Floral Terminology (Illustrated)

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FLORAL TERMINOLOGY

Receptacle

The more or less enlarged or elongated stem axis on which the floral parts are attached.

Peduncle

The stalk of a solitary, terminal flower (or the stalk of an inflorescence).

Receptacle - Forestrypedia

Sepals (calyx)

First series; the outermost whorl or spiral of a typical flower (asexual/sterile).

Sepal - Forestrypedia



Petals (corolla)

Second series; the second whorl or spiral of a typical flower (asexual/sterile); petals alternate with sepals.

Stamen(s) (androecium)

Third series; the third whorl or spiral; the male reproductive unit; stamens alternate with petals and are opposite the sepals.

Androecium 1 - Forestrypedia

Filament

Stalk of a stamen.

Anther

The pollen-producing portion of a stamen (meiosis occurs within the pollen sacs).

Pollen

The male gametophytes.

Connective

The sterile tissue connecting the two locules of an anther.

Stamen - Forestrypedia

Carpel(s) (gynoecium)

Fourth series; the terminal or centermost component; the female reproductive unit (the site of pollination and fertilization); 1 to many separate or fused carpels comprise a gynoecium.

Synoecious

A sexual condition in which the flowers on a plant are all perfect

Monoecious

Both staminate and carpellate flowers occur on the same plant

Dioecious

Staminate and carpellate flowers occur on different plants

 

Gynoecium - Forestrypedia

Stigma

The pollen-receptive portion of the gynoecium.

Style

The elongated portion between stigma and ovary specialized for pollen tube growth.

Ovary

The basal portion that surrounds and protects the ovules (meiosis occurs within the ovule).

• Ovary – the basal portion that surrounds and protects the ovules (meiosis occurs within the ovule).

Corona

An extra series of floral parts. Coronal structures are often showy and diverse and are formed from outgrowths of the perianth parts, stamens, or receptacle.

Complete

All four floral series present (Ca, Co, A & G).

Incomplete

One or more floral series absent

Flower - Complete - Forestrypedia



Perfect

Flower with both functional androecium and gynoecium

Imperfect

Flower lacking either a functional androecium or a functional gynoecium:

Staminate

A male flower; one that has a functional androecium but lacks a functional gynoecium

Carpellate

A female flower; one that has a functional gynoecium but lacks a functional androecium

Synoecious

A sexual condition in which the flowers on a plant are all perfect

Monoecious

Both staminate and carpellate flowers occur on the same plant

Dioecious

Staminate and carpellate flowers occur on different plants

Dioecious - Forestrypedia

Distinct

Similar parts (of same embryonic origin) not fused

Connate

Similar parts fused

Adnate

Parts of different origin that are fused

Free

Unlike parts that are not fused

Biseriate

In two whorls or series (e.g., calyx and corolla)

Uniseriate

In one whorl or series (e.g., calyx only)

Apetalous

Lacking petals

Sympetalous

Having the petals united (connate) at least at the base

Floral tube (cylindrical base), throat (gradually opening), and lobes

Lobes - Forestrypedia

3-merous, 4-merous, etc.

Indicates the number of parts in a specific floral series (e.g., a 4-merous flower might have four sepals, four petals, eight stamens, and four carpels)




Androecium

Staminodes

Sterile stamens (they do not produce pollen); variable in form and size, maybe petaloid or secrete nectar

Epipetalous

Stamens adnate to corolla

Epipetalous - Forestrypedia1

Alternating with petals or corolla lobes

Opposite petals or corolla lobes

Epipetalous - Forestrypedia

Hypanthium (floral cup)

A structure derived by the adnation of the perianth bases and stamens. It is variously shaped.

Hypanthium - Forestrypedia

Gynoecium

Carpels 1 per flower (monocarpous gynoecium)

Carpels more than 1 per flower:

  • Carpels distinct (apocarpous gynoecium)
  • Carpels connate (syncarpous gynoecium)

Monocarpus - Forestrypedia

Pistil

Equivalent to gynoecium; formed from one or more carpels

Simple pistil

A gynoecium with one carpel

Compound pistil

A gynoecium with two to many separate or fused carpels (it combines both apocarpous and syncarpous gynoecia)

INSERTION

The method of attachment of one structure to another

SUPERIOR OVARY

Ovary situated ABOVE the point of attachment of the perianth and androecium and wholly free from them (stamens may be adnate to Corolla)

HYPOGYNOUS FLOWER

A flower with perianth and androecium arising from below the ovary (gynoecium).

Hypogynous Flower - Forestrypedia

PERIGYNOUS FLOWER

(If hypanthium not adnate to the ovary) – a flower with perianth and androecium arising from a floral cup that is NOT adnate to the ovary. Remember – the ovary is still superior!

Perigynous Flower - Forestrypedia

INFERIOR OVARY

An ovary is BELOW the point of attachment of the outer flower parts (perianth and androecium). In other words, the outer floral whorls are adnate to the ovary. A hypanthium (floral cup) may or may not be present.

EPIGYNOUS FLOWER

(if hypanthium adnate to the ovary) – A flower with perianth and androecium apparently arising upon the ovary (rather than the receptacle).

Hypanthium 1 - Forestrypedia

Carpel

  • The basic unit of the gynoecium
  • The foliar, ovule-bearing unit of a flower that forms either all (monocarpous or apocarpous) or part (syncarpous) of the gynoecium.
  • Leaflike megasporophyll with infolded or inrolled connate margins bearing one or more ovules on the inside.

Carpel - Forestrypedia

 


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Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani

NJMH is working as Deputy Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu (techurdu.net) Forestrypedia (forestrypedia.com), Majestic Pakistan (majesticpakistan.pk), All Pak Notifications (allpaknotifications.com), Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.

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