped piece of wood and determines the direction of fall. (Syn. face cut).
Undercutting: Root-pruning of nursery stock in situ, particularly by horizontal cut.
Undergrowth: Small trees and shrubs and other plants growing under a forest canopy
Underpinning: The method of supporting a structure while strengthening its existing footing or while providing a new foundation (below the existing one) to take the increased load.
Underplant: Young trees used for underplanting.
Underplanting: Planting young trees under the canopy of an existing stand.
Undesirable species: Species that conflict with or do not contribute to the management objectives.
Understocked: A stand of trees so widely spaced, that even with full growth potential realized, crown closure will not occur.
Understory: That portion of the trees or other vegetation in a forest stand below the canopy.
Understory protection: Removal of mature trees while damage to the understory is kept to a minimum.
Uneven-aged: Applied to a stand in which there are considerable differences in the age of the trees and in which three or more age classes are represented. The differences in age permitted in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10-20 years. (See also all-aged).
Uneven-aged system: A silvicultural system in which stands have an uneven-aged structure.
Uniform shelterwood: See shelterwood cutting
Unit sale: A timber sale in which the buyer makes regular (weekly, monthly) payments based on mill receipts. Unit sales are useful when the amount of timber sold is so large that a preharvest, lump-sum payment would be prohibitive.
Unmerchantable: Of a tree or stand that has not attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting.
Uredial stage (uredium): A stage of the rust fungi; a fruiting structure usually appearing as a pustule bearing the repeating spore stage that leads to disease increase.
UTC: Coordinated Universal Time. The time scale based on the atomic second but corrected every now and again to keep it in approximate sync with the earth’s rotation. The corrections show up as the leap seconds put into UTC – usually on New Year’s Eve. In the most common usage, the terms GMT and UTC are identical.
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Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani